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1.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 35(2): 172-177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891231

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) became a global pandemic that would cause most in-person visits for clinical studies to be put on pause. Coupled with protective stay at home guidelines, clinical research at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ISMMS ADRC) needed to quickly adapt to remain operational and maintain our cohort of research participants. Data collected by the ISMMS ADRC as well as from other National Institute on Aging (NIA) Alzheimer Disease centers, follows the guidance of the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center (NACC). However, at the start of this pandemic, NACC had no alternative data collection mechanisms that could accommodate these safety guidelines. To stay in touch with our cohort and to ensure continued data collection under different stages of quarantine, the ISMMS ADRC redeployed their work force to continue their observational study via telehealth assessment. On the basis of this experience and that of other centers, NACC was able to create a data collection process to accommodate remote assessment in mid-August. Here we review our experience in filling the gap during this period of isolation and describe the adaptations for clinical research, which informed the national dialog for conducting dementia research in the age of COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Data Collection , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Alzheimer Disease/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Dementia/complications , Humans
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 685-694, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates of the serial interval distribution contribute to our understanding of the transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we aimed to summarize the existing evidence on serial interval distributions and delays in case isolation for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the published literature and preprints in PubMed on 2 epidemiological parameters, namely, serial intervals and delay intervals relating to isolation of cases for COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 22 October 2020 following predefined eligibility criteria. We assessed the variation in these parameter estimates using correlation and regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 103 unique studies on serial intervals of COVID-19, 56 were included, providing 129 estimates. Of 451 unique studies on isolation delays, 18 were included, providing 74 estimates. Serial interval estimates from 56 included studies varied from 1.0 to 9.9 days, while case isolation delays from 18 included studies varied from 1.0 to 12.5 days, which were associated with spatial, methodological, and temporal factors. In mainland China, the pooled mean serial interval was 6.2 days (range, 5.1-7.8) before the epidemic peak and reduced to 4.9 days (range, 1.9-6.5) after the epidemic peak. Similarly, the pooled mean isolation delay related intervals were 6.0 days (range, 2.9-12.5) and 2.4 days (range, 2.0-2.7) before and after the epidemic peak, respectively. There was a positive association between serial interval and case isolation delay. CONCLUSIONS: Temporal factors, such as different control measures and case isolation in particular, led to shorter serial interval estimates over time. Correcting transmissibility estimates for these time-varying distributions could aid mitigation efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(1): 109-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586124

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 4813-4822, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575872

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and isolation measures urgently adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic might potentially have negative psychological and social effects. We conducted this cross-sectional, nationwide study to ascertain the psychological effect of quarantine and identify factors associated with mental health outcomes among population quarantined to further inform interventions of mitigating mental health risk especially for vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions. Sociodemographic data, attitudes toward the COVID-19, and mental health measurements of 56,679 participants from 34 provinces in China were collected by an online survey from February 28 to March 11, 2020. Of the 56,679 participants included in the study (mean [SD] age, 36.0 [8.2] years), 27,149 (47.9%) were male and 16,454 (29.0%) ever experienced home confinement or centralized quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak. Compared those without quarantine and adjusted for potential confounders, quarantine measures were associated with increased risk of total psychological outcomes (prevalence, 34.1% vs 27.3%; odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.28-1.39; P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that vulnerable groups of the quarantined population included those with pre-existing mental disorders or chronic physical diseases, frontline workers, those in the most severely affected areas during outbreak, infected or suspected patients, and those who are less financially well-off. Complying with quarantine, being able to take part in usual work, and having adequate understanding of information related to the outbreak were associated with less mental health issues. These results suggest that quarantine measures during COVID-19 pandemic are associated with increased risk of experiencing mental health burden, especially for vulnerable groups. Further study is needed to establish interventions to reduce mental health consequences of quarantine and empower wellbeing especially in vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Healthc Inform Res ; 5(1): 54-69, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471846

ABSTRACT

Testing is crucial for early detection, isolation, and treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-infected individuals. However, in resource-constrained countries such as the Philippines, test kits have limited availability. As of 11 April 2020, there are 11 testing centers in the country that have been accredited by the Department of Health (DOH) to conduct testing. In this paper, we use nonlinear programming (NLP) to determine the optimal percentage allocation of COVID-19 test kits among accredited testing centers in the Philippines that gives an equitable chance to all infected individuals to be tested. Heterogeneity in testing accessibility, population density of municipalities, and the capacity of testing facilities are included in the model. Our results show that the range of optimal allocation per testing center are as follows: Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (4.17-6.34%), San Lazaro Hospital (14.65-24.03%), University of the Philippines-National Institutes of Health (16.25-44.80%), Lung Center of the Philippines (15.8-26.40%), Baguio General Hospital Medical Center (0.58-0.76%), The Medical City, Pasig City (5.96-25.51%), St. Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City (1.09-6.70%), Bicol Public Health Laboratory (0.06-0.08%), Western Visayas Medical Center (0.71-4.52%), Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center (1.02-2.61%), and Southern Philippines Medical Center (≈ 0.01%). Our results can serve as a guide to the authorities in distributing the COVID-19 test kits. These can also be used for proposing additional testing centers and utilizing the available test kits properly and equitably, which helps in "flattening" the epidemic curve.

