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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27433, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt started in 2000 at 8 sentinel sites geographically distributed all over the country. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was added to the panel of viral testing by polymerase chain reaction for the first 2 patients with ILI seen at one of the sentinel sites. We report the first SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus co-infection with mild symptoms detected through routine ILI surveillance in Egypt. OBJECTIVE: This report aims to describe how the case was identified and the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patient. METHODS: The case was identified by Central Public Health Laboratory staff, who contacted the ILI sentinel surveillance officer at the Ministry of Health. The case patient was contacted through a telephone call. Detailed information about the patient's clinical picture, course of disease, and outcome was obtained. The contacts of the patient were investigated for acute respiratory symptoms, disease confirmation, and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 510 specimens collected from patients with ILI symptoms from October 2019 to August 2020, 61 (12.0%) were COVID-19-positive and 29 (5.7%) tested positive for influenza, including 15 (51.7%) A(H1N1), 11 (38.0%) A(H3N2), and 3 (10.3%) influenza B specimens. A 21-year-old woman was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus coinfection. She had a high fever of 40.2 °C and mild respiratory symptoms that resolved within 2 days with symptomatic treatment. All five of her family contacts had mild respiratory symptoms 2-3 days after exposure to the confirmed case, and their symptoms resolved without treatment or investigation. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the possible occurrence of SARS-CoV-2/influenza A(H1N1) coinfection in younger and healthy people, who may resolve the infection rapidly. We emphasize the usefulness of the surveillance system for detection of viral causative agents of ILI and recommend broadening of the testing panel, especially if it can guide case management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(4): 388-391, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Presenteeism is an expensive and challenging problem in the healthcare industry. In anticipation of the staffing challenges expected with the COVID-19 pandemic, we examined a decade of payroll data for a healthcare workforce. We aimed to determine the effect of seasonal influenza-like illness (ILI) on absences to support COVID-19 staffing plans. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large academic medical center in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Employees of the academic medical center who were on payroll between the years of 2009 and 2019. METHODS: Biweekly institutional payroll data was evaluated for unscheduled absences as a marker for acute illness-related work absences. Linear regression models, stratified by payroll status (salaried vs hourly employees) were developed for unscheduled absences as a function of local ILI. RESULTS: Both hours worked and unscheduled absences were significantly related to the community prevalence of influenza-like illness in our cohort. These effects were stronger in hourly employees. CONCLUSIONS: Organizations should target their messaging at encouraging salaried staff to stay home when ill.


Subject(s)
Absenteeism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Presenteeism/statistics & numerical data , Workforce , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726022

