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1.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1354-1356, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898685

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of coronavirus that was first identified in Wuhan, China; it has since spread rapidly throughout the world. Most of the patients with COVID-19 present with respiratory symptoms, including cough, nasal symptoms, fever, and shortness of breath. However, several groups have reported that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the central nervous system via the olfactory bulb followed by spread throughout the brain and peripheral nervous system. This brief report illustrated a 78-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) on March 22, 2020, with chief complaints of dizziness and unsteadiness while walking. He had no symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 on arrival. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test performed at that time due to his atypical presentation and lymphocytopenia was positive for virus nucleic acids. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are frequently non-specific and may emerge several days before the respiratory symptoms; as such, identification of patients presenting with these subtle and seemingly unremarkable COVID-19 symptoms will be quite difficult. Added to this, numerous countries still limit testing for SARS-COV-2 to patients presenting with fever or respiratory symptoms. Frontline physicians should be aware of early, non-specific symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(4): 592-596, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898682

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess coinfection rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other respiratory infections on presentation. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data from a 2 hospital academic medical centers and 2 urgent care centers during the initial 2 weeks of testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), March 10, 2020 to March 23, 2020. Testing was targeted toward high-risk patients following US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Demographics include age group and sex. Laboratory test results included SARS-CoV-2, rapid influenza A/B, and upper respiratory pathogen nucleic acid detection. Patient demographics and coinfections are presented overall and by test results with descriptive statistics. Results: Complete laboratory results from the first 2 weeks of testing were available for 471 emergency department patients and 117 urgent care center patients who were tested for SARS-CoV. A total of 51 (8.7%) patients tested positive for COVID-19 with only 1 of these patients also testing positive for another respiratory infection. One of the patients positive for COVID-19 also tested positive for influenza A. Among the 537 patients who were screened and tested negative for COVID-19, there were 33 (6.1%) patients who tested positive in the upper respiratory pathogen nucleic acid detection test. Conclusion: In our study investigating coinfections among 51 patients testing positive for COVID-19, 1 patient also tested positive for influenza A. Although we found limited coinfections in our emergency department and urgent care center patient populations, further research is needed to assess potential coinfection in patients with COVID-19.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 176, 2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is still a global public health problem contributing for under-five morbidity and mortality. The case is similar in Ethiopia in which severe acute malnutrition is the major contributor to mortality being an underlying cause for nearly 45% of under-five deaths. However, there is no recent evidence that shows the time to death and public health importance of oxygen saturation and chest in drawing in the study area. Therefore, estimated time to death and its predictors can provide an input for program planners and decision-makers. METHODS: A facility -based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 488 severe acute malnourished under-five children admitted from the 1st of January 2016 to the 30th of December 2019. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were entered in to Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version15 statistical software for further analysis. The Kaplan Meier was used to estimate cumulative survival probability and a log-rank test was used to compare the survival time between different categories of explanatory variables. The Cox-proportional hazard regression model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. P-value< 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Out of the total 488 randomly selected charts of children with severe acute malnutrition, 476 records were included in the final analysis. A total of 54(11.34%) children died with an incidence rate of 9.1death /1000 person- days. Failed appetite test (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.26, 4.67), altered consciousness level at admission (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.08, 4.67), oxygen saturation below 90% (AHR: 3.3; 95%CI: 1.40, 7.87), edema (AHR 2.9; 95%CI: 1.45, 5.66) and HIV infection (AHR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.24, 6.36) were predictors of mortality for children diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The overall survival status of severe acute malnourished children was low as compared to national sphere standards and previous reports in the literature. The major predictors of mortality were oxygen saturation below 90%, altered consciousness, HIV infection, edema and failed appetite test. Therefore, early screening of complications, close follow up and regular monitoring of sever acute malnourished children might improve child survival rate.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Child , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies
4.
Gut ; 71(5): 950-960, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Implementation of faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) as a triage test in primary healthcare may improve the efficiency of referrals without missing cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to summarise the performance characteristics of FITs for CRC in symptomatic patients presenting to primary healthcare. DESIGN: We performed a systematic literature review of Medline and EMBASE databases from May 2018 to November 2020. Previous related systematic searches were also adapted to this aim and completed with reference screening. We identified studies performed on adult patients consulting for abdominal symptoms in primary care which reported data such that the FIT diagnostic performance parameters for CRC could be obtained. Bivariate models were used to synthesise available evidence. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the causes of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (69 536 participants) were included (CRC prevalence 0.3%-6.2%). Six studies (n=34 691) assessed FIT as rule in test (threshold of ≥150 µg Hb/g faeces) showing a sensitivity of 64.1% (95% CI 57.8% to 69.9%) and a specificity of 95.0% (95% CI 91.2% to 97.2%). A threshold of 10 µg/g (15 studies; n=48 872) resulted in a sensitivity of 87.2% (95% CI 81.0% to 91.6%) and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI 79.4% to 88.3%) for CRC. At a 20 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (five studies; n=24 187) less than one additional CRC would be missed per 1000 patients investigated compared with 10 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (CRC prevalence 2%). CONCLUSION: FIT is the test of choice to evaluate patients with new-onset lower gastrointestinal symptoms in primary healthcare.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Adult , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Occult Blood , Primary Health Care/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(4): 210-212, 2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780502

