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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 176, 2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is still a global public health problem contributing for under-five morbidity and mortality. The case is similar in Ethiopia in which severe acute malnutrition is the major contributor to mortality being an underlying cause for nearly 45% of under-five deaths. However, there is no recent evidence that shows the time to death and public health importance of oxygen saturation and chest in drawing in the study area. Therefore, estimated time to death and its predictors can provide an input for program planners and decision-makers. METHODS: A facility -based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 488 severe acute malnourished under-five children admitted from the 1st of January 2016 to the 30th of December 2019. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were entered in to Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version15 statistical software for further analysis. The Kaplan Meier was used to estimate cumulative survival probability and a log-rank test was used to compare the survival time between different categories of explanatory variables. The Cox-proportional hazard regression model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. P-value< 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Out of the total 488 randomly selected charts of children with severe acute malnutrition, 476 records were included in the final analysis. A total of 54(11.34%) children died with an incidence rate of 9.1death /1000 person- days. Failed appetite test (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.26, 4.67), altered consciousness level at admission (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.08, 4.67), oxygen saturation below 90% (AHR: 3.3; 95%CI: 1.40, 7.87), edema (AHR 2.9; 95%CI: 1.45, 5.66) and HIV infection (AHR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.24, 6.36) were predictors of mortality for children diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The overall survival status of severe acute malnourished children was low as compared to national sphere standards and previous reports in the literature. The major predictors of mortality were oxygen saturation below 90%, altered consciousness, HIV infection, edema and failed appetite test. Therefore, early screening of complications, close follow up and regular monitoring of sever acute malnourished children might improve child survival rate.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Child , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies
2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(13): 1602-1609, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups. RESULTS: Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1665-1674, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526879

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease with a high rate of progression to critical illness. However, the predictors of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are not yet well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with ICU mortality in our hospital. Materials and methods: In this single-centered retrospective study, we enrolled 86 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital (Izmir, Turkey) between 18 March 2020 and 31 October 2020. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, treatments, the laboratory findings at ICU admission, and clinical outcomes were collected. The chest computerized tomography (CT) of the patients were evaluated specifically for COVID-19 and CT score was calculated. Data of the survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with survival analysis to identify risk factors of mortality in the ICU. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.1 ± 14.1 years. The patients were predominantly male. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension. ICU mortality was 62.8%. Being over 60 years old, CT score > 15, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15, having dementia, treatment without favipiravir, base excess in blood gas analysis ≤ ­2.0, WBC > 10,000/mm3, D-dimer > 1.6 µg/mL, troponin > 24 ng/L, Na ≥ 145 mmol/L were considered to link with ICU mortality according to Kaplan­Meier curves (log-rank test, p < 0.05). The APACHE II score (HR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.021­1.090) and chest CT score (HR: 2.411, 95% CI:1.193­4.875) were associated with ICU mortality in the cox proportional-hazard regression model adjusted for age, dementia, favipiravir treatment and troponin. Howewer, no difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of intubation timing. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have a high ICU admission and mortality rate. Studies in the ICU are also crucial in this respect. In our study, we investigated the ICU mortality risk factors of COVID-19 patients. We determined a predictive mortality model consisting of APACHE II score and chest CT score. It was thought that this feasible and practical model would assist in making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 605-614.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early reports suggest that patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection carry a significant risk of altered coagulation with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events. This report investigates the relationship of significant COVID-19 infection and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as reflected in the patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic evaluations, results of venous duplex imaging and mortality of COVID-19-positive patients (18-89 years) admitted to the Indiana University Academic Health Center. Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection. A descriptive analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to examine the distribution of patient characteristics and compare the DVT outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of experiencing DVT and a receiver operating curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff for d-dimer to predict DVT in this COVID-19 cohort. Time to the diagnosis of DVT from admission was analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Our study included 71 unique COVID-19-positive patients (mean age, 61 years) categorized as having 3% mild, 14% moderate, and 83% severe infection and evaluated with 107 venous duplex studies. DVT was identified in 47.8% of patients (37% of examinations) at an average of 5.9 days after admission. Patients with DVT were predominantly male (67%; P = .032) with proximal venous involvement (29% upper and 39% in the lower extremities with 55% of the latter demonstrating bilateral involvement). Patients with DVT had a significantly higher mean d-dimer of 5447 ± 7032 ng/mL (P = .0101), and alkaline phosphatase of 110 IU/L (P = .0095) than those without DVT. On multivariable analysis, elevated d-dimer (P = .038) and alkaline phosphatase (P = .021) were associated with risk for DVT, whereas age, sex, elevated C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels were not. A receiver operating curve analysis suggests an optimal d-dimer value of 2450 ng/mL cutoff with 70% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and 61% positive predictive value, and 68.8% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that males with severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization are at highest risk for developing DVT. Elevated d-dimers and alkaline phosphatase along with our multivariable model can alert the clinician to the increased risk of DVT requiring early evaluation and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19 , Extremities , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Extremities/blood supply , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2095-e2106, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modulates coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the presentation characteristics and outcomes of adults with and without HIV who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 207 centers across the United Kingdom and whose data were prospectively captured by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Characterization Protocol (CCP) study. METHODS: We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association between HIV status and day-28 mortality, after separate adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, 10 individual comorbidities, and disease severity at presentation (as defined by hypoxia or oxygen therapy). RESULTS: Among 47 592 patients, 122 (0.26%) had confirmed HIV infection, and 112/122 (91.8%) had a record of antiretroviral therapy. At presentation, HIV-positive people were younger (median 56 vs 74 years; P < .001) and had fewer comorbidities, more systemic symptoms and higher lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels. The cumulative day-28 mortality was similar in the HIV-positive versus HIV-negative groups (26.7% vs. 32.1%; P = .16), but in those under 60 years of age HIV-positive status was associated with increased mortality (21.3% vs. 9.6%; P < .001 [log-rank test]). Mortality was higher among people with HIV after adjusting for age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.14; P = .05), and the association persisted after adjusting for the other variables (aHR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15-2.48; P = .008) and when restricting the analysis to people aged <60 years (aHR 2.87; 95% CI 1.70-4.84; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive status was associated with an increased risk of day-28 mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , World Health Organization
6.
Clin Imaging ; 76: 123-129, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thermal ablation (TA) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) may be used alone or in combination (TACE+TA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of our study was to compare the time to tumor progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) for patients who received TA alone or TACE+TA for HCC tumors under 3 cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant IRB-approved retrospective analysis included 85 therapy-naïve patients from 2010 to 2018 (63 males, 22 females, mean age 62.4 ± 8.5 years) who underwent either TA alone (n = 64) or TA in combination with drug-eluting beads (DEB)-TACE (n = 18) or Lipiodol-TACE (n = 3) for locoregional therapy of early stage HCC with maximum tumor diameter under 3 cm. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed using the log-rank test to assess TTP and OS. RESULTS: All TA and TACE+TA treatments included were technically successful. TTP was 23.0 months in the TA group and 22.0 months in the TACE+TA group. There was no statistically significant difference in TTP (p = 0.64). Median OS was 69.7 months in the TA group and 64.6 months in the TACE+TA group. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (p = 0.14). The treatment cohorts had differences in AFP levels (p = 0.03) and BCLC stage (p = 0.047). Complication rates between patient groups were similar (p = 0.61). CONCLUSION: For patients with HCC under 3 cm, TA alone and TACE+TA have similar outcomes in terms of TTP and OS, suggesting that TACE+TA may not be needed for these tumors unless warranted by tumor location or other technical consideration.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Liver Neoplasms , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Cancer ; 12(12): 3558-3565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355160