7.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(3): 285-292, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present or eventually develop central nervous system and ophthalmic signs and symptoms. Varying reports have emerged regarding isolation of viral RNA from these tissue sites, as well as largely autopsy-based histopathologic descriptions of the brain and the eye in patients with COVID-19. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A primary literature search was performed in literature databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Keywords were used alone and in combination including the following: SARS CoV-2, COVID-19, eye, brain, central nervous system, histopathology, autopsy, ocular pathology, aqueous, tears, vitreous, neuropathology, and encephalitis. RESULTS: The reported ophthalmic pathologic and neuropathologic findings in patients with SARS-CoV-2 are varied and inconclusive regarding the role of direct viral infection vs secondary pathology. The authors own experience with autopsy neuropathology in COVID-19 patients is also described. There is a particular paucity of data regarding the histopathology of the eye. However, it is likely that the ocular surface is a potential site for inoculation and the tears a source of spread of viral particles. CONCLUSIONS: Additional large postmortem studies are needed to clarify the role of SARS-CoV in the ophthalmic and neuropathologic manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/etiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e108, 2020 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354064

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and to analyse the epidemiological features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during convalescence. In this study, we enrolled 71 confirmed cases of COVID-19 who were discharged from hospital and transferred to isolation wards from 6 February to 26 March 2020. They were all employees of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University or their family members of which three cases were <18 years of age. Clinical data were collected and analysed statistically. Forty-one cases (41/71, 57.7%) comprised medical faculty, young and middle-aged patients (aged ⩽60 years) accounted for 81.7% (58/71). The average isolation time period for all adult patients was 13.8 ± 6.1 days. During convalescence, RNA detection results of 35.2% patients (25/71) turned from negative to positive. The longest RNA reversed phase time was 7 days. In all, 52.9% of adult patients (36/68) had no obvious clinical symptoms, and the remaining ones had mild and non-specific clinical symptoms (e.g. cough, sputum, sore throat, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract etc.). Chest CT signs in 89.7% of adult patients (61/68) gradually improved, and in the others, the lesions were eventually absorbed and improved after short-term repeated progression. The main chest CT manifestations of adult patients were normal, GGO or fibre streak shadow, and six patients (8.8%) had extrapulmonary manifestations, but there was no significant correlation with RNA detection results (r = -0.008, P > 0.05). The drug treatment was mainly symptomatic support therapy, and antibiotics and antiviral drugs were ineffective. It is necessary to re-evaluate the isolation time and standard to terminate isolation for discharged COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/analysis , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 347-352, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia in the setting of mandatory hospital isolation and quarantine for all confirmed cases. METHODS: A multi-centre, retrospective observational study was performed among children aged ≤12 years with laboratory-proven COVID-19 between 1 February and 31 December 2020. RESULTS: In total, 261 children (48.7% males, 51.3% females) were included in this study. The median age was 6 years [interquartile range (IQR) 3-10 years]. One hundred and fifty-one children (57.9%) were asymptomatic on presentation. Among the symptomatic cases, fever was the most common presenting symptom. Two hundred and forty-one (92.3%) cases were close contacts of infected household or extended family members. Twenty-one (8.4%) cases had abnormal radiological findings. All cases were discharged alive without requiring supplemental oxygen therapy or any specific treatment during hospitalization. The median duration of hospitalization was 7 days (IQR 6-10 days). One (2.1%) of the uninfected guardians accompanying a child in quarantine tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) upon discharge. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in children was associated with mild symptoms and a good prognosis. Familial clustering was an important epidemiologic feature in the outbreak in Negeri Sembilan. The risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from children to guardians in hospital isolation was minimal despite close proximity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 823-831, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343643

