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Saudi Pharm J ; 28(9): 1138-1148, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703998


Clinical studies have shown that renal injury in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been a real concern, which is associated with high mortality and an inflammation/apoptosis-related causality. Effective target therapy for renal injury has yet been developed. Besides, potential anti-COVID-19 medicines have also been reported to cause adverse side effects to kidney. Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), however, has rich experience in treating renal injury and has successfully applied in China in the battle of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of CHM treatment are still unclear. In this study, we searched prescriptions in the treatment of renal injury extensively and the potential mechanisms to treat COVID-19 related renal injury were investigated. The association rules analysis showed that the core herbs includes Huang Qi, Fu Ling, Bai Zhu, Di Huang, Shan Yao. TCM herbs regulate core pathways, such as AGE-RAGE, PI3K-AKT, TNF and apoptosis pathway, etc. The ingredients (quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, etc.,) from core herbs could modulate targets (PTGS2 (COX2), PTGS1 (COX1), IL6, CASP3, NOS2, and TNF, etc.), and thereby prevent the pharmacological and non-pharmacological renal injury comparable to that from COVID-19 infection. This study provides therapeutic potentials of CHM to combat COVID-19 related renal injury to reduce complications and mortality.

J Neurol Sci ; 416: 117019, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643653


OBJECTIVE: To report four patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). METHODS: Patient data was abstracted from medical records at Weill Cornell Medical Center. RESULTS: Four patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and PRES were identified. The patients' ages ranged from 64 to 74 years, and two were women. All four patients were admitted to the hospital with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. PRES was diagnosed after persistent confusion, lethargy, new focal neurological deficits, or seizures were noted, with evidence of seizures on electroencephalogram for two of the patients. Imaging confirmed the presence of cerebral vasogenic edema. All four patients had elevated blood pressure and renal injury in the days preceding PRES diagnosis, as well as evidence of systemic inflammation and systemic hypercoagulability. Symptoms of PRES improved with blood pressure control. CONCLUSIONS: Our four cases demonstrate the occurrence of PRES in critically-ill patients with COVID-19. PRES should be considered in the differential for acute neurological deficits and seizures in this setting.

COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies