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1.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(1): 31-37, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086658

ABSTRACT

KEY POINTS: In our clinical cross-sectional study, we identified 107 of 347 patients who were tested positive for antibodies of novel Coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2). Main symptoms were exhaustion and cough, exposition to other COVID-19-patients appeared frequently. BACKGROUND: There is urgent need for information on predictive parameters on immunity and infectivity in Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our aim was to investigate distribution of novel Coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a German General Practice and to learn about possible predictive parameters regarding infection and pathways of transmission. METHODS: In our cross-sectional study, we tested 347 patients of our General Practice using 2019-nCoV-2-IgG/IgM antibody test [2019-nCoV2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette (Ref.: INCP-402/INCP-402B; ACRO, BIOTECH, INC.)]. We asked for 13 specific symptoms and 4 questions to investigate patients' surroundings. RESULTS: A total of 107 of 347 patients were tested positive for antibodies (Immunoglobulin M-positive and/or Immunoglobulin G-positive). In antibody-positive group, body aches and rhinorrhea were seen more often and there were significantly less asymptomatic patients. Stay in area of risk was significantly more frequent in antibody-positive group as well as contact to infected persons. Distribution of other symptoms was not significantly different between both groups. Most adults or children with SARS-CoV-2 infection presented with mild flu-like symptoms. CONCLUSION: A total of 30% of patients had antibodies. It was not possible to identify one solid predictive symptom. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD006207, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral epidemics or pandemics of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) pose a global threat. Examples are influenza (H1N1) caused by the H1N1pdm09 virus in 2009, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. Antiviral drugs and vaccines may be insufficient to prevent their spread. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2007, 2009, 2010, and 2011. The evidence summarised in this review does not include results from studies from the current COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of acute respiratory viruses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL on 1 April 2020. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO ICTRP on 16 March 2020. We conducted a backwards and forwards citation analysis on the newly included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs of trials investigating physical interventions (screening at entry ports, isolation, quarantine, physical distancing, personal protection, hand hygiene, face masks, and gargling) to prevent respiratory virus transmission. In previous versions of this review we also included observational studies. However, for this update, there were sufficient RCTs to address our study aims.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. Three pairs of review authors independently extracted data using a standard template applied in previous versions of this review, but which was revised to reflect our focus on RCTs and cluster-RCTs for this update. We did not contact trialists for missing data due to the urgency in completing the review. We extracted data on adverse events (harms) associated with the interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We included 44 new RCTs and cluster-RCTs in this update, bringing the total number of randomised trials to 67. There were no included studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Six ongoing studies were identified, of which three evaluating masks are being conducted concurrent with the COVID pandemic, and one is completed. Many studies were conducted during non-epidemic influenza periods, but several studies were conducted during the global H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, and others in epidemic influenza seasons up to 2016. Thus, studies were conducted in the context of lower respiratory viral circulation and transmission compared to COVID-19. The included studies were conducted in heterogeneous settings, ranging from suburban schools to hospital wards in high-income countries; crowded inner city settings in low-income countries; and an immigrant neighbourhood in a high-income country. Compliance with interventions was low in many studies. The risk of bias for the RCTs and cluster-RCTs was mostly high or unclear. Medical/surgical masks compared to no masks We included nine trials (of which eight were cluster-RCTs) comparing medical/surgical masks versus no masks to prevent the spread of viral respiratory illness (two trials with healthcare workers and seven in the community). There is low certainty evidence from nine trials (3507 participants) that wearing a mask may make little or no difference to the outcome of influenza-like illness (ILI) compared to not wearing a mask (risk ratio (RR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 1.18. There is moderate certainty evidence that wearing a mask probably makes little or no difference to the outcome of laboratory-confirmed influenza compared to not wearing a mask (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.26; 6 trials; 3005 participants). Harms were rarely measured and poorly reported. Two studies during COVID-19 plan to recruit a total of 72,000 people. One evaluates medical/surgical masks (N = 6000) (published Annals of Internal Medicine, 18 Nov 2020), and one evaluates cloth masks (N = 66,000). N95/P2 respirators compared to medical/surgical masks We pooled trials comparing N95/P2 respirators with medical/surgical masks (four in healthcare settings and one in a household setting). There is uncertainty over the effects of N95/P2 respirators when compared with medical/surgical masks on the outcomes of clinical respiratory illness (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.10; very low-certainty evidence; 3 trials; 7779 participants) and ILI (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.03; low-certainty evidence; 5 trials; 8407 participants). The evidence is limited by imprecision and heterogeneity for these subjective outcomes. The use of a N95/P2 respirator compared to a medical/surgical mask probably makes little or no difference for the objective and more precise outcome of laboratory-confirmed influenza infection (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.34; moderate-certainty evidence; 5 trials; 8407 participants). Restricting the pooling to healthcare workers made no difference to the overall findings. Harms were poorly measured and reported, but discomfort wearing medical/surgical masks or N95/P2 respirators was mentioned in several studies. One ongoing study recruiting 576 people compares N95/P2 respirators with medical surgical masks for healthcare workers during COVID-19. Hand hygiene compared to control Settings included schools, childcare centres, homes, and offices. In a comparison of hand hygiene interventions with control (no intervention), there was a 16% relative reduction in the number of people with ARIs in the hand hygiene group (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.86; 7 trials; 44,129 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), suggesting a probable benefit. When considering the more strictly defined outcomes of ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza, the estimates of effect for ILI (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.13; 10 trials; 32,641 participants; low-certainty evidence) and laboratory-confirmed influenza (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.30; 8 trials; 8332 participants; low-certainty evidence) suggest the intervention made little or no difference. We pooled all 16 trials (61,372 participants) for the composite outcome of ARI or ILI or influenza, with each study only contributing once and the most comprehensive outcome reported. The pooled data showed that hand hygiene may offer a benefit with an 11% relative reduction of respiratory illness (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.95; low-certainty evidence), but with high heterogeneity. Few trials measured and reported harms. There are two ongoing studies of handwashing interventions in 395 children outside of COVID-19. We identified one RCT on quarantine/physical distancing. Company employees in Japan were asked to stay at home if household members had ILI symptoms. Overall fewer people in the intervention group contracted influenza compared with workers in the control group (2.75% versus 3.18%; hazard ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97). However, those who stayed at home with their infected family members were 2.17 times more likely to be infected. We found no RCTs on eye protection, gowns and gloves, or screening at entry ports. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The high risk of bias in the trials, variation in outcome measurement, and relatively low compliance with the interventions during the studies hamper drawing firm conclusions and generalising the findings to the current COVID-19 pandemic. There is uncertainty about the effects of face masks. The low-moderate certainty of the evidence means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited, and that the true effect may be different from the observed estimate of the effect. The pooled results of randomised trials did not show a clear reduction in respiratory viral infection with the use of medical/surgical masks during seasonal influenza. There were no clear differences between the use of medical/surgical masks compared with N95/P2 respirators in healthcare workers when used in routine care to reduce respiratory viral infection. Hand hygiene is likely to modestly reduce the burden of respiratory illness. Harms associated with physical interventions were under-investigated. There is a need for large, well-designed RCTs addressing the effectiveness of many of these interventions in multiple settings and populations, especially in those most at risk of ARIs.