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: The epidemic at the beginning of this year, due to a new virus in the coronavirus family, is causing many deaths and is bringing the world economy to its knees. Moreover, situations of this kind are historically cyclical. The symptoms and treatment of infected patients are, for better or worse even for new viruses, always the same: more or less severe flu symptoms, isolation and full hygiene. By now man has learned how to manage epidemic situations, but deaths and negative effects continue to occur. What about technology? What effect has the actual technological progress we have achieved? In this review, we wonder about the role of robotics in the fight against COVID. It presents the analysis of scientific articles, industrial initiatives and project calls for applications from March to now highlighting how much robotics was ready to face this situation, what is expected from robots and what remains to do. RESULTS: The analysis was made by focusing on what research groups offer as a means of support for therapies and prevention actions. We then reported some remarks on what we think is the state of maturity of robotics in dealing with situations like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Robotics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104929, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318939

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been listed as a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO), and its harm degree is defined as a global "pandemic". At present, the efforts of various countries focus on the rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients, as well as to find a treatment that can combat the most serious impact of the disease. The number of reported COVID-19 virus infections is still increasing. Unfortunately, no drugs or vaccines have been approved for the treatment of human coronaviruses, but there is an urgent need for in-depth research on emerging human infectious coronaviruses. Clarification transmission routes and pathogenic mechanisms, and identification of potential drug treatment targets will promote the development of effective prevention and treatment measures. In the absence of confirmed effective treatments, due to public health emergencies, it is essential to study the possible effects of existing approved antivirals drugs or Chinese herbal medicines for SARS-CoV-2. This review summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, virus structure and targeting strategies of COVID-19. Meanwhile, this review also focus on the re-purposing of clinically approved drugs and Chinese herbal medicines that may be used to treat COVID-19 and provide new ideas for the discovery of small molecular compounds with potential therapeutic effects on novel COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1829): 20200267, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309687

ABSTRACT

We explore strategies of contact tracing, case isolation and quarantine of exposed contacts to control the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic using a branching process model with household structure. This structure reflects higher transmission risks among household members than among non-household members. We explore strategic implementation choices that make use of household structure, and investigate strategies including two-step tracing, backwards tracing, smartphone tracing and tracing upon symptom report rather than test results. The primary model outcome is the effect of contact tracing, in combination with different levels of physical distancing, on the growth rate of the epidemic. Furthermore, we investigate epidemic extinction times to indicate the time period over which interventions must be sustained. We consider effects of non-uptake of isolation/quarantine, non-adherence, and declining recall of contacts over time. Our results find that, compared to self-isolation of cases without contact tracing, a contact tracing strategy designed to take advantage of household structure allows for some relaxation of physical distancing measures but cannot completely control the epidemic absent of other measures. Even assuming no imported cases and sustainment of moderate physical distancing, testing and tracing efforts, the time to bring the epidemic to extinction could be in the order of months to years. This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Contact Tracing/methods , Family Characteristics , Humans , Quarantine/methods
13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(6): 1975-1986, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), firstly reported in China last November 2019, became a global pandemic. It has been shown that periods of isolation may induce a spike in alcohol use disorder (AUD). In addition, alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most common consequence of excessive alcohol consumption worldwide. Moreover, liver impairment has also been reported as a common manifestation of COVID-19. AIMS: The aim of our position paper was to consider some critical issues regarding the management of ALD in patients with AUD in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: A panel of experts of the Italian Society of Alcohology (SIA) met via "conference calls" during the lockdown period to draft the SIA's criteria for the management of ALD in patients with COVID-19 as follows: (a) liver injury in patients with ALD and COVID-19 infection; (b) toxicity to the liver of the drugs currently tested to treat COVID-19 and the pharmacological interaction between medications used to treat AUD and to treat COVID-19; (c) reorganization of the management of compensated and decompensated ALD and liver transplantation in the COVID-19 era. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly carried us toward a new governance scenario of AUD and ALD which necessarily requires an in-depth review of the management of these diseases with a new safe approach (management of out-patients and in-patients following new rules of safety, telemedicine, telehealth, call meetings with clinicians, nurses, patients, and caregivers) without losing the therapeutic efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/therapy , Pandemics
14.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1256-1261, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Superimposed multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) co-infection can be associated with worse outcomes in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), even if these patients were managed with strict airborne and contact precautions. Identifying risk factors for isolation of MDROs is critical to COVID-19 treatment. METHODS: All eligible adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia from 10 hospitals in the Republic of Korea between February 2020 and May 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Using this cohort, epidemiology and risk factors for isolation of MDROs were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 152 patients, 47 with microbial culture results were included. Twenty isolates of MDROs from 13 (28%) patients were cultured. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5 isolates) was the most common MDRO, followed by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (4 isolates). MDROs were mostly isolated from sputum samples (80%, 16/20). The median time from hospitalization to MDRO isolation was 28 days (interquartile range, 18-38 days). In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with MDRO isolation (62% vs 15%; P = .001). Use of systemic corticosteroids after diagnosis of COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 15.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34-97.01; P = .004) and long-term care facility (LTCF) stay before diagnosis of COVID-19 (aOR: 6.09; 95% CI: 1.02-36.49; P = .048) were associated with MDRO isolation. CONCLUSIONS: MDROs were isolated from 28% of COVID-19 pneumonia patients with culture data and 8.6% of the entire cohort. Previous LTCF stay and adjunctive corticosteroid use were risk factors for the isolation of MDROs. Strict infection prevention strategies may be needed in these COVID-19 patients with risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Fam Violence ; 37(5): 837-846, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263166

