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1.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(4): 578-591, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898681

ABSTRACT

Objective: All respiratory care represents some risk of becoming an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP) during COVID-19 patient management. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and environmental control/engineering is advised. High velocity nasal insufflation (HVNI) and high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) deliver high flow oxygen (HFO) therapy, established as a competent means of supporting oxygenation for acute respiratory distress patients, including that precipitated by COVID-19. Although unlikely to present a disproportionate particle dispersal risk, AGP from HFO continues to be a concern. Previously, we published a preliminary model. Here, we present a subsequent highresolution simulation (higher complexity/reliability) to provide a more accurate and precise particle characterization on the effect of surgical masks on patients during HVNI, low-flow oxygen therapy (LFO2), and tidal breathing. Methods: This in silico modeling study of HVNI, LFO2, and tidal breathing presents ANSYS fluent computational fluid dynamics simulations that evaluate the effect of Type I surgical mask use over patient face on particle/droplet behavior. Results: This in silico modeling simulation study of HVNI (40 L min-1) with a simulated surgical mask suggests 88.8% capture of exhaled particulate mass in the mask, compared to 77.4% in LFO2 (6 L min-1) capture, with particle distribution escaping to the room (> 1 m from face) lower for HVNI+Mask versus LFO2+Mask (8.23% vs 17.2%). The overwhelming proportion of particulate escape was associated with mask-fit designed model gaps. Particle dispersion was associated with lower velocity. Conclusions: These simulations suggest employing a surgical mask over the HVNI interface may be useful in reduction of particulate mass distribution associated with AGPs.

2.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(3): 630-634, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People from South Asian and black minority ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unknown whether deprivation mediates this excess ethnic risk. METHODS: We used UK Biobank with linked COVID-19 outcomes occurring between 16th March 2020 and 24th August 2020. A four-way decomposition mediation analysis was used to model the extent to which the excess risk of testing positive, severe disease and mortality for COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals, relative to white individuals, would be eliminated if levels of high material deprivation were reduced within the population. RESULTS: We included 15 044 (53.0% women) South Asian and black and 392 786 (55.2% women) white individuals. There were 151 (1.0%) positive tests, 91 (0.6%) severe cases and 31 (0.2%) deaths due to COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals compared with 1471 (0.4%), 895 (0.2%) and 313 (0.1%), respectively, in white individuals. Compared with white individuals, the relative risk of testing positive for COVID-19, developing severe disease and COVID-19 mortality in South Asian and black individuals were 2.73 (95% CI: 2.26, 3.19), 2.96 (2.31, 3.61) and 4.04 (2.54, 5.55), respectively. A hypothetical intervention moving the 25% most deprived in the population out of deprivation was modelled to eliminate between 40 and 50% of the excess risk of all COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black populations, whereas moving the 50% most deprived out of deprivation would eliminate over 80% of the excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black communities could be substantially reduced with population level policies targeting material deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013333, 2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Demodex blepharitis is a chronic condition commonly associated with recalcitrant dry eye symptoms though many people with Demodex mites are asymptomatic. The primary cause of this condition in humans is two types of Demodex mites: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. There are varying reports of the prevalence of Demodex blepharitis among adults, and it affects both men and women equally. While Demodex mites are commonly treated with tea tree oil, the effectiveness of tea tree oil for treating Demodex blepharitis is not well documented. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of tea tree oil on ocular Demodex infestation in people with Demodex blepharitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2019, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the databases on 18 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment with tea tree oil (or its components) versus another treatment or no treatment for people with Demodex blepharitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts and then full text of records to determine their eligibility. The review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using Covidence. A third review author resolved any conflicts at all stages. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (1124 eyes of 562 participants; 17 to 281 participants per study) from the US, Korea, China, Australia, Ireland, and Turkey. The RCTs compared some formulation of tea tree oil to another treatment or no treatment. Included participants were both men and women, ranging from 39 to 55 years of age. All RCTs were assessed at unclear or high risk of bias in one or more domains. We also identified two RCTs that are ongoing or awaiting publications. Data from three RCTs that reported a short-term mean change in the number of Demodex mites per eight eyelashes contributed to a meta-analysis. We are uncertain about the mean reduction for the groups that received the tea tree oil intervention (mean difference [MD] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24 to 1.16) at four to six weeks as compared to other interventions. Only one RCT reported data for long-term changes, which found that the group that received intense pulse light as the treatment had complete eradication of Demodex mites at three months. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. Three RCTs reported no evidence of a difference for participant reported symptoms measured on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) between the tea tree oil group and the group receiving other forms of intervention. Mean differences in these studies ranged from -10.54 (95% CI - 24.19, 3.11) to 3.40 (95% CI -0.70 7.50). We did not conduct a meta-analysis for this outcome given substantial statistical heterogeneity and graded the certainty of the evidence as low. One RCT provided information concerning visual acuity but did not provide sufficient data for between-group comparisons. The authors noted that mean habitual LogMAR visual acuity for all study participants improved post-treatment (mean LogMAR 1.16, standard deviation 0.26 at 4 weeks). We graded the certainty of evidence for this outcome as low. No RCTs provided data on mean change in number of cylindrical dandruff or the proportion of participants experiencing conjunctival injection or experiencing meibomian gland dysfunction. Three RCTs provided information on adverse events. One reported no adverse events. The other two described a total of six participants randomized to treatment with tea tree oil who experienced ocular irritation or discomfort that resolved with re-educating the patient on application techniques and continuing use of the tea tree oil. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current review suggests that there is uncertainty related to the effectiveness of 5% to 50% tea tree oil for the short-term treatment of Demodex blepharitis; however, if used, lower concentrations may be preferable in the eye care arena to avoid induced ocular irritation. Future studies should be better controlled, assess outcomes at long term (e.g. 10 to 12 weeks or beyond), account for patient compliance, and study the effects of different tea tree oil concentrations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Blepharitis/drug therapy , Mite Infestations/drug therapy , Tea Tree Oil/therapeutic use , Adult , Blepharitis/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mite Infestations/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Res Rep Urol ; 12: 471-486, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456175

