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1.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(5): 844-856, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457790

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are S-palmitoylated proteins in vertebrates that restrict a diverse range of viruses. S-palmitoylated IFITM3 in particular engages incoming virus particles, prevents their cytoplasmic entry, and accelerates their lysosomal clearance by host cells. However, how S-palmitoylation modulates the structure and biophysical characteristics of IFITM3 to promote its antiviral activity remains unclear. To investigate how site-specific S-palmitoylation controls IFITM3 antiviral activity, we employed computational, chemical, and biophysical approaches to demonstrate that site-specific lipidation of cysteine 72 enhances the antiviral activity of IFITM3 by modulating its conformation and interaction with lipid membranes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that site-specific S-palmitoylation of IFITM3 directly alters its biophysical properties and activity in cells to prevent virus infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Interferons/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Computational Biology , Drug Design , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Lipoylation , Lysosomes/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Signal Transduction
2.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(9): 521, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428860
3.
EMBO J ; 40(3): e106501, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389834

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) restrict infections by many viruses, but a subset of IFITMs enhance infections by specific coronaviruses through currently unknown mechanisms. We show that SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped virus and genuine SARS-CoV-2 infections are generally restricted by human and mouse IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3, using gain- and loss-of-function approaches. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 restriction occurred independently of IFITM3 S-palmitoylation, indicating a restrictive capacity distinct from reported inhibition of other viruses. In contrast, the IFITM3 amphipathic helix and its amphipathic properties were required for virus restriction. Mutation of residues within the IFITM3 endocytosis-promoting YxxФ motif converted human IFITM3 into an enhancer of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and cell-to-cell fusion assays confirmed the ability of endocytic mutants to enhance Spike-mediated fusion with the plasma membrane. Overexpression of TMPRSS2, which increases plasma membrane fusion versus endosome fusion of SARS-CoV-2, attenuated IFITM3 restriction and converted amphipathic helix mutants into infection enhancers. In sum, we uncover new pro- and anti-viral mechanisms of IFITM3, with clear distinctions drawn between enhancement of viral infection at the plasma membrane and amphipathicity-based mechanisms used for endosomal SARS-CoV-2 restriction.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Mice , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases , Virus Internalization
4.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0011121, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358015

ABSTRACT

The current fears of a future influenza pandemic have resulted in an increased emphasis on the development and testing of novel therapeutic strategies against the virus. Fundamental to this is the ferret model of influenza infection, which is critical in examining pathogenesis and treatment. Nevertheless, a precise evaluation of the efficacy of any treatment strategy in ferrets is reliant on understanding the immune response in this model. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are interferon-stimulated proteins shown to be critically important in the host immune response against viral infections. These proteins confer intrinsic innate immunity to pH-dependent viruses such as influenza viruses and can inhibit cytosolic entry of such viruses to limit the severity of infection following interferon upregulation. Mutations in IFITM genes in humans have been identified as key risk factors for worsened disease progression, particularly in the case of avian influenza viruses such as H7N9. While the IFITM genes of humans and mice have been well characterized, no studies have been conducted to classify the IFITM locus and interferon-driven upregulation of IFITMs in ferrets. Here, we show the architecture of the ferret IFITM locus and its synteny to the IFITM locus of other mammalian and avian species. Furthermore, we show that ferret IFITM1, -2, and -3 are functionally responsive to both interferon-α (IFN-α) and influenza virus stimulation. Thus, we show that ferret IFITMs exhibit interferon-stimulated properties similar to those shown in other species, furthering our knowledge of the innate immune response in the ferret model of human influenza virus infections. IMPORTANCE IFITM proteins can prevent the entry of several pH-dependent viruses, including high-consequence viruses such as HIV, influenza viruses, and SARS-coronaviruses. Mutations in these genes have been associated with worsened disease outcomes with mutations in their IFITM genes, highlighting these genes as potential disease risk factors. Ferrets provide a valuable tool to model infectious diseases; however, there is a critical shortage of information regarding their interferon-stimulated genes. We identified the putative ferret IFITM genes and mapped their complete gene locus. Thus, our study fills a critical gap in knowledge and supports the further use of the ferret model to explore the importance of IFITMs in these important diseases.


