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1.
Transplant Direct ; 6(7): e572, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on transplantation are dramatic: >75% of kidney and liver programs are either suspended or operating under major restrictions. To resume transplantation, it is important to understand the prevalence of COVID-19 among transplant recipients, donors, and healthcare workers (HCWs) and its associated mortality. METHODS: To investigate this, we studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 diagnostic test results among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplants from the Johns Hopkins Health System (n = 235), and screening test results from deceased donors from the Southwest Transplant Alliance Organ Procurement Organization (n = 27), and donors, candidates, and HCWs from the National Kidney Registry and Viracor-Eurofins (n = 253) between February 23 and April 15, 2020. RESULTS: We found low rates of COVID-19 among donors and HCWs (0%-1%) who were screened, higher rates of diagnostic tests among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplant (17%-20%), and considerable mortality (7%-13%) among those who tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the threat of COVID-19 for the transplant population is significant and ongoing data collection and reporting is critical to inform transplant practices during and after the pandemic.

2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2147-2152, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with ESKD, and vaccination is hoped to prevent infection. METHODS: Between January 18 and February 24, 2021, 225 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 45 patients on hemodialysis (HDPs) received two injections of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. The postvaccinal humoral and cellular response was explored in the first 45 KTRs and ten HDPs. RESULTS: After the second dose, eight HDPs (88.9%) and eight KTRs (17.8%) developed antispike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P<0.001). Median titers of antibodies in responders were 1052 AU/ml (IQR, 515-2689) in HDPs and 671 AU/ml (IQR, 172-1523) in KTRs (P=0.40). Nine HDPs (100%) and 26 KTRs (57.8%) showed a specific T cell response (P=0.06) after the second injection. In responders, median numbers of spike-reactive T cells were 305 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 95-947) in HDPs and 212 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 61-330) in KTRs (P=0.40). In KTRs, the immune response to BNT162b2 seemed influenced by the immunosuppressive regimen, particularly tacrolimus or belatacept. CONCLUSION: Immunization with BNT162b2 seems more efficient in HDPs, indicating that vaccination should be highly recommended in these patients awaiting a transplant. However, the current vaccinal strategy for KTRs may not provide effective protection against COVID-19 and will likely need to be improved.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients
3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1739-1748, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has overwhelmed healthcare resources even in wealthy nations, necessitating rationing of limited resources without previously established crisis standards of care protocols. In Massachusetts, triage guidelines were designed based on acute illness and chronic life-limiting conditions. In this study, we sought to retrospectively validate this protocol to cohorts of critically ill patients from our hospital. DESIGN: We applied our hospital-adopted guidelines, which defined severe and major chronic conditions as those associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of 1- and 5-year mortality, respectively, to a critically ill patient population. We investigated mortality for the same intervals. SETTING: An urban safety-net hospital ICU. PATIENTS: All adults hospitalized during April of 2015 and April 2019 identified through a clinical database search. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 365 admitted patients, 15.89% had one or more defined chronic life-limiting conditions. These patients had higher 1-year (46.55% vs 13.68%; p < 0.01) and 5-year (50.00% vs 17.22%; p < 0.01) mortality rates than those without underlying conditions. Irrespective of classification of disease severity, patients with metastatic cancer, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and neurodegenerative disease had greater than 50% 1-year mortality, whereas patients with chronic lung disease and cirrhosis had less than 50% 1-year mortality. Observed 1- and 5-year mortality for cirrhosis, heart failure, and metastatic cancer were more variable when subdivided into severe and major categories. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major and severe chronic medical conditions overall had 46.55% and 50.00% mortality at 1 and 5 years, respectively. However, mortality varied between conditions. Our findings appear to support a crisis standards protocol which focuses on acute illness severity and only considers underlying conditions carrying a greater than 50% predicted likelihood of 1-year mortality. Modifications to the chronic lung disease, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis criteria should be refined if they are to be included in future models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Crisis Intervention/standards , Resource Allocation/methods , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Crisis Intervention/methods , Crisis Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Resource Allocation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Safety-net Providers/organization & administration , Safety-net Providers/statistics & numerical data , Standard of Care/standards , Standard of Care/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
4.
Kidney Int ; 99(6): 1470-1477, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386157