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify components representing optimal delivery of follow-up care after radical cystectomy because of bladder cancer and report the current level of evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of the following databases: Cochrane, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database and ClinicalTrials.gov. The search results were managed in Covidence Reference Manager and abstracts were screened by title. Articles relevant to the subject of interest were included and the results are reported narratively. RESULTS: Several studies have evaluated the positive impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) on length of stay, albeit not on the further impact on 90-day postoperative complication rate, functional recovery, or mortality. Minimally invasive surgery may result in a slighter shorter length of stay compared to open surgery. Physical training combined with nutritional intervention can improve functional recovery up to one year after surgery. Nutritional supplements can preserve muscle and bone mass, and potentially improve recovery. Patient education in stoma care and prevention of infection can significantly improve self-efficacy and avoid symptoms of infection postoperatively. Moreover, specific devices like applications (apps) can support these efforts. Continued smoking increases the risk of developing postoperative complications while no evidence was found on the impact of continued alcohol drinking. Currently, there is no evidence on psychological well-being, sexual health, or shared decision making interventions with an impact on rehabilitation after radical cystectomy. CONCLUSION: Data are scarce but indicate that peri- and postoperative multi-professional interventions can reduce prevalence of sarcopenia, and improve functional recovery, physical capacity, nutritional status, and self-efficacy in stoma care (level 1 evidence). Continued smoking increases the risk of complications, but the effects of a smoking and alcohol intervention remain unclear (level 3 evidence). The results of this review provide guidance for future directions in research and further attempts to develop and test an evidence-based program for follow-up care after radical cystectomy.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 588480, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389229