Subject(s)
Ferrets , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Conserved Sequence , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets/immunology , Ferrets/metabolism , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Up-Regulation
5.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0011121, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287245

ABSTRACT

The current fears of a future influenza pandemic have resulted in an increased emphasis on the development and testing of novel therapeutic strategies against the virus. Fundamental to this is the ferret model of influenza infection, which is critical in examining pathogenesis and treatment. Nevertheless, a precise evaluation of the efficacy of any treatment strategy in ferrets is reliant on understanding the immune response in this model. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are interferon-stimulated proteins shown to be critically important in the host immune response against viral infections. These proteins confer intrinsic innate immunity to pH-dependent viruses such as influenza viruses and can inhibit cytosolic entry of such viruses to limit the severity of infection following interferon upregulation. Mutations in IFITM genes in humans have been identified as key risk factors for worsened disease progression, particularly in the case of avian influenza viruses such as H7N9. While the IFITM genes of humans and mice have been well characterized, no studies have been conducted to classify the IFITM locus and interferon-driven upregulation of IFITMs in ferrets. Here, we show the architecture of the ferret IFITM locus and its synteny to the IFITM locus of other mammalian and avian species. Furthermore, we show that ferret IFITM1, -2, and -3 are functionally responsive to both interferon-α (IFN-α) and influenza virus stimulation. Thus, we show that ferret IFITMs exhibit interferon-stimulated properties similar to those shown in other species, furthering our knowledge of the innate immune response in the ferret model of human influenza virus infections. IMPORTANCE IFITM proteins can prevent the entry of several pH-dependent viruses, including high-consequence viruses such as HIV, influenza viruses, and SARS-coronaviruses. Mutations in these genes have been associated with worsened disease outcomes with mutations in their IFITM genes, highlighting these genes as potential disease risk factors. Ferrets provide a valuable tool to model infectious diseases; however, there is a critical shortage of information regarding their interferon-stimulated genes. We identified the putative ferret IFITM genes and mapped their complete gene locus. Thus, our study fills a critical gap in knowledge and supports the further use of the ferret model to explore the importance of IFITMs in these important diseases.


Subject(s)
Ferrets , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Conserved Sequence , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets/immunology , Ferrets/metabolism , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Up-Regulation
6.
J Inflamm (Lond) ; 18(1): 21, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophages are indispensable regulators of inflammatory responses. Macrophage polarisation and their secreted inflammatory factors have an association with the outcome of inflammation. Luteolin, a flavonoid abundant in plants, has anti-inflammatory activity, but whether luteolin can manipulate M1/M2 polarisation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) to suppress inflammation is still unclear. This study aimed to observe the effects of luteolin on the polarity of BMDMs derived from C57BL/6 mice and the expression of inflammatory factors, to explore the mechanism by which luteolin regulates the BMDM polarity. METHODS: M1-polarised BMDMs were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + interferon (IFN)-γ and M2-polarisation were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-4. BMDM morphology and phagocytosis were observed by laser confocal microscopy; levels of BMDM differentiation and cluster of differentiation (CD)11c or CD206 on the membrane surface were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM); mRNA and protein levels of M1/M2-type inflammatory factors were performed by qPCR and ELISA, respectively; and the expression of p-STAT1 and p-STAT6 protein pathways was detected by Western-blotting. RESULTS: The isolated mouse bone marrow cells were successfully differentiated into BMDMs, LPS + IFN-γ induced BMDM M1-phenotype polarisation, and IL-4 induced M2-phenotype polarisation. After M1-polarised BMDMs were treated with luteolin, the phagocytosis of M1-polarized BMDMs was reduced, and the M1-type pro-inflammatory factors including IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD86 were downregulated while the M2-type anti-inflammatory factors including IL-10, IL-13, found in inflammatory zone (FIZZ)1, Arginase (Arg)1 and CD206 were upregulated. Additionally, the expression of M1-type surface marker CD11c decreased. Nevertheless, the M2-type marker CD206 increased; and the levels of inflammatory signalling proteins phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT)1 and p-STAT6 were attenuated and enhanced, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that luteolin may transform BMDM polarity through p-STAT1/6 to regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators, thereby inhibiting inflammation. Naturally occurring luteolin holds promise as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100847, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246014