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Data are extremely limited with regards to the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients. Our study explored the distinct clinical features of COVID-19 patients with cancer. Experimental Design: 189 COVID-19 patients, including 16 cancer patients and 173 patients without cancer, were recruited. Propensity score 1:4 matching (PSM) was performed between cancer patients and patients without cancer based on age, gender and comorbidities. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the difference was compared by the log-rank test. Results: PSM analysis yielded 16 cancer patients and 64 propensity score-matched patients without cancer. Compared to patients without cancer, cancer patients tended to have leukopenia and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and procalcitonin. For those with critical COVID-19, cancer patients had an inferior survival than those without cancer. Also, cancer patients with severe/critical COVID-19 tended to be male and present with low SPO2 and albumin, and high hs-CRP, lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen on admission compared to those with mild COVID-19. In terms of risk factors, recent cancer diagnosis (within 1 year of onset of COVID-19) and anti-tumor treatment within 3 months of COVID-19 diagnosis were associated with inferior survival. Conclusions: We found COVID-19 patients with cancer have distinct clinical features as compared to patients without cancer. Importantly, cancer patients with critical COVID-19 were found to have poorer outcomes compared to those without cancer. In the cancer cohort, patients with severe/critical COVID-19 presented with a distinct clinical profile from those with mild COVID-19; short cancer history and recent anti-cancer treatment were associated with inferior survival.

8.
J Digit Imaging ; 34(2): 297-307, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317571

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease that can cause severe pneumonia. Patients with pneumonia undergo chest X-rays (XR) to assess infiltrates that identify the infection. However, the radiographic characteristics of COVID-19 are similar to the other acute respiratory syndromes, hindering the imaging diagnosis. In this work, we proposed identifying quantitative/radiomic biomarkers for COVID-19 to support XR assessment of acute respiratory diseases. This retrospective study used different cohorts of 227 patients diagnosed with pneumonia; 49 of them had COVID-19. Automatically segmented images were characterized by 558 quantitative features, including gray-level histogram and matrices of co-occurrence, run-length, size zone, dependence, and neighboring gray-tone difference. Higher-order features were also calculated after applying square and wavelet transforms. Mann-Whitney U test assessed the diagnostic performance of the features, and the log-rank test assessed the prognostic value to predict Kaplan-Meier curves of overall and deterioration-free survival. Statistical analysis identified 51 independently validated radiomic features associated with COVID-19. Most of them were wavelet-transformed features; the highest performance was the small dependence matrix feature of "low gray-level emphasis" (area under the curve of 0.87, sensitivity of 0.85, [Formula: see text]). Six features presented short-term prognostic value to predict overall and deterioration-free survival. The features of histogram "mean absolute deviation" and size zone matrix "non-uniformity" yielded the highest differences on Kaplan-Meier curves with a hazard ratio of 3.20 ([Formula: see text]). The radiomic markers showed potential as quantitative measures correlated with the etiologic agent of acute infectious diseases and to stratify short-term risk of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Pulmonology ; 28(1): 13-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246146

ABSTRACT

High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is used to treat acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) even outside the ICU and the ROX index (pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen/respiratory rate) may predict HFNC failure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was therefore to verify whether the ROX index is an accurate predictor of HFNC failure for COVID-19 patients treated outside the intensive care unit (ICU) and to evaluate the validity of the previously suggested threshold. DESIGN: Multicenter study. Retrospective observational analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: 3 centres specialized in non-invasive respiratory support (Buenos Aires, Argentina; Bolzano and Treviso, Italy). Patients treated outside the ICU were analysed MEASUREMENTS: The variables to calculate the ROX index were collected during the first day of therapy at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours and then recorded every 24 hours. HFNC failure was defined as escalation of respiratory support to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or death. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 35 (29%) patients failed HFNC and required intubation. ROC analysis identified the 12-hour ROX index as the best predictor of intubation with an AUC of 0.7916[CI 95% 0.6905-0.8927] and the best threshold to be 5.99[Specificity 96% Sensitivity 62%]. In the survival analysis, a ROX value <5.99 was associated with an increased risk of failure (p = 0008 log - rank test). The threshold of 4,9 identified by Roca as the best predictor in non-COVID patients, was not able to discriminate between success and failure (p = 0.4 log-rank test) in our patients. CONCLUSIONS: ROX index may be useful in guiding the clinicians in their decision to intubate patients, especially in patients with moderate ARF, treated therefore outside the ICU. Indeed, it also demonstrates a different threshold value than reported for non-COVID patients, possibly related to the different mechanisms of hypoxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oximetry , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Endocr Res ; 46(4): 170-177, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236147