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is a complex multifactorial disease that can lead to destruction of tooth supporting tissues and subsequent tooth loss. The most recent global burden of disease studies highlight that severe periodontitis is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory conditions affecting humans. Periodontitis risk is attributed to genetics, host-microbiome and environmental factors. Empirical diagnostic and prognostic systems have yet to be validated in the field of periodontics. Early diagnosis and intervention prevents periodontitis progression in most patients. Increased susceptibility and suboptimal control of modifiable risk factors can result in poor response to therapy, and relapse. The chronic immune-inflammatory response to microbial biofilms at the tooth or dental implant surface is associated with systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or gastrointestinal diseases. Oral fluid-based biomarkers have demonstrated easy accessibility and potential as diagnostics for oral and systemic diseases, including the identification of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. Advances in biotechnology have led to innovations in lab-on-a-chip and biosensors to interface with oral-based biomarker assessment. This review highlights new developments in oral biomarker discovery and their validation for clinical application to advance precision oral medicine through improved diagnosis, prognosis and patient stratification. Their potential to improve clinical outcomes of periodontitis and associated chronic conditions will benefit the dental and overall public health.

6.
Clin Endosc ; 54(2): 157-160, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362722

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an accepted procedure for the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. FMT is generally considered safe and well-tolerated - even in high-risk patients. Most short-term risks are mild and known to be associated with delivery methods. Long-term side effects have not been established, and no signs of harm have been found to date. However, causality for several microbiome-associated diseases has to be established. Even though FMT is generally considered safe with strict donor screening, serious adverse events have been recently associated with the FMT product from the stool bank, where screening for multi-drug resistant organisms is not included in protocols. Here, we discuss the adverse events associated with FMT and safety issues.

7.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(7): e28321, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internet- and mobile-based interventions are most efficacious in the treatment of depression when they involve some form of guidance, but providing guidance requires resources such as trained personnel, who might not always be available (eg, during lockdowns to contain the COVID-19 pandemic). OBJECTIVE: The current analysis focuses on changes in symptoms of depression in a guided sample of patients with depression who registered for an internet-based intervention, the iFightDepression tool, as well as the extent of intervention use, compared to an unguided sample. The objective is to further understand the effects of guidance and adherence on the intervention's potential to induce symptom change. METHODS: Log data from two convenience samples in German routine care were used to assess symptom change after 6-9 weeks of intervention as well as minimal dose (finishing at least two workshops). A linear regression model with changes in Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score as a dependent variable and guidance and minimal dose as well as their interaction as independent variables was specified. RESULTS: Data from 1423 people with symptoms of depression (n=940 unguided, 66.1%) were included in the current analysis. In the linear regression model predicting symptom change, a significant interaction of guidance and minimal dose revealed a specifically greater improvement for patients who received guidance and also worked with the intervention content (ß=-1.75, t=-2.37, P=.02), while there was little difference in symptom change due to guidance in the group that did not use the intervention. In this model, the main effect of guidance was only marginally significant (ß=-.53, t=-1.78, P=.08). CONCLUSIONS: Guidance in internet-based interventions for depression is not only an important factor to facilitate adherence, but also seems to further improve results for patients adhering to the intervention compared to those who do the same but without guidance.