ABSTRACT

There is currently debate about human coronavirus (HCoV) seasonality and pathogenicity, as epidemiological data are scarce. Here, we provide epidemiological and clinical features of HCoV patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) examined in primary care general practice. We also describe HCoV seasonality over six influenza surveillance seasons (week 40 to 15 of each season) from the period 2014/2015 to 2019/2020 in Corsica (France). A sample of patients of all ages presenting for consultation for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ARI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles Network during this period. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of 21 respiratory pathogens by real-time RT-PCR. Among the 1389 ILI/ARI patients, 105 were positive for at least one HCoV (7.5%). On an annual basis, HCoVs circulated from week 48 (November) to weeks 14-15 (May) and peaked in week 6 (February). Overall, among the HCoV-positive patients detected in this study, HCoV-OC43 was the most commonly detected virus, followed by HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. The HCoV detection rates varied significantly with age (p = 0.00005), with the age group 0-14 years accounting for 28.6% (n = 30) of HCoV-positive patients. Fever and malaise were less frequent in HCoV patients than in influenza patients, while sore throat, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis were more associated with HCoV positivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HCoV subtypes appear in ARI/ILI patients seen in general practice, with characteristic outbreak patterns primarily in winter. This study also identified symptoms associated with HCoVs in patients with ARI/ILI. Further studies with representative samples should be conducted to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and clinical features of HCoVs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Primary Health Care , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 148, 2020 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza-related incidence data are limited in many countries in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance. This study aimed to address the information gap by estimating the burden and seasonality of medically attended influenza like illness in Ethiopia. METHOD: Influenza sentinel surveillance data collected from 3 influenza like illness (ILI) and 5 Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) sites from 2012 to 2017 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were applied for simple analysis. The proportion of medically attended influenza positive cases and incidence rate of ILI was determined using total admitted patients and catchment area population. Seasonality was estimated based on weekly trend of ILI and predicted threshold was done by applying the "Moving Epidemic Method (MEM)". RESULT: A total of 5715 medically attended influenza suspected patients who fulfills ILI and SARI case definition (77% ILI and 23% SARI) was enrolled. Laboratory confirmed influenza virus (influenza positive case) among ILI and SARI suspected case was 25% (1130/4426) and 3% (36/1289). Of which, 65% were influenza type A. The predominantly circulating influenza subtype were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (n = 455, 60%) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 293, 38.81%). The estimated mean annual influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population. The Incidence rate of ILI was higher in the age group of 15-44 years of age ['Incidence rate (R) = 254.6 per 100,000 population', 95% CI; 173.65, 335.55] and 5-14 years of age [R = 49.5, CI 95%; 31.47, 130.43]. The seasonality of influenza has two peak seasons; in a period from October-December and from April-June. CONCLUSION: Significant morbidity of influenza like illness was observed with two peak seasons of the year and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) remains the predominantly circulating influenza subtype. Further study need to be considered to identify potential risks and improving the surveillance system to continue early detection and monitoring of circulating influenza virus in the country has paramount importance.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance , Young Adult
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(5): 499-504, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Older adults often have atypical presentation of illness and are particularly vulnerable to influenza and its sequelae, making the validity of influenza case definitions particularly relevant. We sought to assess the performance of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) criteria in hospitalized older adults. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network undertakes active surveillance for influenza among hospitalized adults. METHODS: Data were pooled from 3 influenza seasons: 2011/12, 2012/13, and 2013/14. The ILI and SARI criteria were defined clinically, and influenza was laboratory confirmed. Frailty was measured using a validated frailty index. RESULTS: Of 11,379 adult inpatients (7,254 aged ≥65 years), 4,942 (2,948 aged ≥65 years) had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Their median age was 72 years (interquartile range [IQR], 58-82) and 52.6% were women. The sensitivity of ILI criteria was 51.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.6-52.6) for younger adults versus 44.6% (95% CI, 43.6-45.8) for older adults. SARI criteria were met by 64.1% (95% CI, 62.7-65.6) of younger adults versus 57.1% (95% CI, 55.9-58.2) of older adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patients with influenza who were prefrail or frail were less likely to meet ILI and SARI case definitions. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of older adults, particularly those who are frail, are missed by standard ILI and SARI case definitions. Surveillance using these case definitions is biased toward identifying younger cases, and does not capture the true burden of influenza. Because of the substantial fraction of cases missed, surveillance definitions should not be used to guide diagnosis and clinical management of influenza.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bias , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Frail Elderly , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization , Laboratories, Hospital , Male , Prospective Studies , Research , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sentinel Surveillance
6.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1230-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342804

ABSTRACT

The impact of HIV on influenza-like illness (ILI) has been incompletely described in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, particularly in the post-H1N1 pandemic period. This analysis informs on ILI in an otherwise healthy, predominantly outpatient cohort of adults with HIV in the USA. From September 2010 to March 2015, this multisite observational cohort study enrolled otherwise healthy adults presenting to a participating US military medical center with ILI, a subset of whom were HIV positive. Demographics, clinical data, and self-reported symptom severity were ascertained, and enrollees completed a daily symptom diary for up to 10 days. 510 men were included in the analysis; 50 (9.8%) were HIV positive. Subjects with HIV were older and less likely to be on active duty. Rhinovirus and influenza A were the most commonly identified pathogens. Moderate-severe diarrhea (p<0.001) and fatigue (p=0.01) were more frequently reported by HIV-positive men. HIV positivity was associated with higher gastrointestinal scores, but not other measures of ILI symptom severity, after controlling for age, race, military status, and influenza season. Few were hospitalized. HIV-positive subjects had more influenza B (p=0.04) and were more likely to receive antivirals (32% vs 6%, p<0.01). Antiviral use was not significantly associated with symptom scores when accounting for potential confounders. In this predominantly outpatient cohort of adult men, HIV had minimal impact on ILI symptom severity. Despite similar illness severity, a higher percentage of subjects with HIV reported undergoing antiviral treatment for ILI, likely reflecting differences in prescribing practices.Trial registration number: NCT01021098.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Influenza, Human , Adult , Antiviral Agents , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Male , Outpatients , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/pathology
7.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1119-1122, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388414