ABSTRACT

To study the diagnostic characteristics of test systems for detecting antibodies to SARS-Cov-2. We studied the diagnostic characteristics of two test systems for detecting antibodies to SARS-Cov-2, registered in the Russian Federation. The first test system is a kit for detecting total antibodies to SARS-Cov-2 using immunochemiluminescence analysis on the «Cobas e 411¼ analyzer («Roche Diagnostics¼, Germany). The second test system is a kit for detecting IgM and IgG to SARS-Cov-2 («Core Technology Co., Ltd¼, China) by immunochromatographic analysis. The biological material for the study was blood serum. We assessed: diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive value of positive and negative results. In the test system for detecting total antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, using an IHLA, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100%; the predictive value of positive and negative results was 100%. In the test system for the detection of IgM and IgG to Sars-CoV-2, using IHA, diagnostic sensitivity for IgM and IgG were 100%; diagnostic specificity for IgM - 60%, for IgG - 72%; predictive value of a positive result for IgM - 60%, IgG - 68,18%; predictive value of negative results for IgM and IgG - 100%. The best diagnostic characteristics were found in the test system for the detection of total antibodies to SARS-Cov-2, which must be taken into account when deciding whether to purchase test systems for the detection of antibodies to SARS-Cov-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Russia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(13): 1602-1609, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups. RESULTS: Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-16, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700344

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bottlenecks in the personal protective equipment (PPE) supply chain have contributed to shortages of PPE during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in fractures in the functionality of healthcare systems. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the effectiveness of retrofitted commercial snorkel masks as an alternative respirator for healthcare workers during infectious disease outbreaks.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed, analyzing qualitative and quantitative fit test results of the retrofitted Aria Ocean Reef® full-face snorkeling mask on healthcare workers at the McGill University Health Centre between April-June 2020. Historical fit test results, using medical-grade respirators, for healthcare workers were also analyzed.Results: During the study period, 71 participants volunteered for fit testing, 60.6% of which were nurses. The overall fit test passing rate using the snorkel mask was 83.1%. Of the participants who did not previously pass fit testing with medical-grade respirators, 80% achieved a passing fit test with the snorkel respirator.Conclusions: The results suggest that this novel respirator may be an effective and feasible alternative solution to address PPE shortages, while still providing healthcare workers with ample protection. Additional robust testing will be required to ensure that respirator fit is maintained, after numerous rounds of disinfection.