ABSTRACT

Patients with end stage kidney disease receiving in-center hemodialysis (ICHD) have had high rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Following infection, patients receiving ICHD frequently develop circulating antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, even with asymptomatic infection. Here, we investigated the durability and functionality of the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients receiving ICHD. Three hundred and fifty-six such patients were longitudinally screened for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and underwent routine PCR-testing for symptomatic and asymptomatic infection. Patients were regularly screened for nucleocapsid protein (anti-NP) and receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) antibodies, and those who became seronegative at six months were screened for SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses. One hundred and twenty-nine (36.2%) patients had detectable antibody to anti-NP at time zero, of whom 127 also had detectable anti-RBD. Significantly, at six months, 71/111 (64.0%) and 99/116 (85.3%) remained anti-NP and anti-RBD seropositive, respectively. For patients who retained antibody, both anti-NP and anti-RBD levels were reduced significantly after six months. Eleven patients who were anti-NP seropositive at time zero, had no detectable antibody at six months; of whom eight were found to have SARS-CoV-2 antigen specific T cell responses. Independent of antibody status at six months, patients with baseline positive SARS-CoV-2 serology were significantly less likely to have PCR confirmed infection over the following six months. Thus, patients receiving ICHD mount durable immune responses six months post SARS-CoV-2 infection, with fewer than 3% of patients showing no evidence of humoral or cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunity , Male , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests/methods
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 224, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation. Severe disease typically presents with respiratory failure but Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and a hypercoagulable state can also occur. Early reports suggest that thrombosis may be linked with AKI. We studied the development of AKI and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 taking chronic anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: Electronic records were reviewed for all adult patients admitted to Manchester University Foundation Trust Hospitals between March 10 and April 302,020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients with end-stage kidney disease were excluded. AKI was classified as per KDIGO criteria. RESULTS: Of the 1032 patients with COVID-19 studied,164 (15.9%) were taking anticoagulant therapy prior to admission. There were similar rates of AKI between those on anticoagulants and those not anticoagulated (23.8% versus 19.7%) with no difference in the severity of AKI or requirement of renal replacement therapy between groups (1.2% versus 3.5%). Risk factors for AKI included hypertension, pre-existing renal disease and male sex. There was a higher mortality in those taking anticoagulant therapy (40.2% versus 30%). Patients taking anticoagulants were less likely to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (8.5% versus 17.4%) and to receive mechanical ventilation (42.9% versus 78.1%). CONCLUSION: Patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy did not have a reduced incidence or severity of AKI suggesting that AKI is unlikely to be thrombotic in nature. Therapeutic anticoagulation is currently still under investigation in randomised controlled studies to determine whether it has a potential role in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Preexisting Condition Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/virology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): 515-522, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The passive immunization of patients with SARS-CoV2 with convalescent plasma (CP) is theoretically beneficial in patients with end-stage renal disease who are immunosuppressed and unable to mount an adequate immune response. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CP in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis with moderate-to-severe SARS-CoV2 infection. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in consecutive 68 moderate-to-severe SARS-CoV2 infected patients who were on maintenance hemodialysis or with acute worsening of chronic kidney disease which required initiation of hemodialysis. Patients who received CP were compared with those who did not. The primary outcome was death during hospitalization. Clinical characteristics, duration of hospitalization and inflammatory parameters were compared between the two groups. A subgroup analysis was done to find whether early initiation of plasma was associated with better outcome. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (44%) in the plasma group and 14 (45%) patients in the control group died during hospitalization (p = 0.95). The median duration of hospitalization was 9 (6-14) days in the plasma group and 9 (6-16) in the control group (p = 0.60). There was no difference in mortality or duration of hospitalization with respect to early initiation of CP (p = 0.29). Fistula thrombosis occurred in two patients (11.1%) in the plasma group. CONCLUSION: Therapy with CP does not appear to confer any clinical benefit in moderate-to-severe SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009156, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, showed various prevalence and case-fatality rates (CFR) among patients with different pre-existing chronic conditions. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with renal replacement therapy (RRT) might have a higher prevalence and CFR due to reduced immune function from uremia and kidney tropism of SARS-CoV-2, but there was a lack of systematic study on the infection and mortality of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in ESRD patients with various RRT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched five electronic databases and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis up to June 30, 2020, to evaluate the prevalence and case fatality rate (CFR) of the COVID-19 infection among ESRD patients with RRT. The global COVID-19 data were retrieved from the international database on June 30, 2020, for estimating the prevalence and CFR of the general population as referencing points. Of 3,272 potential studies, 34 were eligible studies consisted of 1,944 COVID-19 confirmed cases in 21,873 ESRD patients with RRT from 12 countries in four WHO regions. The overall pooled prevalence in ESRD patients with RRT was 3.10% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-5.72] which was higher than referencing 0.14% global average prevalence. The overall estimated CFR of COVID-19 in ESRD patients with RRT was 18.06% (95% CI 14.09-22.32) which was higher than the global average at 4.98%. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested high COVID-19 prevalence and CFR in ESRD patients with RRT. ESRD patients with RRT should have their specific protocol of COVID-19 prevention and treatment to mitigate excess cases and deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are at a high risk for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we compared characteristics and outcomes of ESKD and non-ESKD patients admitted with COVID-19 to a large safety-net hospital. METHODS: We evaluated 759 adults (45 with ESKD) hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spring of 2020. We examined clinical characteristics, laboratory measures and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between ESKD status and outcomes. RESULTS: 73% of ESKD and 47% of non-ESKD patients identified as Black (p = 0.002). ESKD patients were older and had higher rates of comorbidities. Admission ferritin was approximately 6-fold higher in ESKD patients. During hospitalization, the rise in white blood cell count, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin and C-reactive protein, and the decrease in platelet count and serum albumin were all significantly greater in ESKD patients. The in-hospital mortality was higher for ESKD [18% vs. 10%; multivariable adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95% CI, 0.48-4.70)], but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ESKD patients had more co-morbidities and more robust inflammatory response than non-ESKD patients. The odds ratio point estimate for death was higher in ESKD patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Adult , Aged , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298211021253, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While COVID-19 in chronic hemodialysis patients has high mortality and the pandemic will not end in the near future, effective follow up strategies should be implemented for these patients. Surgeries have been triaged according to their level of urgencies and arteriovenous fistula (AVF) operations were among elective surgeries. This study aimed to analyze the effect of vascular access on the outcomes of hemodialysis patients who had COVID-19. METHODS: One hundred four hemodialysis patients who had COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Seventy-two of them had AVF as the vascular access while 32 of them had tunneled catheters. Inflammatory markers and outcomes of patients with AVFs and catheters were compared. A logistic regression analysis was performed in order to define factors that contribute to better outcomes in hemodialysis patients. RESULTS: COVID-19 had high mortality rate in hemodialysis patients (36.5%). Patients with catheters have higher peak ferritin levels (p = 0.02) and longer hospital stay (p = 0.00). Having AVF as the vascular access (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05-10.72; p = 0.041) and using medium cut-off dialyzers (OR = 7.99; 95% CI: 1.53-41.65; p = 0.014) were related to higher survival of the patients. COVID severity was inversely proportional to the survival (p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: AVFs contribute to higher survival of hemodialysis patients with COVID-19. Even in the pandemic era, end stage renal disease patients should be given the opportunity to have their vascular access properly created.