ABSTRACT

Oral swabs, sputum, and blood samples from 18 asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were examined using RT-PCR testing in order to assess the risk of transfusion-related transmission. In asymptomatic patients as well as patients with flu-like symptoms and fever, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in the blood or serum despite a clearly positive result in all throat swabs. As patients with symptoms of infectious disease will not be admitted to blood donation, the risk for transfusion transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be negligible.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Donor Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfusion Reaction/virology , Young Adult
8.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(8): 1743-1748, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323942

ABSTRACT

We evaluated a novel transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) assay that can detect influenza A and B within 15 min using nasopharyngeal swab and gargle samples obtained from patients with influenza-like illness, between January and March 2018 and between January and March 2019. Based on the combined RT-PCR and sequencing results, in the nasal swabs, the sensitivity and specificity of TRC for detecting influenza were calculated as 1.000 and 1.000, respectively. In the gargle samples, the sensitivity and specificity of TRC were 0.946 and 1.000, respectively. The TRC assay showed comparable performance to RT-PCR in the detection of influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 65, 2021 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new strain of human coronavirus (HCoV) spread rapidly around the world. Diabetes and obesity are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy (CGL) patients generally have poorly controlled diabetes and require extremely high doses of insulin. There is no documentation in the literature of cases of COVID in CGL patients. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CGL patients, and the association of their clinical and metabolic characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study carried out between July and October 2020. Clinical data collected were respiratory or other flu-like symptoms, need of hospitalization in the last three months, CGL comorbidities, and medications in use. Cholesterol, triglycerides, glycohemoglobin A1c levels, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and nasopharyngeal swab for RT-qPCR were also obtained in all CGL patients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the characteristics of the participants, verifying the non-adherence of the data to the Gaussian distribution. In investigating the association between categorical variables, we used Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS: Twenty-two CGL patients were assessed. Eight subjects (36.4%) had reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Only one of these, also presented detectable RT-qPCR. Five individuals (62.5%) were women, median age of 13.5 years (1 to 37). Symptoms like fever, malaise, nausea, diarrhea and chest pain were present, and all asymptomatic patients were children. All subjects had inadequate metabolic control, with no difference between groups. Among positive individuals there was no difference between those with AGPAT2 (75%) and BSCL2 gene mutations (25%) (p > 0.05). No patient needed hospitalization or died. CONCLUSIONS: We described a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CGL patients with a good outcome in all of them. These findings suggest that at least young CGL patients infected by SARS-COV-2 are not at higher risk of poor outcome, despite known severe metabolic comorbidities.

10.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(4): 115381, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269260

ABSTRACT

To compare the practicability (usability and satisfaction) and analytical performances of VitaPCR™ Flu A&B Assay (Credo Diagnostics Biomedical Pte. Ltd., Singapore, Republic of Singapore) and Xpert® Xpress Flu/RSV kit (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, USA), two rapid point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) by reference to multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=117) were collected from patients with influenza-like illness in Paris, France. Thawed specimens were further analyzed with both NAATs. The usability was comparable for both NAATs. Satisfaction questionnaire was better for the VitaPCR™ platform for the short time of test result in 20 minutes. Both NAATs showed comparable sensitivities (VitaPCRTM: 95.0%; Xpert® Xpress: 97.5%) and specificities (100%) for influenza A/B RNA detection, with excellent reliability and accuracy between both NAATs. Both VitaPCR™ and Xpert® Xpress NAATs can be implemented in hospital setting as POC NAATs to rapidly detect influenza A/B RNA in symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Viruses/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 592-598, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266877