8.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(4): e764-e766, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666235

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A 37-year-old patient presented to our emergency department with sudden onset decreased vision with a history of being treated for COVID 19 3 weeks earlier. On examination, she was found to have a tonic right pupil, which was confirmed with a dilute pilocarpine test. As tonic pupils are known to be caused by neurotropic viruses and our current understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 is that it does affect the nervous system, we feel that the tonic pupil in our patient may be secondary to COVID 19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Tonic Pupil/etiology , Adult , Female , Humans
9.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 28(1): 1-11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The National Neuropsychology Network (NNN) is a multicenter clinical research initiative funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; R01 MH118514) to facilitate neuropsychology's transition to contemporary psychometric assessment methods with resultant improvement in test validation and assessment efficiency. METHOD: The NNN includes four clinical research sites (Emory University; Medical College of Wisconsin; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); University of Florida) and Pearson Clinical Assessment. Pearson Q-interactive (Q-i) is used for data capture for Pearson published tests; web-based data capture tools programmed by UCLA, which serves as the Coordinating Center, are employed for remaining measures. RESULTS: NNN is acquiring item-level data from 500-10,000 patients across 47 widely used Neuropsychology (NP) tests and sharing these data via the NIMH Data Archive. Modern psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory) will specify the constructs measured by different tests and determine their positive/negative predictive power regarding diagnostic outcomes and relationships to other clinical, historical, and demographic factors. The Structured History Protocol for NP (SHiP-NP) helps standardize acquisition of relevant history and self-report data. CONCLUSIONS: NNN is a proof-of-principle collaboration: by addressing logistical challenges, NNN aims to engage other clinics to create a national and ultimately an international network. The mature NNN will provide mechanisms for data aggregation enabling shared analysis and collaborative research. NNN promises ultimately to enable robust diagnostic inferences about neuropsychological test patterns and to promote the validation of novel adaptive assessment strategies that will be more efficient, more precise, and more sensitive to clinical contexts and individual/cultural differences.


Subject(s)
Neuropsychology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Psychometrics , Wisconsin
10.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e127-e133, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608558

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of pediatric hematologic patients are limited in this corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. We investigated the status of 113 pediatric hematologic patients in Wuhan union hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 23 to March 10, 2020. All the patients had routine blood and biochemical examination, as well as chest computed tomography scans, and the nucleic acid, immunoglobulin G-immunoglobulin M combined antibodies tests for SARS-CoV-2. After admission, all patients were single-room isolated for 5 to 7 days. The results showed that only 1 (0.88%) child with leukemia was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and 15 (13.2%) children were considered as suspected cases. Comparing to the nonsuspected patients, the suspected cases had lower white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, neutrophil count, serum calcium ion level and serum albumin concentration, as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein. All the suspected cases were ruled out of SARS-CoV-2 infection by twice negative tests for the virus. Therefore, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hematologic malignancy children was low during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. COVID-19 got early detected and the virus spread out in the ward was effectively blocked by increasing test frequency and using single-room isolation for 5 to 7 days after admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Leukemia/blood , Leukemia/complications , Leukocyte Count , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574068