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify changes in family conflict and abuse dynamics during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders from the perspectives of youth calling a national child abuse hotline. We analyzed text and chat transcripts from Childhelp's National Child Abuse Hotline from May-June 2020 that were flagged as coming from a child with a COVID-19-related concern (N = 105). Thematic analysis was used to identify COVID-19 related influences of family conflict as well as how COVID-19 constraints influenced coping and survival for youth reporting distress or maltreatment to the hotline. Family conflict most commonly disclosed stemmed from parental or child mental health concerns, often manifesting in escalated child risk taking behaviors, parental substance use, and violence in the home. Conflict was also mentioned surrounding caregiver issues with child productivity while sheltering-in-place, commonly related to school or chores. Youth often voiced feeling unable to find relief from family conflict, exacerbated from physical distance from alternative social supports, technological isolation, and limited contact with typical safe places or supportive adults. To cope and survive, youth and crisis counselors found creative home-based coping skills and alternative reporting mechanisms. Understanding the unique impact of COVID-19 on youth in homes with family conflict and abuse can point to areas for intervention to ensure we are protecting the most vulnerable as many continue to shelter-in-place. In particular, this study revealed the importance of online hotlines and reporting mechanisms to allow more youth to seek out the help and professional support they need.

16.
Front Psychol ; 12: 663799, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259387

ABSTRACT

Most countries have been struggling with the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic imposing social isolation on their citizens. However, this measure carried risks for people's mental health. This study evaluated the psychological repercussions of objective isolation in 1,006 Italians during the first, especially strict, lockdown in spring 2020. Although varying for the regional spread-rate of the contagion, results showed that the longer the isolation and the less adequate the physical space where people were isolated, the worse the mental health (e.g., depression). Offline social contacts buffered the association between social isolation and mental health. However, when offline contacts were limited, online contacts seemed crucial in protecting mental health. The findings inform about the potential downsides of the massive social isolation imposed by COVID-19 spread, highlighting possible risk factors and resources to account for implementing such isolation measures. Specifically, besides some known factors such as physical space availability, the local contagion rate is critical in moderating the link between social isolation and mental health issues, supporting national policies implementing regional tiers of restriction severity.

17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab235, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) has been used to estimate quantitative viral load, with the goal of targeting isolation precautions for individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and guiding public health interventions. However, variability in specimen quality can alter the Ct values obtained from SARS-CoV-2 clinical assays. We sought to define how variable nasopharyngeal (NP) swab quality impacts clinical SARS-CoV-2 test sensitivity. METHODS: We performed amplification of a human gene target (ß-actin) in parallel with a clinical RT-PCR targeting the SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab gene for 1282 NP specimens collected from patients with clinical concern for COVID-19. We evaluated the relationship between NP specimen quality, characterized by late Ct values for the human gene target ß-actin Ct, and the probability of SARS-CoV-2 detection via logistic regression, as well as the linear relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and ß-actin Ct. RESULTS: Low-quality NP swabs are less likely to detect SARS-CoV-2 (odds ratio, 0.607 [95% credible interval {CrI}, .487-.753]). We observed a positive linear relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and ß-actin Ct values (slope, 0.181 [95% CrI, .097-.264]), consistent with a reduction in detection of 0.181 cycles for each additional cycle of the ß-actin target. COVID-19 disease severity was not associated with ß-actin Ct values. CONCLUSIONS: Variability in NP specimen quality significantly impacts the performance of clinical SARS-CoV-2 assays, and caution should be taken when interpreting quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Ct results. If unrecognized, low-quality NP specimens, which are characterized by a low level of amplifiable human DNA target, may limit the successful application of SARS-CoV-2 Ct values to direct infection control and public health interventions.