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) overlaps with many other common cold and influenza viruses. Identifying patients with a higher probability of infection becomes crucial in settings with limited access to testing. We developed a prediction instrument to assess the likelihood of a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, based solely on clinical variables that can be determined within the time frame of an emergency department (ED) patient encounter. METHODS: We derived and prospectively validated a model to predict SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in patients visiting the ED with symptoms consistent with the disease. RESULTS: Our model was based on 617 ED visits. In the derivation cohort, the median age was 36 years, 43% were men, and 9% had a positive result. The median time to testing from the onset of initial symptoms was four days (interquartile range [IQR]: 2-5 days, range 0-23 days), and 91% of all patients were discharged home. The final model based on a multivariable logistic regression included a history of close contact (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-4.7); fever (AOR 3.63, 95% CI, 1.931-6.85); anosmia or dysgeusia (AOR 9.7, 95% CI, 2.72-34.5); headache (AOR 1.95, 95% CI, 1.06-3.58), myalgia (AOR 2.6, 95% CI, 1.39-4.89); and dry cough (AOR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.02-3.64). The area under the curve (AUC) from the derivation cohort was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.73-0.85) and AUC 0.7 (95% CI, 0.61-0.75) in the validation cohort (N = 379). CONCLUSION: We developed and validated a clinical tool to predict SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in patients presenting to the ED to assist with patient disposition in environments where COVID-19 tests or timely results are not readily available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Decision Support Techniques , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
12.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 110: 215-224, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263382

ABSTRACT

Many countries have taken a variety of measures to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 infections. Among the most important of these involve using social distancing to prevent contact. Restricted social contacts have important effects on activity participation and on travel demand. The current study examined an array of less-studied factors, such as attitudes and beliefs toward train use, including risk perception of flu-type infection, alongside more traditional factors, which together affect decisions whether to continue using the train. Data was collected using an internet survey application. The study was based on two surveys that were conducted approximately seven months apart, the first completed by 237 participants and the second by 149. We developed a structural equation model to better understand the influence of various factors on decisions whether to continue to use the train. We found a correlation between perception of the risk of infection and the decision to continue train travel. Study results also demonstrate the relation between trip purpose and the decision to use public transportation. The study results highlight the importance of many attributes favorably associated with train travel, including saving time, reliability, and comfort. Therefore, in contrast to the existing situation where the railway company makes its own decisions to decrease trip frequencies and to cancel some lines, government policy makers and the railway company should maintain a strong frequency schedule and increase the number of lines in order to accommodate social distancing. In addition, we found that the most effective measures for encouraging people to keep traveling by train required mask use, preventing people with flu-like symptoms from traveling by train, and fining those who do not comply. In order to sustain the train use as a viable alternative to using private vehicles it is important to decrease the risk perception of being infected by coronavirus and other kinds of infected diseases while traveling by train. This can be addressed by creating a clean and reasonably sterile environment. These results highlight the need for serious intervention by decision-makers in order to sustain the train use as a viable alternative to using private vehicles.

13.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(5): 665-668, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249310

ABSTRACT

Following exposure to a healthcare worker with an influenza-like illness, 2 preterm neonates and 6 staff members developed symptoms and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This neonatal unit coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak occurred prior to the implementation of universal masking and symptom screening policies. Both neonates and all staff recovered, with no further healthcare-associated SARS-CoV-2 transmission following the implementation of effective outbreak containment measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mass Screening , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244157