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe infectious illness. It has been reported that COVID-19 has an effect on thyroid function. However, the association between thyroid function and prognosis of COVID-19 is still unclear.Methods: This retrospective study included patients with COVID-19 admitted to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from January 28 to April 4, 2020. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected from patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Patients without history of thyroid disease who had a thyroid function test at admission were enrolled in the final analysis. Risk factors of in-hospital death were explored using univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Survival differences were assessed with Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test.Results: A total of 127 patients were included in this study, with 116 survivors and 11 non-survivors. The serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) [0.8 (0.5-1.7) vs. 1.9 (1.0-3.1) µIU/mL, P = .031] and free triiodothyronine (FT3) [2.9 (2.8-3.1) vs. 4.2 (3.5-4.7) pmol/L, P < .001] were lower in non-survivors than in survivors, and a low FT3 state (defined as FT3 < 3.1 pmol/L) at admission accounted for a higher proportion in non-survivors than in survivors (72.7% vs. 11.2%, P < .001). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that FT3 level (HR 0.213, 95% CI: 0.101-0.451, P < .001) and the low FT3 state (HR 14.607, 95% CI: 3.873-55.081, P < .001) were negatively and positively associated with the risk of in-hospital death, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that a low FT3 state was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death after adjusting for confounding factors (HR 13.288, 95% CI: 1.089-162.110, P = .043). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curves indicated a lower survival probability in COVID-19 patients with a low FT3 status.Conclusion: Serum FT3 level is lower in non-survivors among moderate-to-critical patients with COVID-19, and the low FT3 state is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
11.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(3)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234864

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging viral disease affecting more than 200 countries worldwide and it present with varied clinical profile throughout the world. Without effective drugs to cure COVID-19, early identification and control of risk factors are important measures to combat COVID-19.  This study was conducted to determine the clinical profile and risk factors associated with mortality among COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care hospital in South India. This record-based longitudinal study was conducted by reviewing the case records of COVID-19 patients admitted for treatment from June 2020 to September 2020 in a tertiary care centre in South India. The clinical details, discharge/death details, were collected and entered in MS Excel. Potential risk factors for COVID-19 mortality were analysed using univariate binomial logistic regression, generalized linear models (GLM) with Poisson distribution. Survival curves were made using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to test the equality of survivor functions between the groups. Out of 854 COVID-19 patients, 56.6% were men and the mean (standard deviation) age was 45.3(17.2) years. The median survival time was significantly lesser in male COVID-19 patients (16 days) as compared to female patients (20 days). Increasing age, male gender, patients presenting with symptoms of fever, cough, breathlessness, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidities were significantly associated with mortality among COVID-19 patients. Patients with older age, male gender, breathlessness, fever, cough, smoking and alcohol and comorbidities need careful observation and early intervention.  Public health campaigns aimed at reducing the prevalence of risk factors like diabetes, hypertension, smoking and alcohol use are also needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Inpatients , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(7): 524, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the effect of hydroxychloroquine on medium term outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring intensive care. We aimed to evaluate the effects of hydroxychloroquine on day 90 mortality in this specific population. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, propensity matched cohort analysis, used data of adult patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 admitted to 3 university affiliated intensive care units between March 7, 2020, to April 7, 2020 in Lyon, France. Patients received either hydroxychloroquine (loading dose of 400 mg twice daily at day 1 followed by 200 mg twice daily from day 2 to day 10) or standard of care without hydroxychloroquine. We compared all-cause mortality at day-90 after ICU admission between propensity score matched groups receiving hydroxychloroquine or standard of care. RESULTS: A total of 157 patients were included with a day-28 and day-90 mortality rate of 23.6% and 32.5%, respectively. The median (interquartile) age was 67 years (56-76 years), 105 (66.9%) were men, 65 (41.4%) fulfilled criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 64 (41%) received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for 10 days (4-10 days). In the propensity score matched cohort (59 patients in each group), day-90 mortality was 35.6% for patients who received HCQ and 23.7% for patients who did not (P=0.23). Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant association between HCQ therapy and mortality (P=0.20 by log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, off-label use of HCQ in critically ill patients with COVID-19 was not associated with any significant change in medium-term prognosis, confirming results of studies in less severe patients.