ABSTRACT

ß2-microglobulin (ß2-m), a 11.8 kDa protein, pairs non-covalently with the α3 domain of the major histocompatibility class (MHC) I α-chain and is essential for the conformation of the MHC class I protein complex. Shed ß2-m is measurable in circulation, and various disorders are accompanied by increases in ß2-m levels, including several viral infections. Therefore, we explored whether ß2-m levels could also be elevated in Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and whether they predict disease severity. Serum ß2-m levels were measured in a cohort of 34 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 on admission to a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as in an approximately age-sex matched group of 34 uninfected controls. Mean ß2-m level was 3.25±1.68 mg/l (reference range 0.8-2.2 mg/l) in patients (mean age 48.2±21.6) and 1.98±0.61 mg/l in controls (mean age 48.2±21.6). 17 patients (mean age 36.9± 18.0) with mean ß2-m levels of 2.27±0.64 mg/l had mild disease by WHO severity categorization, 12 patients (mean age 53.3±18.1) with mean ß2-m levels of 3.57±1.39 mg/l had moderate disease, and five patients (of whom 2 died; mean age 74.4±13.8) with mean ß2-m levels of 5.85±1.85 mg/l had severe disease (P < = 0.001, by ANOVA test for linear trend). In multivariate ordinal regression ß2-m levels were the only significant predictor of disease severity. Our findings suggest that higher ß2-m levels could be an early indicator of severity of disease and predict outcome of Covid-19. As the main limitations of the study are a single-center study, sample size and ethnicity, these results need confirmation in larger cohorts outside the Arabian Peninsula in order to delineate the value of ß2-m measurements. The role of ß2-m in the etiology and pathogenesis of severe Covid-19 remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Severity of Illness Index , beta 2-Microglobulin/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Saudi Arabia
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 765-778, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in patients with cancer. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with cancer and healthy controls (mostly health-care workers) from three London hospitals between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021. Participants who were vaccinated between Dec 8 and Dec 29, 2020, received two 30 µg doses of BNT162b2 administered intramuscularly 21 days apart; patients vaccinated after this date received only one 30 µg dose with a planned follow-up boost at 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Where possible, serial nasopharyngeal real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) swab tests were done every 10 days or in cases of symptomatic COVID-19. The coprimary endpoints were seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in patients with cancer following the first vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine and the effect of vaccine boosting after 21 days on seroconversion. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity analyses. Ongoing follow-up is underway for further blood sampling after the delayed (12-week) vaccine boost. This study is registered with the NHS Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (REC ID 20/HRA/2031). FINDINGS: 151 patients with cancer (95 patients with solid cancer and 56 patients with haematological cancer) and 54 healthy controls were enrolled. For this interim data analysis of the safety and immunogenicity of vaccinated patients with cancer, samples and data obtained up to March 19, 2021, were analysed. After exclusion of 17 patients who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (detected by either antibody seroconversion or a positive rRT-PCR COVID-19 swab test) from the immunogenicity analysis, the proportion of positive anti-S IgG titres at approximately 21 days following a single vaccine inoculum across the three cohorts were 32 (94%; 95% CI 81-98) of 34 healthy controls; 21 (38%; 26-51) of 56 patients with solid cancer, and eight (18%; 10-32) of 44 patients with haematological cancer. 16 healthy controls, 25 patients with solid cancer, and six patients with haematological cancer received a second dose on day 21. Of the patients with available blood samples 2 weeks following a 21-day vaccine boost, and excluding 17 participants with evidence of previous natural SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 18 (95%; 95% CI 75-99) of 19 patients with solid cancer, 12 (100%; 76-100) of 12 healthy controls, and three (60%; 23-88) of five patients with haematological cancers were seropositive, compared with ten (30%; 17-47) of 33, 18 (86%; 65-95) of 21, and four (11%; 4-25) of 36, respectively, who did not receive a boost. The vaccine was well tolerated; no toxicities were reported in 75 (54%) of 140 patients with cancer following the first dose of BNT162b2, and in 22 (71%) of 31 patients with cancer following the second dose. Similarly, no toxicities were reported in 15 (38%) of 40 healthy controls after the first dose and in five (31%) of 16 after the second dose. Injection-site pain within 7 days following the first dose was the most commonly reported local reaction (23 [35%] of 65 patients with cancer; 12 [48%] of 25 healthy controls). No vaccine-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with cancer, one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine yields poor efficacy. Immunogenicity increased significantly in patients with solid cancer within 2 weeks of a vaccine boost at day 21 after the first dose. These data support prioritisation of patients with cancer for an early (day 21) second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. FUNDING: King's College London, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, and Francis Crick Institute.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales
13.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1665-1674, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526879