ABSTRACT

Most countries are currently gravitating towards vaccination as mainstay strategy to quell COVID-19 transmission. Between December 2020 and January 2021, we conducted a follow-up online survey in Somalia to monitor adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Adherence was measured via a composite adherence score based on four measures (physical distancing, face mask use, hand hygiene, and mouth covering when coughing/sneezing). We analyzed 4543 responses (mean age: 23.5 ± 6.4 years, 62.4% males). The mean adherence score during this survey was lower than the score during a similar survey in April 2020. A total of 76.8% of respondents were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Flu-like symptoms were more frequently reported in the current survey compared to previous surveys. Multiple logistic regression showed that participants who experienced flu-like symptoms, those in the healthcare sector, and those with higher adherence scores had higher odds for vaccine acceptability while being a female reduced the willingness to be vaccinated. In conclusion, our data suggest that the decreasing adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures may have caused increased flu-like symptoms over time. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Somalia is relatively high but could be improved by addressing factors that contribute to vaccine hesitancy.

15.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(2): 101-107, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present with a wide range of symptoms. In this paper, a detailed characterisation of mild-to-moderate ear, nose nd throat (ENT) symptoms is presented with the aim of recognising the disease early to help reduce further spread and progression. METHODS: A total of 230 cases testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 134 negative controls were recruited for a case-control analysis. Symptoms were analysed using the Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Questionnaire, while other symptoms were investigated by ad hoc questions. RESULTS: Among the study samples (n = 364), 149 were males and 215 were females with age ranging from 20 to 89 years (mean 52.3). Four main groups of symptoms were obtained: influenza-like symptoms, ENT-symptoms, breathing issues and asthenia-related symptoms, representing 72%, 69%, 64% and 53% of overall referred clinical manifestations, respectively. ENT symptoms, breathing issues and influenza-like symptoms were associated with positivity to SARS-CoV-2, whereas asthenia-related symptoms did not show a significant association with SARS-CoV-2 infection after controlling for other symptoms, comorbidities and demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: ENT symptoms are equally represented with influenza-like ones as presenting symptoms of COVID-19. Patients with ENT symptoms should be investigated for early identification and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2307-2320, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227752

ABSTRACT

Preventing communicable diseases requires understanding the spread, epidemiology, clinical features, progression, and prognosis of the disease. Early identification of risk factors and clinical outcomes might help in identifying critically ill patients, providing appropriate treatment, and preventing mortality. We conducted a prospective study in patients with flu-like symptoms referred to the imaging department of a tertiary hospital in Iran between March 3, 2020, and April 8, 2020. Patients with COVID-19 were followed up after two months to check their health condition. The categorical data between groups were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and continuous data by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Three hundred and nineteen patients (mean age 45.48 ± 18.50 years, 177 women) were enrolled. Fever, dyspnea, weakness, shivering, C-reactive protein, fatigue, dry cough, anorexia, anosmia, ageusia, dizziness, sweating, and age were the most important symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Traveling in the past 3 months, asthma, taking corticosteroids, liver disease, rheumatological disease, cough with sputum, eczema, conjunctivitis, tobacco use, and chest pain did not show any relationship with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, a number of factors associated with mortality due to COVID-19 have been investigated for the first time in this study. Our results might be helpful in early prediction and risk reduction of mortality in patients infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
JMA J ; 4(2): 76-80, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226036

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Many symptomatic patients have influenza-like symptoms such as fever, respiratory symptoms (cough, sore throat, and nasal discharge), headache, and malaise. In some cases, oxygen is required within a week of onset, and in more severe cases, the patient is admitted to the intensive care unit after around 10 days of onset. In the COVIREGI-JP registry of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019, patients with renal dysfunction, liver disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes tended to be more severely ill after hospitalization than patients without comorbidities. It has also become clear that symptoms can persist even after the acute phase has passed.