13.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(8): 701, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, and often leads to extrapulmonary organ injury. However, the risk factors for extrapulmonary organ injury are still unclear. We aim to explore the risk factors for extrapulmonary organ injury and the association between extrapulmonary organ injury and the prognosis in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We implemented a single-center, retrospective, observational study, in which a total of 349 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 25, 2020, to February 25, 2020, were enrolled. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data from electronic medical records. Potential risk factors for extrapulmonary organ injury of COVID-19 patients were analyzed by a multivariable binary logistic model, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for survival analysis in the patients with extrapulmonary organ injury. RESULTS: The average age of the included patients was 61.73±14.64 years. In the final logistic model, variables including aged 60 or older [odds ratio (OR) 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.060-3.142], acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 2.748, 95% CI: 1.051-7.185), lymphocytes count lower than 1.1×109/L (OR 0.478, 95% CI: 0.240-0.949), level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) greater than 7 pg/mL (OR 1.664, 95% CI: 1.005-2.751) and D-Dimer greater than 0.5 µg/mL (OR 2.190, 95% CI: 1.176-4.084) were significantly associated with the extrapulmonary organ injury. Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test showed that the probabilities of survival for patients with extrapulmonary organ injury were significantly lower than those without extrapulmonary organ injury. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that only myocardial injury (P=0.000, HR: 5.068, 95% CI: 2.728-9.417) and circulatory system injury (P=0.000, HR: 4.076, 95% CI: 2.216-7.498) were the independent factors associated with COVID-19 patients' poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, lymphocytopenia, high level of D-Dimer and IL-6, and the severity of lung injury were the high-risk factors of extrapulmonary organ injury in COVID-19 patients. Myocardial and circulatory system injury were the most important risk factors related to poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients. It may help clinicians to identify extrapulmonary organ injury early and initiate appropriate treatment.