18.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 44, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248344

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) became the deadliest pandemic of the new millennium. One year after it became a pandemic, the current COVID-19 situation in Brazil is an example of how the impacts of a pandemic are beyond health outcomes and how health, social, and political actions are intertwined. Objectives: We aimed to provide an overview of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, from a social and political point of view, and to discuss the perspectives from now on. Methods: This is a narrative review using official, scientific (PubMed, Medline, and SciELO databases) and publicly available data. Press articles were also used that contain important information not found in these databases. Findings: We address the impacts of COVID-19 in different regions of Brazil, on indigenous populations, health care workers, and how internal social contrasts impacted the pandemics advance across the country. We also discuss key points that culminated in the countrys failed management of the COVID-19 spread, such as poor management of the public health care system, disparities between public and private health care infrastructure, lack of mass testing and viral spread tracking, lack of preparedness and planning to implement strict isolation and social distancing measures, and, most importantly, political instability, a deteriorating Health Ministry and sabotaging attitudes of the countrys president, including anti-scientific actions, underplaying COVID-19 severity, spreading and powering fake news about the pandemic, promoting knowingly inefficient medications for COVID-19 treatment, and interference in collective health policies, including the countrys vaccination plan. Conclusions: After one year of COVID-19 and a disastrous management of the disease, Brazil has more than 11 million cases, 270,000 deaths, and the highest number of daily deaths due to COVID-19 in the world, most of which could have been avoided and can be credited to negligence of municipal, state, and federal authorities, especially President Jair Messias Bolsonaro. Unfortunately, the country is an example of what not to do in a pandemic setting. Key Points: One year after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, Brazil had the second higher number of cases and deaths, and the highest number of daily deaths due to the disease. Lack of massive testing, non-stringent and ineffective collective health policies, poor management of the public health care system, and political instability were the main drivers of the countrys flawed management of the COVID-19 advancement. Anti-science and sabotaging actions by government had a pivotal role in the countrys current situation. Brazil has a large territory and is marked by social contrasts among different regions and states, which showed contrasting data regarding the impact caused by COVID-19. COVID-19 databases and data sharing are important to provide an overview of epidemiological aspects of the disease; however, Brazil lacks standardization in these datasets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Politics , Public Health , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government Regulation , Humans , Needs Assessment , Public Health/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Medicine
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 634925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247921

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has led to lockdowns across the world with people being separated from their loved ones including partners, family, and friends. Here, using a large sample of 1,749 Australians and Americans, we investigated the impact of COVID-19 isolation on younger populations (13-25 years), and the influence of coping strategies and mental well-being on this impact. Overall, COVID-19 isolation had a more negative impact on adolescence (13-17 years) than young adulthood (18-25 years), but with no difference apparent between men and women, or between Australian and American residents. However, a deeper analysis revealed a gender-specific effect: the type of coping strategies differentially influenced the negative impact of COVID-19 isolation on men with various levels of well-being, an interaction effect not apparent in women. For men with lower levels of mental well-being, COVID-19 isolation appeared to have a less negative impact on them if they used more approach-oriented coping strategies (e.g., actively focusing on the problem). Our results provide cross-sectional evidence for a differential impact on young men at low levels of wellbeing by pandemic isolation. In sum, young men and adolescent boys with lower well-being coped better with COVID-19 isolation when they used more approach coping strategies.

20.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 638502, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247888

ABSTRACT

Background: The contact tracing and isolation of contagious individuals are cornerstones in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Strategies to identify household contacts who should be isolated around index children that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 remain to be clarified. We aimed to compare contact tracing strategies around an index child positive for SARS-CoV-2 using serological rapid diagnostic testing (RDT, chromatography immunoassay). Methods: We conducted a contact tracing study in households of index cases children in the Paris region, France, between May 8 and July 27, 2020. We compared two strategies, one using SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and one combining RT-PCR and serological RDT, initiated once RDT was available. The contacts RT-PCR-/RDT+ were considered to have been previously infected and not requiring quarantine. The primary outcome was the proportion of contacts that could avoid quarantine with the two screening strategies. Results: We included 34 children as index cases. Median age was 7 years. They generated 184 contacts (111 adults, 73 children) tested by RT-PCR: 24/184 (13%) were positive. The strategy combining RDT and RT-PCR was performed in 120/184 contacts (77 adults, 43 children) of 26 index children: 16/120 (13%) were RT-PCR+ and 47/120 (39%) were RDT+. Among the 16 individuals who were RT-PCR+, 14 (87%) were also RDT+. Among the 104 individuals who were RT-PCR-, 33 were RDT+. Hence 33/120 (27%) individuals were not isolated. Conclusions: Following the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, a strategy combining serological RDT and nasopharyngeal RT-PCR enabled us to identify around one fourth of contacts with past infection and avoid unnecessary quarantine of these individuals.

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