Subject(s)
Hand Hygiene , Masks , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Shedding , Bias , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Epidemics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission
4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(1): 72-80, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza has been well studied in developed countries with temperate climates, in contrast to low- and middle-income (LMIC) countries, thus hampering the effort to attain representative global data. Furthermore, data on non-influenza respiratory infections are also limited. Insight in viral respiratory infections in Suriname, a tropical LMIC in South America, would contribute to improved local preventive measures and a better global understanding of respiratory viruses. METHODS: From May 2016 through April 2018, all patients (n = 1096) enrolled in the national severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness surveillance were screened for the presence of 10 respiratory viruses with singleplex RT-PCR. RESULTS: The overall viral-positive detection rate was 45.3%, specified as RSV (19.4%), influenza (15.5%), hMPV (4.9%), AdV (4.6%), and parainfluenza (3.8%). Co-infections were detected in 6.2% of the positive cases. Lower overall positivity was observed in the SARI vs ILI surveillance and influenza prevalence was higher in outpatients (45.0% vs 6.7%), while RSV exhibited the reverse (4.8% vs 23.8%). Respiratory infections in general were more common in children than in adults (54.4% vs 29.5%), although children were significantly less affected by influenza (11.5% vs 22.7%). None of the respiratory viruses displayed a clear seasonal pattern, and viral interference was observed between RSV and influenza. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive information presented for Suriname, including first data on non-influenza respiratory viruses, displayed distinct differences between the viruses, in seasonality, within age groups and between SARI/ILI, accentuating the need, especially for tropical LMIC countries to continue ongoing surveillance and accumulate local data.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Adult , Child , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Suriname/epidemiology
5.
Pediatr Transplant ; 24(8): e13805, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric transplant recipients may be at increased risk of developing serious infections due to COVID-19. We undertook a web-based survey among parents of post-liver transplant pediatric patients to assess knowledge and concerns regarding COVID-19 pandemic and impact of social media on them. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey was conducted between March 21 and March 26, 2020. A 19-item questionnaire was sent to 172 parents of post-liver transplant children. RESULTS: 106 (62%) of parents responded. Median time since transplant was 31 (12-52) months. The majority of parents had good understanding regarding symptomatology and routes of transmission. Only 27% were aware of feco-oral transmission, and 34% knew about gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19. 100% of parents understood concept of social distancing, and 70% knew that asymptomatic individuals can transmit the virus. Television followed by newspapers was the main source of their information, though over 40% claim to regularly receive information through social media. 87% would consult their doctor if the child had flu-like symptoms rather than modify immunosuppression or try alternative medications. Parental concerns mainly revolved around early recognition of symptoms, queries on unconventional treatments circulating over social media, and supply of medications during the lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of parents had basic understanding of COVID-19 pandemic. Social media appeared to be an important source of information. Results from this survey helped us in modifying patient care protocols to ensure continuity of care while maintaining social distancing.


Subject(s)
Awareness , COVID-19/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation , Parents/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires
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