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(22): 825-829, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257247

ABSTRACT

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the ESRD Networks†,§ through analysis of data, dissemination of best practices, and creation of educational materials. ESRD NCC analyzed deaths reported to the Consolidated Renal Operations in a Web-Enabled Network (CROWNWeb), a system that facilitates the collection of data and maintenance of information about ESRD patients on chronic dialysis or receiving a kidney transplant who are treated in Medicare-certified dialysis facilities and kidney transplant centers in the United States. Excess death estimates were obtained by comparing observed and predicted monthly numbers of deaths during February 1-August 31, 2020; predicted deaths were modeled based on data from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2019. The analysis estimated 8.7-12.9 excess deaths per 1,000 ESRD patients, or a total of 6,953-10,316 excess deaths in a population of 798,611 ESRD patients during February 1-August 31, 2020. These findings suggest that deaths among ESRD patients during the early phase of the pandemic exceeded those that would have been expected based on previous years' data. Geographic and temporal patterns of excess mortality, including those among persons with ESRD, should be considered during planning and implementation of interventions, such as COVID-19 vaccination, infection control guidance, and patient education. These findings underscore the importance of data-driven technical assistance and further analyses of the causes and patterns of excess deaths in ESRD patients.


Subject(s)
Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Mortality/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology
11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic dermatological condition characterized by lesions on extensor surfaces, hands, feet, and genital areas. Chronic renal failure is often associated with metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis. CASE REPORT: In this paper, we report a patient with stage-three chronic renal failure that improved his renal condition after treatment with ixekizumab, an anti-IL17A drug used in the treatment of various cutaneous and rheumatological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: IL17A blockage may help to treat various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis, that may lead to renal impairment. Further investigation is necessary in order to prove the effectiveness of this drug in renal conditions.

12.
Ther Apher Dial ; 26(1): 171-177, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255062

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical features of the patients on HD with COVID-19 and determine the prognostic factors. In this single-center prospective study, a total of 58 chronic renal failure patients on HD and diagnosed COVID-19 infection were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to their need for intensive care unit referral. Demographic features of the patients, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, treatments, and clinical outcome were evaluated. The mean age of 58 HD patients was 63.2 ± 13.8 (30-93) years and female-male ratio was 0.34. SARS-CoV2-PCR positivity rate was 32.8%. 85.2% of patients (n = 46) had bilateral lesions and 14.8% (n = 8) had unilateral one lesion in chest CT. The most common symptoms were fatigue (in 44 patients, 80%) and dyspnea (in 31 patients, 56.4%). The most common comorbidity was HT (in 37 patients, 67.3%). The patients who need intensive care and died were older (p = 0.015). We observed lower platelet and eosinophil counts, potassium levels, higher AST, troponin and CRP levels in the group of patients who need intensive care and died than the group who survived (p = 0.043, 0.005, 0.033, 0.007, 0.001, <0.001, respectively). 15.5% of the patients (n = 9) were transferred to intensive care unit. Among them, two were discharged with cure and seven patients died. Mortality rate was 12.1%. Older age, lower platelet and eosinophil counts and higher AST, troponin and CRP levels were prognostic risk factors in our HD patients who needed intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Nephrol ; 34(4): 985-989, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248762