ABSTRACT

The zoonotic transmission of highly pathogenic coronaviruses into the human population is a pressing concern highlighted by the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Recent work has helped to illuminate much about the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell, which determines host- and tissue-specific tropism, pathogenicity, and zoonotic transmission. Here we discuss current findings on the factors governing SARS-CoV-2 entry. We first reviewed key features of the viral spike protein (S) mediating fusion of the viral envelope and host cell membrane through binding to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. We then examined the roles of host proteases including transmembrane protease serine 2 and cathepsins in processing S for virus entry and the impact of this processing on endosomal and plasma membrane virus entry routes. We further discussed recent work on several host cofactors that enhance SARS-CoV-2 entry including Neuropilin-1, CD147, phosphatidylserine receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, sialic acids, and C-type lectins. Finally, we discussed two key host restriction factors, i.e., interferon-induced transmembrane proteins and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus E, which can disrupt SARS-CoV-2 entry. The features of SARS-CoV-2 are presented in the context of other human coronaviruses, highlighting unique aspects. In addition, we identify the gaps in understanding of SARS-CoV-2 entry that will need to be addressed by future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Animals , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Pathogens ; 10(4)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238927

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult, immunomodulatory stem cells which reside in almost all postnatal tissues. Viral antigens and damage-associated molecular patterns released from injured and infected cells activate MSCs, which elicit strong antiviral immune response. MSC-sourced interferons and inflammatory cytokines modulate the cytotoxicity of NK cells and CTLs, enhance the antigen-presentation properties of DCs and macrophages, regulate cytokine synthesis in CD4+ T helper cells and promote antibody production in B cells. After the elimination of viral pathogens, MSCs produce immunoregulatory cytokines and trophic factors, prevent the over-activation of immune cells and promote tissue repair and regeneration. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the MSC-dependent elimination of virus-infected cells, and we emphasize the therapeutic potential of MSCs and their secretomes in the treatment of viral diseases.

9.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(5): 527-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230998

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Innate immunity is armed with interferons (IFNs) that link innate immunity to adaptive immunity to generate long-term and protective immune responses against invading pathogens and tumors. However, regulation of IFN production is crucial because chronic IFN responses can have deleterious effects on both antitumor and antimicrobial immunity in addition to provoking autoinflammatory or autoimmune conditions.Areas covered: Here, we focus on the accumulated evidence on antimicrobial and antitumor activities of type I and II IFNs. We first summarize the intracellular and intercellular mechanisms regulating IFN production and signaling. Then, we discuss the mechanisms modulating the dual nature of IFNs for both antitumor and antimicrobial immune responses. Finally, we review the detrimental role of IFNs for induction of autoinflammation and autoimmunity.Expert opinion: The current evidence suggests that the dual role of IFNs for antimicrobial and antitumor immunity is dependent not only on the timing, administration route, and dose of IFNs but also on the type of pathogen/tumor. Therefore, we think that combinatorial therapies involving IFN-inducing adjuvants and immune-checkpoint blockers may offer therapeutic potential, especially for cancer, whereas infectious, autoinflammatory or autoimmune diseases require fine adjustment of timing, dose, and route of the administration for candidate IFN-based vaccines or immunotherapies.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Vaccines , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunotherapy
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 189, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226420

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has become a global pandemic. The spike (S) protein of etiologic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) specifically recognizes human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as its receptor, which is recently identified as an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene. Here, we find that hACE2 exists on the surface of exosomes released by different cell types, and the expression of exosomal hACE2 is increased by IFNα/ß treatment. In particular, exosomal hACE2 can specifically block the cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, subsequently inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Our findings have indicated that IFN is able to upregulate a viral receptor on the exosomes which competitively block the virus entry, exhibiting a potential antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Vero Cells
11.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(5): 750-760, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217694

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the current pandemic disease, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Type I and III interferons (IFNs) are innate cytokines that are important in the first-line defense against viruses. Similar to many other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved mechanisms for evading the antiviral effects of type I and III IFNs at multiple levels, including the induction of IFN expression and cellular responses to IFNs. In this review, we describe the innate sensing mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and the mechanisms used by SARS-CoV-2 to evade type I and III IFN responses. We also discuss contradictory reports regarding impaired and robust type I IFN responses in patients with severe COVID-19. Finally, we discuss how delayed but exaggerated type I IFN responses can exacerbate inflammation and contribute to the severe progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferons/genetics
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 655528, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177982