8.
BJOG ; 128(9): 1503-1510, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cervical screening, colposcopy and treatment volumes in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. POPULATION: People with a cervix age of 21-69 years who completed at least one cervical screening cytology test, colposcopy or treatment procedure for cervical dysplasia between January 2019 and August 2020. METHODS: Administrative databases were used to compare cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment procedure volumes before (historical comparator) and during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-August 2020). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment volumes; individuals with high-grade cytology awaiting colposcopy. RESULTS: During the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the monthly average number of cervical screening cytology tests, colposcopies and treatments decreased by 63.8% (range: -92.3 to -41.0%), 39.7% (range: -75.1 to -14.3%) and 31.1% (range: -43.5 to -23.6%), respectively, when compared with the corresponding months in 2019. Between March and August 2020, on average 292 (-51.0%) fewer high-grade cytological abnormalities were detected through screening each month. As of August 2020, 1159 (29.2%) individuals with high-grade screening cytology were awaiting follow-up colposcopy. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on key cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario. As the pandemic continues, ongoing monitoring of service utilisation to inform system response and recovery is required. Future efforts to understand the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions on cervical cancer outcomes will be needed. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario, Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Colposcopy/statistics & numerical data , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Vaginal Smears/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Databases, Factual , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 314, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of specialist palliative care intervention in patients undergoing surgery for cancer has not been studied extensively. The SCOPE randomized controlled trial will investigate the effect of specialist palliative care intervention in cancer patients undergoing surgery for selected abdominal malignancies. The study protocol of the SCOPE Trial was published in December 2019. METHODS AND DESIGN: The SCOPE Trial is a single-center, single-blind, prospective, randomized controlled trial that will investigate specialist palliative care intervention for cancer patients undergoing surgery for selected abdominal malignancies. The study plans to enroll 236 patients that will be randomized to specialist palliative care (intervention arm) and usual care (control arm) in a 1:1 ratio. RESULTS: The primary outcome of the study is the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) Trial Outcome Index (TOI) at 90 days postoperatively. Secondary outcomes of the study include the total FACT-G score at 90 days postoperatively, days alive at home without an emergency room visit within 90 days of operation, and all-cause mortality at 1 year after operation. Time frames for all outcomes will start on the day of surgery. CONCLUSION: This manuscript serves as the formal statistical analysis plan (version 1.0) for the SCOPE randomized controlled trial. The statistical analysis plan was completed on 6 April 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03436290 . Registered on 16 February 2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Palliative Care , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
10.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30 Suppl 1: 1437-1444, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273105