ABSTRACT

The health crisis induced by the pandemic of coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has had a major impact on dialysis patients in France. The incidence of infection with acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic was 3.3% among dialysis patients-13 times higher than in the general population. The corresponding mortality rate was high, reaching 21%. As of 19th April, 2021, the cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in French dialysis patients was 14%. Convergent scientific data from France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Canada show that home dialysis reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by a factor of at least two. Unfortunately, home dialysis in France is not sufficiently developed: the proportion of dialysis patients being treated at home is only 7%. The obstacles to the provision of home care for patients with end-stage kidney disease in France include (i) an unfavourable pricing policy for home haemodialysis and nurse visits for assisted peritoneal dialysis (PD), (ii) insufficient training in home dialysis for nephrologists, (iii) the small number of administrative authorizations for home dialysis programs, and (iv) a lack of structured, objective information on renal replacement therapies for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We propose a number of pragmatic initiatives that could be simultaneously enacted to improve the situation in three areas: (i) the provision of objective information on renal replacement therapies for patients with advanced CKD, (ii) wider authorization of home dialysis networks and (iii) price increases in favour of home dialysis procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Hemodialysis, Home , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 22(5): 709-718, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of immune-related conditions on the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood. Determinants of COVID-19 outcomes among patients with psoriasis are yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: Th objective of this study was to characterize a large cohort of patients with psoriasis with COVID-19 and to identify predictors of COVID-19-associated hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: A population-based nested case-control study was performed using the computerized database of Clalit Health Services, Israel. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence (CIs) of predictors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: The study population included 3151 patients with psoriasis who tested positive for COVID-19. Subclinical COVID-19 infection occurred in 2818 (89.4%) of the patients while 122 (3.9%), 71 (2.3%), 123 (3.9%), and 16 (0.5%) of the patients experienced a mild, moderate, severe, and critical disease, respectively. Overall, 332 (10.5%) patients were hospitalized and 50 (1.6%) patients died because of COVID-19 complications. Intake of methotrexate independently predicted COVID-19-associated hospitalization (adjusted OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.78; p = 0.025). Use of biologic agents was not associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalization (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.32-1.73; p = 0.491) or mortality (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.12-6.21; p = 0.870). Older age, the presence of comorbid cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal failure independently predicted both COVID-19-associated hospitalization and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral methotrexate was associated with an increased odds of COVID-associated hospitalization, whereas the use of biologic drugs was not associated with worse outcomes of COVID-19 among patients with psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
J Nephrol ; 34(4): 999-1006, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245798

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In this observational study, we describe the change in the clinical profile and outcome of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) over the course of the outbreak, among patients requiring dialysis, including chronic haemodialysis therapy. METHODS: This is a single-centre prospective observational study of patients with COVID-19 (as confirmed by RT-PCR) and renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Their clinical profiles and outcomes were analysed, vis-à-vis the changing disease severity. FINDINGS: A total of 483 patients were included, of whom 416 had end-stage renal disease and were on maintenance haemodialysis. Patients who were symptomatic at presentation had significantly higher levels of Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p < 0.001), higher degrees of lung involvement (p < 0.001) and required more respiratory support (p < 0.001). The overall mortality observed was 18.8%. In the late phases of the outbreak, there was a significant increase in disease severity without a statistically significant increase in mortality. Predictors of mortality on univariate analysis were age, diabetes mellitus, acute on chronic kidney disease, presence of symptoms on admission, NLR, CRP, LDH, computed tomography (CT) chest grades 3 and 4, and need for respiratory support; however, only age and the renal syndrome of acute on chronic kidney disease retained significance on multivariate analysis (p0.003 and p0.019, respectively). CONCLUSION: Among patients on haemodialysis, higher mortality was observed in patients who were older, and among those with acute on chronic kidney disease. In the late phase of the outbreak, there was a statistically significant increase in disease severity without a corresponding increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 198, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis are vulnerable to contracting COVID-19 infection, with mortality as high as 31 % in this group. Population demographics in the UAE are dissimilar to many other countries and data on antibody responses to COVID-19 is also limited. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients who developed COVID-19, the impact of the screening strategy, and to assess the antibody response to a subset of dialysis patients. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of COVID19 infection in all our haemodialysis patients, who were tested regularly for COVID 19, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. In addition, IgG antibody serology was also performed to assess response to COVID-19 in a subset of patients. RESULTS: 152 (13 %) of 1180 dialysis patients developed COVID-19 during the study period from 1st of March to the 1st of July 2020. Of these 81 % were male, average age of 52​ years and 95 % were on in-centre haemodialysis. Family and community contact was most likely source of infection in most patients. Fever (49 %) and cough (48 %) were the most common presenting symptoms, when present. Comorbidities in infected individuals included hypertension (93 %), diabetes (49 %), ischaemic heart disease (30 %). The majority (68 %) developed mild disease, whilst 13 % required critical care. Combinations of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, camostat, tocilizumab and steroids were used based on local guidelines. The median time to viral clearance defined by two negative PCR tests was 15 days [IQR 6-25]. Overall mortality in our cohort was 9.2 %, but ICU mortality was 65 %. COVID-19 IgG antibody serology was performed in a subset (n = 87) but 26 % of PCR positive patients (n = 23) did not develop a significant antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a lower mortality in this patient group compared with many published series. Asymptomatic PCR positivity was present in 40 %. Rapid isolation of positive patients may have contributed to the relative lack of spread of COVID-19 within our dialysis units. The lack of antibody response in a few patients is concerning.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis
18.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 297, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-dose vitamin C is increasingly used for sepsis and more recently for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. Proponents argue that the low cost and near perfect safety profile of vitamin C support its early adoption. Yet, adverse events might be underreported and underappreciated. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 73-year-old non-diabetic white man with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis admitted to the intensive care unit with septic shock that was suspected to be due to peritonitis. The patient was enrolled in LOVIT (Lessening Organ Dysfunction with VITamin C; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03680274), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of high-dose intravenous vitamin C. He developed factitious hyperglycemia, as measured with a point-of-care glucometer, that persisted for 6 days after discontinuation of the study drug, confirmed to be vitamin C after unblinding. He also had short-lived iatrogenic coma because of hypoglycemia secondary to insulin administration. These events triggered a protocol amendment. CONCLUSIONS: Although factitious hyperglycemia has been reported before using certain glucometers in patients treated with high-dose vitamin C, the persistence of this phenomenon for 6 days after the discontinuation of the therapy is a distinguishing feature. This case highlights the importance of monitoring glucose with a core laboratory assay for up to a week in specific populations, such as patients on peritoneal dialysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Peritoneal Dialysis , Aged , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Male , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins
19.
Rev Infirm ; 70(271): 41-42, 2021 May.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228156