ABSTRACT

The pandemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2 together with its particular feature of inactivating the interferon-based endogenous response and accordingly, impairing the innate immunity, has become a challenge for the international scientific and medical community. Fortunately, recombinant interferons as therapeutic products have accumulated a long history of beneficial therapeutic results in the treatment of chronic and acute viral diseases and also in the therapy of some types of cancer. One of the first antiviral treatments during the onset of COVID-19 in China was based on the use of recombinant interferon alfa 2b, so many clinicians began to use it, not only as therapy but also as a prophylactic approach, mainly in medical personnel. At the same time, basic research on interferons provided new insights that have contributed to a much better understanding of how treatment with interferons, initially considered as antivirals, actually has a much broader pharmacological scope. In this review, we briefly describe interferons, how they are induced in the event of a viral infection, and how they elicit signaling after contact with their specific receptor on target cells. Additionally, some of the genes stimulated by type I interferons are described, as well as the way interferon-mediated signaling is torpedoed by coronaviruses and in particular by SARS-CoV-2. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene is one of the interferon response genes. Although for many scientists this fact could result in an adverse effect of interferon treatment in COVID-19 patients, ACE2 expression contributes to the balance of the renin-angiotensin system, which is greatly affected by SARS-CoV-2 in its internalization into the cell. This manuscript also includes the relationship between type I interferons and neutrophils, NETosis, and interleukin 17. Finally, under the subtitle of "take-home messages", we discuss the rationale behind a timely treatment with interferons in the context of COVID-19 is emphasized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology
13.
Genomics ; 113(4): 1733-1741, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171554

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced membrane proteins (IFITM) 3 gene variants are known risk factor for severe viral diseases. We examined whether IFITM3 variant may underlie the heterogeneous clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced COVID-19 in large Arab population. We genotyped 880 Saudi patients; 93.8% were PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, encompassing most COVID-19 phenotypes. Mortality at 90 days was 9.1%. IFITM3-SNP, rs12252-G allele was associated with hospital admission (OR = 1.65 [95% CI; 1.01-2.70], P = 0.04]) and mortality (OR = 2.2 [95% CI; 1.16-4.20], P = 0.01). Patients less than 60 years old had a lower survival probability if they harbor this allele (log-rank test P = 0.002). Plasma levels of IFNγ were significantly lower in a subset of patients with AG/GG genotypes than patients with AA genotype (P = 0.00016). Early identification of these individuals at higher risk of death may inform precision public health response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Cytokine ; 142: 155492, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) plays an important role in the adaptive and innate immune response by inhibiting viral membrane hemifusion between the host and viral cell cytoplasm. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene IFITM3 have been associated with susceptibility and severity of influenza or other viral infections. We aimed to analyze the role of SNPs in the gene IFITM3 in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed genotyping of the SNPs rs12252 and rs34481144 in the gene IFITM3 in 239 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 253 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. We analyzed the association of the SNPs with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients did not differ regarding demographics. Neither IFITM3 rs12252 nor rs34481144 polymorphisms were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection risk or severity of COVID-19. Interestingly, we observed the putative deleterious rs12252 CC genotype only in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (N = 2). Also, we found a non-significant higher frequency of rs34481144 A-allele carriers in the patients with 'serious' COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we could not confirm the recently reported influence of polymorphisms in the gene IFITM3 on SARS-CoV-2 infection risk or severity of COVID-19 in a German cohort. Additional studies are needed to clarify the influence of the rs12252 CC genotype on SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and the rs34481144 A-allele on course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(5): e210-e218, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 agent, SARS-CoV-2, is conspecific with SARS-CoV, the causal agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in 2002-03. Although the viruses share a completely homologous repertoire of proteins and use the same cellular entry receptor, their transmission efficiencies and pathogenetic traits differ. We aimed to compare interferon antagonism by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: For this functional study, we infected Vero E6 and Calu-3 cells with strains of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We studied differences in cell line-specific replication (Vero E6 vs Calu-3 cells) and analysed these differences in relation to TMPRSS2-dependent cell entry based on inhibition with the drug camostat mesilate. We evaluated viral sensitivity towards type I interferon treatment and assessed cytokine induction and type I interferon signalling in the host cells by RT-PCR and analysis of transcription factor activation and nuclear translocation. Based on reverse genetic engineering of SARS-CoV, we investigated the contribution of open reading frame 6 (ORF6) to the observed phenotypic differences in interferon signalling, because ORF6 encodes an interferon signalling antagonist. We did a luciferase-based interferon-stimulated response element promotor activation assay to evaluate the antagonistic capacity of SARS-CoV-2 wild-type ORF6 constructs and three mutants (Gln51Glu, Gln56Glu, or both) that represent amino acid substitutions between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 protein 6 in the carboxy-terminal domain. FINDINGS: Overall, replication was higher for SARS-CoV in Vero E6 cells and for SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells. SARS-CoV-2 was reliant on TMPRSS2, found only in Calu-3 cells, for more efficient entry. SARS-CoV-2 was more sensitive to interferon treatment, less efficient in suppressing cytokine induction via IRF3 nuclear translocation, and permissive of a higher level of induction of interferon-stimulated genes MX1 and ISG56. SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 expressed in the context of a fully replicating SARS-CoV backbone suppressed MX1 gene induction, but this suppression was less efficient than that by SARS-CoV ORF6. Mutagenesis showed that charged amino acids in residues 51 and 56 shift the phenotype towards more efficient interferon antagonism, as seen in SARS-CoV. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 interferes less efficiently with human interferon induction and interferon signalling than SARS-CoV ORF6. Because of the homology of the genes, onward selection for fitness could involve functional optimisation of interferon antagonism. Charged amino acids at positions 51 and 56 in ORF6 should be monitored for potential adaptive changes. FUNDING: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, EU RECOVER project.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , SARS Virus , Amino Acids/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Reverse Genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry
16.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067805