18.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(7): 1815-1818, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221015

ABSTRACT

The request for CT (computed tomography) diagnostic in patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia has become part of the daily clinical routine. We reported a case of a 61-year-old patient with flu-like symptoms and a suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. After a negative PCR-test (polymerase chain reaction), a non-contrast enhanced CT was performed which revealed a suspicious hyperdensity in the left pulmonary artery and a pneumonia in the left lower lobe. A contrast enhanced CT confirmed a pulmonary embolism. An acute pulmonary embolism is a major complication and a main differential diagnosis of COVID-19. A hyperdense pulmonary artery sign (PAS) is a sensitive sign for a pulmonary embolism. Non-enhanced chest CT scans should be checked for hyperdense PAS in suspected of COVID-19 patients.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9672, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219725

ABSTRACT

In a context where SARS-CoV-2 population-wide testing is implemented, clinical features and antibody response in those infected have never been documented in Africa. Yet, the information provided by analyzing data from population-wide testing is critical to understand the infection dynamics and devise control strategies. We described clinical features and assessed antibody response in people screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed data from a cohort of 3464 people that we molecularly screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection in our routine activity. We recorded people SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, age, gender, blood types, white blood cells (WBC), symptoms, chronic disease status and time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR conversion from positive to negative. We calculated the age-based distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, analyzed the proportion and the spectrum of COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, in a nested sub-study, we screened 83 COVID-19 patients and 319 contact-cases for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Males and females accounted for respectively 51% and 49% of people screened. The studied population median and mean age were both 39 years. 592 out of 3464 people (17.2%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection with males and females representing, respectively, 53% and 47%. The median and mean ages of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects were 37 and 38 years respectively. The lowest rate of infection (8%) was observed in the elderly (aged > 60). The rate of SARS-Cov-2 infection in both young (18-35 years old) and middle-aged adults (36-60 years old) was around 20%. The analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection age distribution showed that middle-aged adults accounted for 54.7% of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons, followed respectively by young adults (33.7%), children (7.7%) and elderly (3.8%). 68% (N = 402) of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons were asymptomatic, 26.3% (N = 156) had influenza-like symptoms, 2.7% (N = 16) had influenza-like symptoms associated with anosmia and ageusia, 2% (N = 11) had dyspnea and 1% (N = 7) had respiratory failure, which resulted in death. Data also showed that 12% of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects, had chronic diseases. Hypertension, diabetes, and asthma were the top concurrent chronic diseases representing respectively 58%, 25% and 12% of recorded chronic diseases. Half of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients were cured within 14 days following the initiation of the anti-COVID-19 treatment protocol. 78.3% of COVID-19 patients and 55% of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed negative contact-cases were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients with severe-to-critical illness have higher leukocytes, higher neutrophils and lower lymphocyte counts contrarily to asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate illness. Neutrophilic leukopenia was more prevalent in asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate disease for 4 weeks after diagnosis (27.1-42.1%). In Patients with severe-to-critical illness, neutrophilic leukocytosis or neutrophilia (35.6-50%) and lymphocytopenia (20-40%) were more frequent. More than 60% of participants were blood type O. It is also important to note that infection rate was slightly higher among A and B blood types compared with type O. In this African setting, young and middle-aged adults are most likely driving community transmission of COVID-19. The rate of critical disease is relatively low. The high rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies observed in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative contact cases suggests that subclinical infection may have been overlooked in our setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Group Antigens/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
20.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(7): 880-885, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214798

ABSTRACT

AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been recovered from different sites in the human body, including the mouth. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the dental biofilm of symptomatic patients who tested positive in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NASO/ORO) samples. MATERIALS & METHODS: An observational clinical study of individuals with flu-like symptoms was conducted between July and September 2020. Dental biofilm (BIO) samples were collected and analysed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to determine the virus's presence. RESULTS: Seventy participants (40 ± 9.8 years of age, 71.4% female) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in NASO/ORO samples and were included in the study. Among them, 13 tested positive in BIO samples (18.6%; 95% CI: [9.5, 27.7]). The median and interquartile range of cycle quantification (Cq) for NASO/ORO and BIO samples were 15.9 [6.9] and 35.9 [4.0] (p = .001), respectively. BIO-positive participants showed a higher virus load in NASO/ORO samples (p = .012) than those testing negative (Cq = 20.4 [6.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Dental biofilms from symptomatic COVID-19 patients harbour SARS-CoV-2 RNA and might be a potential reservoir with an essential role in COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Biofilms , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load
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