14.
Respir Med Res ; 79: 100826, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of the severe illness is critical in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) to provide best care and optimize the use of limited resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the predictive properties of common community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scores and COVID-19 specific indices. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a teaching hospital between 18 March-20 May 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics related to severity and mortality were measured and CURB-65, PSI, A-DROP, CALL, and COVID-GRAM scores were calculated as defined previously in the literature. Progression to severe disease and in-hospital/overall mortality during the follow-up of the patients were determined from electronic records. Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression model was used. The discrimination capability of pneumonia severity indices was evaluated by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-eight patients were included in the study. Sixty-two patients (20.8%) presented with severe COVID-19 while thirty-one (10.4%) developed severe COVID-19 at any time from the admission. In-hospital mortality was 39 (13.1%) while the overall mortality was 44 (14.8%). The mortality in low-risk groups that were identified to manage outside the hospital was 0 in CALL Class A, 1.67% in PSI low risk, and 2.68% in CURB-65 low-risk. However, the AUCs for the mortality prediction in COVID-19 were 0.875, 0.873, 0.859, 0.855, and 0.828 for A-DROP, PSI, CURB-65, COVID-GRAM, and CALL scores respectively. The AUCs for the prediction of progression to severe disease was 0.739, 0.711, 0,697, 0.673, and 0.668 for CURB-65, CALL, PSI, COVID-GRAM, A-DROP respectively. The hazard ratios (HR) for the tested pneumonia severity indices demonstrated that A-DROP and CURB-65 scores had the strongest association with mortality, and PSI, and COVID-GRAM scores predicted mortality independent from age and comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) scores can predict in COVID-19. The indices proposed specifically to COVID-19 work less than nonspecific scoring systems surprisingly. The CALL score may be used to decide outpatient management in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology
15.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(5): e23251, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies of the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 have depicted the rate, patterns, and predictions of cases of this pandemic disease. To combat transmission of the disease in India, the government declared a lockdown on March 25, 2020. Even after this strict lockdown was enacted nationwide, the number of COVID-19 cases increased and surpassed 450,000. A positive point to note is that the number of recovered cases began to slowly exceed that of active cases. The survival of patients, taking death as the event that varies by age group and sex, is noteworthy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a survival analysis to establish the variability in survivorship of patients with COVID-19 in India by age group and sex at different levels, that is, the national, state, and district levels. METHODS: The study period was taken from the date of the first reported case of COVID-19 in India, which was January 30, 2020, up to June 30, 2020. Due to the amount of underreported data and removal of missing columns, a total sample of 26,815 patients was considered. Kaplan-Meier survival estimation, the Cox proportional hazard model, and the multilevel survival model were used to perform the survival analysis. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival function showed that the probability of survival of patients with COVID-19 declined during the study period of 5 months, which was supplemented by the log rank test (P<.001) and Wilcoxon test (P<.001) to compare the survival functions. Significant variability was observed in the age groups, as evident from all the survival estimates; with increasing age, the risk of dying of COVID-19 increased. The Cox proportional hazard model reiterated that male patients with COVID-19 had a 1.14 times higher risk of dying than female patients (hazard ratio 1.14; SE 0.11; 95% CI 0.93-1.38). Western and Central India showed decreasing survival rates in the framed time period, while Eastern, North Eastern, and Southern India showed slightly better results in terms of survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study depicts a grave scenario of decreasing survival rates in various regions of India and shows variability in these rates by age and sex. In essence, we can safely conclude that the critical appraisal of the survival rate and thorough analysis of patient data in this study equipped us to identify risk groups and perform comparative studies of various segments in India. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1101/2020.08.01.20162115.