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease with a high rate of progression to critical illness. However, the predictors of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are not yet well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with ICU mortality in our hospital. Materials and methods: In this single-centered retrospective study, we enrolled 86 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital (Izmir, Turkey) between 18 March 2020 and 31 October 2020. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, treatments, the laboratory findings at ICU admission, and clinical outcomes were collected. The chest computerized tomography (CT) of the patients were evaluated specifically for COVID-19 and CT score was calculated. Data of the survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with survival analysis to identify risk factors of mortality in the ICU. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.1 ± 14.1 years. The patients were predominantly male. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension. ICU mortality was 62.8%. Being over 60 years old, CT score > 15, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15, having dementia, treatment without favipiravir, base excess in blood gas analysis ≤ ­2.0, WBC > 10,000/mm3, D-dimer > 1.6 µg/mL, troponin > 24 ng/L, Na ≥ 145 mmol/L were considered to link with ICU mortality according to Kaplan­Meier curves (log-rank test, p < 0.05). The APACHE II score (HR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.021­1.090) and chest CT score (HR: 2.411, 95% CI:1.193­4.875) were associated with ICU mortality in the cox proportional-hazard regression model adjusted for age, dementia, favipiravir treatment and troponin. Howewer, no difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of intubation timing. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have a high ICU admission and mortality rate. Studies in the ICU are also crucial in this respect. In our study, we investigated the ICU mortality risk factors of COVID-19 patients. We determined a predictive mortality model consisting of APACHE II score and chest CT score. It was thought that this feasible and practical model would assist in making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(9): 2045-2053, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526155

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 seems to be the leading topic in research number of outstanding studies have been published in the field of aorta and peripheral vascular diseases likely affecting our clinical practice in the near future. This review article highlights key research on vascular diseases published in 2020. Some studies have shed light in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm and dissection suggesting a potential role for kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic options. A first proteogenomic study on fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) revealed a promising novel disease gene and provided proof-of-concept for a protein/lipid-based FMD blood test. The role of NADPH oxidases in vascular physiology, and particularly endothelial cell differentiation, is highlighted with potential for cell therapy development. Imaging of vulnerable plaque has been an intense field of research. Features of plaque vulnerability on magnetic resonance imaging as an under-recognized cause of stroke are discussed. Major clinical trials on lower extremity peripheral artery disease have shown added benefit of dual antithrombotic (aspirin plus rivaroxaban) treatment.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , Biomedical Research/trends , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Animals , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/epidemiology , Aortic Diseases/genetics , Aortic Diseases/therapy , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/genetics , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/therapy , Prognosis
15.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(3): e263-e268, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A qualitative fit test using bitter-tasting aerosols is the commonest way to determine filtering face-piece (FFP) mask leakage. This taste test is subjective and biased by placebo. We propose a cheap, quantitative modification of the taste test by measuring the amount of fluorescein stained filter paper behind the mask using image analysis. METHODS: A bitter-tasting fluorescein solution was aerosolised during mask fit tests, with filter paper placed on masks' inner surfaces. Participants reported whether they could taste bitterness to determine taste test 'pass' or 'fail' results. Filter paper photographs were digitally analysed to quantify total fluorescence (TF). RESULTS: Fifty-six healthcare professionals were fit tested; 32 (57%) 'passed' the taste test. TF between the taste test 'pass' and 'fail' groups was significantly different (p<0.001). A cut-off (TF = 5.0 × 106 units) was determined at precision (78%) and recall (84%), resulting in 5/56 participants (9%) reclassified from 'pass' to 'fail' by the fluorescein test. Seven out of 56 (12%) reclassified from 'fail' to 'pass'. CONCLUSION: Fluorescein is detectable and sensitive at identifying FFP mask leaks. These low-cost adaptations can enhance exiting fit testing to determine 'pass' and 'fail' groups, protecting those who 'passed' the taste test but have high fluorescein leak, and reassuring those who 'failed' the taste test despite having little fluorescein leak.