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 significantly affects patients' mental health, triggering a wide range of psychological disorders, including anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mandala colouring on the anxiety of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 70 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were randomly divided between the intervention and control groups. Standard care was provided for both groups. The intervention group spent 30 min/day for six consecutive days performing mandala colouring. Patient anxiety was measured prior and subsequent to the intervention in both groups using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 25. The mean anxiety score was not significantly different between the two groups before the intervention (P = 0.08). Subsequent to the intervention, the mean anxiety score in the intervention and control groups was 44.05 ± 4.67 and 67.85 ± 6.25, respectively, indicating a statistically significant (P = 0.0001) decrease in the anxiety measured among the intervention group as compared with that of the control group. The results of this study show that 30 min of mandala colouring daily is an effective strategy for reducing anxiety in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Mandala colouring can complement routine treatment and provides a non-pharmaceutical option for decreasing patient anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Humans , Patients , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Chest ; 160(6): 2112-2122, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For patients with COVID-19 who undergo emergency endotracheal intubation, data are limited regarding the practice, outcomes, and complications of this procedure. RESEARCH QUESTION: For patients with COVID-19 requiring emergency endotracheal intubation, how do the procedural techniques, the incidence of first-pass success, and the complications associated with the procedure compare with intubations of critically ill patients before the COVID-19 pandemic? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients with COVID-19 at Montefiore Medical Center who underwent first-time endotracheal intubation by critical care physicians between July 19, 2019, and May 1, 2020. The first COVID-19 patient was admitted to our institution on March 11, 2020; patients admitted before this date are designated the prepandemic cohort. Descriptive statistics were used to compare groups. A Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical variables. For continuous variables, a two-tailed Student t test was used for parametric variables or a Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for nonparametric variables. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred sixty intubations met inclusion criteria (782 prepandemic cohort, 478 pandemic cohort). Patients during the pandemic were more likely to be intubated for hypoxemic respiratory failure (72.6% vs 28.1%; P < .01). During the pandemic, operators were more likely to use video laryngoscopy (89.4% vs 53.3%; P < .01) and neuromuscular blocking agents (86.0% vs 46.2%; P < .01). First-pass success was higher during the pandemic period (94.6% vs 82.9%; P < .01). The rate of associated complications was higher during the pandemic (29.5% vs 15.2%; P < .01), a finding driven by a higher rate of hypoxemia during or immediately after the procedure (25.7% vs 8.2%; P < .01). INTERPRETATION: Video laryngoscopy and neuromuscular blockade were used increasingly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite a higher rate of first-pass success during the pandemic, the incidence of complications associated with the procedure was higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Incidence , Laryngoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Nutrition ; 89: 111340, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 requires host-expressed TMPRSS2 to facilitate the viral spike protein priming. This study aims to test the hypothesis that magnesium (Mg) treatment leads to DNA methylation changes in TMPRSS2. METHODS: This study is nested within the Personalized Prevention of Colorectal Cancer Trial, a double-blind 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial, which enrolled 250 participants from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. RESULTS: We found that 12 wk of personalized Mg treatment significantly increased 5-methylcytosine methylation at cg16371860 (TSS1500, promoter) by 7.2% compared to the placebo arm (decreased by 0.1%) in those ages < 65 y. The difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, and baseline methylation as well as correction for false discovery rate (adjusted P = 0.014). Additionally, Mg treatment significantly reduced 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels at cg26337277 (close proximity to TSS200 and the 5' untranslated region, promoter) by 2.3% compared to an increase of 7.1% in the placebo arm after adjusting for covariates in those ages < 65 y (P = 0.003). The effect remained significant at a false discovery rate of 0.10 (adjusted P = 0.088). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals ages < 65 y with calcium-to-magnesium intake ratios equal to or over 2.6, reducing the ratio to around 2.3 increased 5-methylcytosine modifications (i.e., cg16371860) and reduced 5-hydroxymethylcytosine modifications (i.e., cg26337277) in the TMPRSS2 gene. These findings, if confirmed, provide another mechanism for the role of Mg intervention in the prevention of COVID-19 and treatment of early and mild disease by modifying the phenotype of the TMPRSS2 genotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnesium , DNA Methylation , Humans , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases
13.
Eur Respir J ; 59(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combining the antibiotic azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine induces airway immunomodulatory effects, with the latter also having in vitro antiviral properties. This may improve outcomes in patients hospitalised for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Placebo-controlled double-blind randomised multicentre trial. Patients aged ≥18 years, admitted to hospital for ≤48 h (not intensive care) with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription PCR test were recruited. The intervention was 500 mg daily azithromycin for 3 days followed by 250 mg daily azithromycin for 12 days combined with 200 mg twice-daily hydroxychloroquine for all 15 days. The control group received placebo/placebo. The primary outcome was days alive and discharged from hospital within 14 days (DAOH14). RESULTS: After randomisation of 117 patients, at the first planned interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrolment due to futility, based on pre-specified criteria. Consequently, the trial was terminated on 1 February 2021. 61 patients received the combined intervention and 56 patients received placebo. In the intervention group, patients had a median (interquartile range) 9.0 (3-11) DAOH14 versus 9.0 (7-10) DAOH14 in the placebo group (p=0.90). The primary safety outcome, death from all causes on day 30, occurred for one patient in the intervention group versus two patients receiving placebo (p=0.52), and readmittance or death within 30 days occurred for nine patients in the intervention group versus six patients receiving placebo (p=0.57). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine did not improve survival or length of hospitalisation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Adolescent , Adult , Azithromycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 633433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 15% of Chinese respondents reported somatic symptoms in the last week of January 2020. Promoting resilience is a possible target in crisis intervention that can alleviate somatization. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the relationship between resilience and somatization, as well as the underlying possible mediating and moderating mechanism, in a large sample of Chinese participants receiving a crisis intervention during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. METHODS: Participants were invited online to complete demographic information and questionnaires. The Symptom Checklist-90 somatization subscale, 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and 10-item Perceived Stress Scale were measured. RESULTS: A total of 2,557 participants were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that lower resilience was associated with more somatic symptoms (p < 0.001). The conditional process model was proved (indirect effect = -0.01, 95% confidence interval = [-0.015, -0.002]). The interaction effects between perceived stress and sex predicted somatization (b = 0.05, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Resilience is a key predictor of somatization. The mediating effects of perceived stress between resilience and somatization work in the context of sex difference. Sex-specific intervention by enhancing resilience is of implication for alleviating somatization during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic.