ABSTRACT

The renal disease center of the university hospital of Caen Normandy (14) is dedicated to the ambulatory care of patients with chronic renal disease, including those treated by dialysis or transplanted. These are fragile patients and, for many of them, coming to the center is inevitable for their care. Faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, the care teams have shown a great capacity to adapt, even to be creative, in order to welcome and care for them in optimal safety conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(7): 1799-1809, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213216

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) represent a vulnerable group with multiple risk factors that are associated with poor outcomes after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Despite established susceptibility to infectious complications and the importance of humoral immunity in protection against SARS-CoV-2, few studies have investigated the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 within this population. Here, we evaluate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in patients awaiting renal transplantation and determine whether seroconverted patients with ESKD have durable and functional neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 164 patients with ESKD by August 2020. Humoral immune responses were evaluated by SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit and nucleoprotein semiquantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotype neutralization assay. RESULTS: All patients with ESKD with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed infection (n = 17) except for 1 individual seroconverted against SARS-CoV-2. Overall seroprevalence (anti-S1 and/or anti-N IgG) was 36% and was higher in patients on hemodialysis (44.2%). A total of 35.6% of individuals who seroconverted were asymptomatic. Seroconversion in the absence of a neutralizing antibody (nAb) titer was observed in 12 patients, all of whom were asymptomatic. Repeat measurements at a median of 93 days from baseline sampling revealed that most individuals retained detectable responses although a significant drop in S1, N and nAb titers was observed. CONCLUSION: Patients with ESKD, including those who develop asymptomatic disease, routinely seroconvert and produce detectable nAb titers against SARS-CoV-2. Although IgG levels wane over time, the neutralizing antibodies remain detectable in most patients, suggesting some level of protection is likely maintained, particularly in those who originally develop stronger responses.

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