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), was identified in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it has continued to spread rapidly in numerous countries, while the search for effective therapeutic options persists. Coronaviruses, including SARS­CoV­2, are known to suppress and evade the antiviral responses of the host organism mediated by interferon (IFN), a family of cytokines that plays an important role in antiviral defenses associated with innate immunity, and has been used therapeutically for chronic viral diseases and cancer. On the other hand, OncoTherad, a safe and effective immunotherapeutic agent in the treatment of non­muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), increases IFN signaling and has been shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for COVID­19 in a case report that described the rapid recovery of a 78­year­old patient with NMIBC with comorbidities. The present review discusses the possible synergistic action of OncoTherad with vitamin D, zinc and glutamine, nutrients that have been shown to facilitate immune responses mediated by IFN signaling, as well as the potential of this combination as a therapeutic option for COVID­19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glutamine/pharmacology , Glycoproteins/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/metabolism , Phosphates/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Comorbidity , Drug Synergism , Glycoproteins/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Male , Nanostructures , Phosphates/therapeutic use , Urinary Bladder Calculi/drug therapy , Urinary Bladder Calculi/epidemiology
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006317

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a fatal pandemic disease that is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of 13 December, 2020, over 70,000,000 cases and 1,500,000 deaths have been reported over a period of several months; however, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of COVID-19 has not been elucidated. To identify the novel risk genetic biomarker for COVID-19, we evaluated the correlation between the case fatality rate of COVID-19 and the genetic polymorphisms of several potential COVID-19-related genes, including interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene, transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), interleukin 6 (IL6), leucine zipper transcription factor-like protein 1 (LZTFL1), and the ABO genes, in various ethnic groups. We obtained the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths from the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 dashboard and calculated the case fatality rate of each ethnic group. In addition, we obtained the allele distribution of the polymorphisms of the IFITM3, ACE2, TMPRSS2, IL6, LZTFL1, and ABO genes from the 1000 Genomes Project and performed Log-linear regression analysis using SAS version 9.4. We found different COVID-19 case fatality rates in each ethnic group. Notably, we identified a strong correlation between the case fatality rate of COVID-19 and the allele frequency of the rs6598045 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IFITM3 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a strong correlation between the COVID-19 case fatality rate and the rs6598045 SNP of the IFITM3 gene at the population-level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Biomarkers , COVID-19/ethnology , Galactosyltransferases/genetics , Gene Frequency , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Transcription Factors/genetics
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 299, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997814

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly spread worldwide and has affected more than 10 million individuals. A typical feature of COVID-19 is the suppression of type I and III interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immunity. However, the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades antiviral immunity remains elusive. Here, we reported that the SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein inhibits the production of type I and III IFNs induced by the cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathway mediated by RIG-I/MDA-5-MAVS signaling. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein suppresses type I and III IFN induction stimulated by SeV infection or poly (I:C) transfection. Mechanistically, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein interacts with RIG-I, MAVS, and TBK1, thus preventing the formation of the multiprotein complex containing RIG-I, MAVS, TRAF3, and TBK1 and subsequently impeding the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and activation of IRF3. Consequently, ectopic expression of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein facilitates the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. Taken together, these results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 M protein antagonizes type I and III IFN production by targeting RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, which subsequently attenuates antiviral immunity and enhances viral replication. This study provides insight into the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-induced antiviral immune suppression and illuminates the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferons/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
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