15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e24316, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide school closures, with millions of children confined to online learning at home. As a result, children may be susceptible to anxiety and digital eye strain, highlighting a need for population interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate whether a digital behavior change intervention aimed at promoting physical activity could reduce children's anxiety and digital eye strain while undergoing prolonged homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, homeschooled grade 7 students at 12 middle schools in southern China were recruited through local schools and randomly assigned by the school to receive (1:1 allocation): (1) health education information promoting exercise and ocular relaxation, and access to a digital behavior change intervention, with live streaming and peer sharing of promoted activities (intervention), or (2) health education information only (control). The primary outcome was change in self-reported anxiety score. Secondary outcomes included change in self-reported eye strain and sleep quality. RESULTS: On March 16, 2020, 1009 children were evaluated, and 954 (94.5%) eligible children of consenting families were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Children in the intervention (n=485, 6 schools) and control (n=469, 6 schools) groups were aged 13.5 (SD 0.5) years, and 52.3% (n=499) were male. The assigned interventions were completed by 896 children (intervention: n=467, 96.3%; control: n=429, 91.5%). The 2-week change in square-root-transformed self-reported anxiety scores was greater in the intervention (-0.23, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.20) vs control group (0.12, 95% CI 0.09-0.16; unadjusted difference -0.36, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.08; P=.02). There was a significant reduction in square-root-transformed eye strain in the intervention group (-0.08, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.06) compared to controls (0.07, 95% CI 0.05-0.09; difference -0.15, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.03; P=.02). Change in sleep quality was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This digital behavior change intervention reduced children's anxiety and eye strain during COVID-19-associated online schooling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04309097; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04309097.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/therapy , Asthenopia/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Exercise , Peer Group , Students , Adolescent , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Self Report , Students/psychology
16.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00365, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249736

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The initial surge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted national recommendations to delay nonurgent endoscopic procedures. The objective of this study was to provide real-world data on the impact of COVID-19 on endoscopic procedures in a safety-net healthcare system and cancer center affiliated with a tertiary academic center. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used a combination of electronic health record data and a prospective data tool created to track endoscopy procedures throughout COVID-19 to describe patient and procedural characteristics of endoscopic procedures delayed during the initial COVID-19 surge. RESULTS: Of the 480 patients identified, the median age was 57 years (interquartile range 46-66), 55% (n = 262) were male, and 59% self-identified as white. Colonoscopy was the most common type of delayed procedure (49%), followed by combined esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy (22%), and EGD alone (20%). Colorectal cancer screening was the most common indication for delayed colonoscopy (35%), and evaluation of suspected bleeding (30%) was the most common indication for delayed combined EGD and colonoscopy. To date, 46% (223/480) of delayed cases have been completed with 12 colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers diagnosed. Sociodemographic factors, procedure type, and sedation type were not significantly associated with endoscopy completion. The median time to endoscopy after delayed procedure was 88 days (interquartile range 63-119) with no differences by procedure type. DISCUSSION: To minimize potential losses to follow-up, delayed, or missed diagnoses and to reduce progression of gastrointestinal diseases, all efforts should be used to ensure follow-up in those whose endoscopic procedures were delayed because of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Washington/epidemiology
17.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(8): jrm00221, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, defined as altered organ function in critically ill patients, is a possible consequence of COVID-19. Investigating the current evidence is therefore crucial in this pandemic, as early rehabilitation could be effective for the functioning of patients with multiple organ failure. This rapid review assesses the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions in adults with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. METHODS: A rapid review was conducted including only randomised control trials, published until 30 November 2020. All databases were investigated and the results synthesized narratively, evaluating the risk of bias and quality of evidence in all included studies. RESULTS: A total of 404 records were identified through database searches. After removal of duplicates 346 articles remained. After screening, 3 studies (90 participants) met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported positive effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle mass preservation compared with no treatment or standard physio-therapy. CONCLUSION: The lack of evidence on the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions does not allow any firm conclusion to be drawn. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation might be a possible rehabilitation intervention to prevent muscle volume loss and improve function in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. However, further studies are needed to support these preliminary findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Multiple Organ Failure/rehabilitation , Adult , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234693