16.
Trials ; 22(1): 309, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this trial is to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, clinical efficacy, and safety of nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multicenter, open-label, blinded outcome assessment, parallel group, investigator-initiated, exploratory, randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients will be enrolled in 10 university and teaching hospitals in Japan. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are as follows: Inclusion criteria: (1) Japanese male or female patients aged ≥ 20 years (2) SARS-CoV-2 detected from a respiratory tract specimen (e.g., nasopharyngeal swab or saliva) using PCR, LAMP, or an antigen test within 3 days before obtaining the informed consent (3) Provide informed consent Exclusion criteria: (1) Symptoms developed ≥ 8 days prior to enrolment (2) SpO2 < 96 % (room air) (3) Any of the following screening criteria: a) ALT or AST ≥ 5 × upper limit of the reference range b) Child-Pugh class B or C c) Serum creatinine ≥ 2 × upper limit of the reference range and creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min (4) Poorly controlled diabetes (random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, despite treatment) (5) Unsuitable serious complications based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator (6) Hemophiliac or patients with a marked hemorrhagic tendency (7) Severe diarrhea (8) Hypersensitivity to the investigational drug (9) Breastfeeding or pregnancy (10) With childbearing potential and rejecting contraceptive methods during the study period from the initial administration of the investigational drug (11) Receiving rifampicin within the previous 2 weeks (12) Participated in other clinical trials and received drugs within the previous 12 weeks (13) Undergoing treatment for HIV infection (14) History of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or wishes to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (15) Deemed inappropriate (for miscellaneous reasons) based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients who meet the inclusion criteria and do not meet any of the exclusion criteria will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group. The nelfinavir group will be administered 750 mg of nelfinavir orally, three times daily for 14 days (treatment period). However, if a participant tests negative on two consecutive PCR tests of saliva samples, administration of the investigational drug for that participant can be discontinued at the discretion of the investigators. The symptomatic treatment group will not be administered the investigational drug, but all other study procedures and conditions will be the same for both groups for the duration of the treatment period. After the treatment period of 14 days, each group will be followed up for 14 days (observational period). MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2. During the study period from Day 1 to Day 28, two consecutive negative PCR results of saliva samples will be considered as the negative conversion of the virus. The secondary efficacy endpoints are as follows: For patients with both asymptomatic and mild disease: area under the curve of viral load, half decay period of viral load, body temperature at each time point, all-cause mortality, incidence rate of pneumonia, percentage of patients with newly developed pneumonia, rate of oxygen administration, and the percentage of patients who require oxygen administration. For asymptomatic patients: incidence of symptomatic COVID-19, incidence of fever (≥ 37.0 °C for two consecutive days), incidence of cough For patients with mild disease: incidence of defervescence (< 37.0 °C), incidence of recovery from clinical symptoms, incidence of improvement of each symptom The secondary safety endpoints are adverse events and clinical examinations. RANDOMIZATION: Patients will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group using the electric data capture system (1:1 ratio, dynamic allocation based on severity [asymptomatic], and age [< 60 years]). BLINDING (MASKING): Only the assessors of the primary outcome will be blinded (blinded outcome assessment). NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size was determined based on our power analysis to reject the null hypothesis, S (t | z =1) = S (t | z = 0) where S is a survival function, t is time to negative conversion, and z denotes randomization group, by the log-rank test with a two-sided p value of 0.05. We estimated viral dynamic parameters by fitting a nonlinear mixed-effects model to reported viral load data, and simulated our primary endpoint from viral-load time-courses that were realized from sets of viral dynamics parameters sampled from the estimated probability distribution of the parameters (sample size: 2000; 1000 each for randomization group). From this estimation of the hazard ratio between the randomization groups for the event of negative conversion using this simulation dataset, the required number of events for rejecting our null hypothesis with a power of 0.80 felled 97.345 by plugging the estimated hazard ratio, 1.79, in Freedman's equation. Therefore, we decided the required number of randomizations to be 120 after consideration of the frequency of censoring and the anticipated rate of withdrawal caused by factors such as withdrawal of consent. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 6.0 of February 12, 2021. Recruitment started on July 22, 2020 and is anticipated to be completed by March 31, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCT2071200023 ) on 21 July 21, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 393, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: International air travel plays an important role in the global spread of SARS-CoV-2, and tracing of close contacts is an integral part of the public health response to COVID-19. We aimed to assess the timeliness of contact tracing among airline passengers arriving in Vietnam on flights containing COVID-19 cases and investigated factors associated with timeliness of contact tracing. METHODS: We included data from 2228 passengers on 22 incoming flights between 2 and 19 March 2020. Contact tracing duration was assessed separately for the time between the date of index case confirmation and date of contact tracing initiation (interval I), and the date of contact tracing initiation and completion (interval II). We used log-rank tests and multivariable Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with timeliness. RESULTS: The median duration of interval I and interval II was one (IQR: 1-2) and 3 days (IQR: 2-5), respectively. The contact tracing duration was shorter for passengers from flights where the index case was identified through mandatory testing directly upon arrival (median = 4; IQR: 3-5) compared to flights with index case detection through self-presentation at health facilities after arrival (median = 7; IQR: 5-8) (p-value = 0.018). Cumulative hazards for successful tracing were higher for Vietnamese nationals compared to non-Vietnamese nationals (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Contact tracing among flight passengers in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam was timely though delays occurred on high workload days. Mandatory SARS-CoV-2 testing at arrival may reduce contact tracing duration and should be considered as an integrated screening tool for flight passengers from high-risk areas when entering low-transmission settings with limited contact tracing capacity. We recommend a standardized risk-based contact tracing approach for flight passengers during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Air Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors , Vietnam/epidemiology
18.
JAMA ; 325(14): 1426-1435, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201461