ABSTRACT

As a global pandemic, COVID-19 shows no sign of letting up. With the control of the epidemic in China, the proportion of patients with severe and critical diseases being cured and discharged from hospital has increased, and the recovery of COVID-19 patients has become an important issue that urgently needs attention and solutions. By summarizing the exercise rehabilitation strategies and progress of SARS in 2003, this paper analyzed the differences in clinical indicators and recovery characteristics of severe pneumonia caused by the two viruses, and provided comprehensive exercise guidance and intervention strategies for COVID-19 patients for rehabilitation and nursing by referring to the problems and treatment strategies in the rehabilitation and nursing work of SARS. In the post-epidemic period, China will build a multi-dimensional epidemic prevention system by improving the effectiveness of mass training and strengthening local risk prevention and control. This paper discusses the exercise rehabilitation strategy of SARS patients after recovery, which has guiding significance for exercise intervention and scientific fitness of COVID-19 patients after recovery during epidemic prevention period.

19.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011125, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, children's hospitals across the country postponed elective surgery beginning in March 2020. As projective curves flattened, administrators and surgeons sought to develop strategies to safely resume non-emergent surgery. This article reviews challenges and solutions specific to a children's hospital related to the resumption of elective pediatric surgeries. We present our tiered reentry approach for pediatric surgery as well as report early data for surgical volume and tracking COVID-19 cases during reentry. METHODS: The experience of shutdown, protocol development, and early reentry of elective pediatric surgery are reported from Levine's Children's Hospital (LCH), a free-leaning children's hospital in Charlotte, North Carolina. Data reported were obtained from de-identified hospital databases. RESULTS: Pediatric surgery experienced a dramatic decrease in case volumes at LCH during the shutdown, variable by specialty. A tiered and balanced reentry strategy was implemented with steady resumption of elective surgery following strict pre-procedural screening and testing. Early outcomes showed a steady thorough fluctuating increase in elective case volumes without evidence of a surgery-associated positive spread through periprocedural tracking. CONCLUSION: Reentry of non-emergent pediatric surgical care requires unique considerations including the impact of COVID-19 on children, each children hospital structure and resources, and preventing undue delay in intervention for age- and disease-specific pediatric conditions. A carefully balanced strategy has been critical for safe reentry following the anticipated surge. Ongoing tracking of resource utilization, operative volumes, and testing results will remain vital as community spread continues to fluctuate across the country.

20.
J Psychosom Res ; 147: 110516, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence from previous virus epidemics has shown that infected patients are at risk for developing psychiatric and mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Hence, to collect high-quality data on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 should be the immediate priority. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from January 1, 2020 to December 26, 2020 for eligible studies reporting on the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Studies meeting the following criteria were included in the analysis: (1) included patients with COVD-19; (2) recorded the prevalence of depression, anxiety, or insomnia symptom; (3) sample size ≥30; (4) with validated screening tools; and (5) passed through the international peer-review process. Data extraction and quality assessment was independently performed by two reviewers. The quality effects meta-analysis was conducted further to calculate the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included for analysis with a total of 4318 patients. The pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms was 38% (95% CI = 25-51), 38% (95% CI = 24-52), and 48% (95% CI = 11-85), respectively. Neither subgroup analysis nor sensitivity analysis can explain the source of high heterogeneity. In addition, the prevalence estimates of depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms varied based on different screening tools. CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms are prevalent in a considerable proportion of patients with COVID-19. Thus, early detection and properly intervention for mental illness in this population are of great significance. Additionally, the quality of included studies to date has been variable, and ongoing surveillance is essential.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Prevalence
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