ABSTRACT

Importance: Ivermectin is widely prescribed as a potential treatment for COVID-19 despite uncertainty about its clinical benefit. Objective: To determine whether ivermectin is an efficacious treatment for mild COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, randomized trial conducted at a single site in Cali, Colombia. Potential study participants were identified by simple random sampling from the state's health department electronic database of patients with symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. A total of 476 adult patients with mild disease and symptoms for 7 days or fewer (at home or hospitalized) were enrolled between July 15 and November 30, 2020, and followed up through December 21, 2020. Intervention: Patients were randomized to receive ivermectin, 300 µg/kg of body weight per day for 5 days (n = 200) or placebo (n = 200). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was time to resolution of symptoms within a 21-day follow-up period. Solicited adverse events and serious adverse events were also collected. Results: Among 400 patients who were randomized in the primary analysis population (median age, 37 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 29-48]; 231 women [58%]), 398 (99.5%) completed the trial. The median time to resolution of symptoms was 10 days (IQR, 9-13) in the ivermectin group compared with 12 days (IQR, 9-13) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for resolution of symptoms, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.32]; P = .53 by log-rank test). By day 21, 82% in the ivermectin group and 79% in the placebo group had resolved symptoms. The most common solicited adverse event was headache, reported by 104 patients (52%) given ivermectin and 111 (56%) who received placebo. The most common serious adverse event was multiorgan failure, occurring in 4 patients (2 in each group). Conclusion and Relevance: Among adults with mild COVID-19, a 5-day course of ivermectin, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve the time to resolution of symptoms. The findings do not support the use of ivermectin for treatment of mild COVID-19, although larger trials may be needed to understand the effects of ivermectin on other clinically relevant outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04405843.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Treatment Failure
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1687-1693, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may be at an increased risk for morbidity and mortality from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We present the clinical outcomes of HIV patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a matched comparison with historical controls. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV patients admitted for COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2020 to Newark Beth Israel Medical Center. Data on baseline clinical characteristics and hospital course were documented and compared with that of a matched control group of COVID-19 patients who had no history of HIV. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank tests were used to estimate and compare in-hospital survival between both unmatched and matched groups. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with HIV were hospitalized with COVID-19. The median age was 59 years. The rates of in-hospital death, the need for mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were 13% (n = 3), 9% (n = 2), and 9% (n = 2), respectively. The HIV infection was well-controlled in all patients except for three patients presented with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). All AIDS patients were discharged home uneventfully. A one-to-one propensity matching identified 23 COVID-19 patients who served as a control group. In both pre- and post-match cohorts, survival between HIV and control groups were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of HIV-infected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, there was no difference in mortality, ICU admission, and the need for mechanical ventilation when compared with a matched control of COVID-19 patients with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , HIV Infections/mortality , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
20.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14061, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196121

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) has affected millions of people, wreaking havoc worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) labelled this disease as a serious threat to public health since its rapid spread from Wuhan, China. The respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 are common, but myocardium involvement causing myocardial injury and rise in cardiac markers is much less discussed. Materials and methods We conducted this retrospective cohort study from 1st April 2020 to 1st October 2020. Data was collected from the Hospital Management and Information System (HMIS) based on inclusion criteria. We used the Cox proportional hazard regression model for survival analysis, estimated the probability curves of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method, and contrasted it with the log-rank test. Results Among the 466 patients, 280 (69%) were male; the rest were female. The majority were both hypertensive and diabetic, and one-third had a myocardial injury on arrival. The most frequent symptoms in more than half of the patients (51.90%) included a combination of fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Out of 466 patients, 266 patients were discharged, and 200 did not survive. In our study, 168 (36.05%) patients had a cardiac injury; among them, 38 (22.61%) were in the discharge group, and the remaining 130 (77.39%) patients were in the nonsurvivor group. Our study results showed that the mortality rate was higher in patients with high cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels (hazard ratio [HR] 3.61) on admission. Conclusion Our result concluded that measuring cTnI levels on presentation could help predict the severity and outcome in COVID-19 patients. It will allow physicians to triage patients and decrease mortality.

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