Subject(s)
Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Fluorescein , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems
16.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 605-614.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early reports suggest that patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection carry a significant risk of altered coagulation with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events. This report investigates the relationship of significant COVID-19 infection and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as reflected in the patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic evaluations, results of venous duplex imaging and mortality of COVID-19-positive patients (18-89 years) admitted to the Indiana University Academic Health Center. Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection. A descriptive analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to examine the distribution of patient characteristics and compare the DVT outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of experiencing DVT and a receiver operating curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff for d-dimer to predict DVT in this COVID-19 cohort. Time to the diagnosis of DVT from admission was analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Our study included 71 unique COVID-19-positive patients (mean age, 61 years) categorized as having 3% mild, 14% moderate, and 83% severe infection and evaluated with 107 venous duplex studies. DVT was identified in 47.8% of patients (37% of examinations) at an average of 5.9 days after admission. Patients with DVT were predominantly male (67%; P = .032) with proximal venous involvement (29% upper and 39% in the lower extremities with 55% of the latter demonstrating bilateral involvement). Patients with DVT had a significantly higher mean d-dimer of 5447 ± 7032 ng/mL (P = .0101), and alkaline phosphatase of 110 IU/L (P = .0095) than those without DVT. On multivariable analysis, elevated d-dimer (P = .038) and alkaline phosphatase (P = .021) were associated with risk for DVT, whereas age, sex, elevated C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels were not. A receiver operating curve analysis suggests an optimal d-dimer value of 2450 ng/mL cutoff with 70% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and 61% positive predictive value, and 68.8% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that males with severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization are at highest risk for developing DVT. Elevated d-dimers and alkaline phosphatase along with our multivariable model can alert the clinician to the increased risk of DVT requiring early evaluation and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19 , Extremities , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Extremities/blood supply , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
17.
Perfusion ; 36(8): 798-802, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455838

ABSTRACT

AIM: Patients with cardiogenic shock or ARDS, for example, in COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2, may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). An ECLS/ECMO model simulating challenging vascular anatomy is desirable for cannula insertion training purposes. We assessed the ability of various 3D-printable materials to mimic the penetration properties of human tissue by using porcine aortae. METHODS: A test bench for needle penetration and piercing in sampled porcine aorta and preselected 3D-printable polymers was assembled. The 3D-printable materials had Shore A hardness of 10, 20, and 50. 17G Vygon 1.0 × 1.4 mm × 70 mm needles were used for penetration tests. RESULTS: For the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, penetration forces of 0.9036 N, 0.9725 N, 1.0386 N, and 1.254 N were needed, respectively. For piercing through the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, forces of 0.8399 N, 1.244 N, 1.475 N, and 1.482 N were needed, respectively. ANOVA showed different variances among the groups, and pairwise two-tailed t-tests showed significantly different needle penetration and piercing forces, except for penetration of Shore A 10 and 20 polymers (p = 0.234 and p = 0.0857). Significantly higher forces were required for all other materials. CONCLUSION: Shore A 10 and 20 polymers have similar needle penetration properties compared to the porcine tissue. Significantly more force is needed to pierce through the material fully. The most similar tested material to porcine aorta for needle penetration and piercing in ECMO-implantation is the silicon Shore A 10 polymer. This silicon could be a 3D-printable material in surgical training for ECMO-implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Animals , Aorta , Humans , Needles , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic , Swine
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2095-e2106, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modulates coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the presentation characteristics and outcomes of adults with and without HIV who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 207 centers across the United Kingdom and whose data were prospectively captured by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Characterization Protocol (CCP) study. METHODS: We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association between HIV status and day-28 mortality, after separate adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, 10 individual comorbidities, and disease severity at presentation (as defined by hypoxia or oxygen therapy). RESULTS: Among 47 592 patients, 122 (0.26%) had confirmed HIV infection, and 112/122 (91.8%) had a record of antiretroviral therapy. At presentation, HIV-positive people were younger (median 56 vs 74 years; P < .001) and had fewer comorbidities, more systemic symptoms and higher lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels. The cumulative day-28 mortality was similar in the HIV-positive versus HIV-negative groups (26.7% vs. 32.1%; P = .16), but in those under 60 years of age HIV-positive status was associated with increased mortality (21.3% vs. 9.6%; P < .001 [log-rank test]). Mortality was higher among people with HIV after adjusting for age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.14; P = .05), and the association persisted after adjusting for the other variables (aHR 1.69; 95% CI 1.15-2.48; P = .008) and when restricting the analysis to people aged <60 years (aHR 2.87; 95% CI 1.70-4.84; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive status was associated with an increased risk of day-28 mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , World Health Organization
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): 1805-1813, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evidence base for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is nascent. We sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 transmission within US households and estimate the household secondary infection rate (SIR) to inform strategies to reduce transmission. METHODS: We recruited patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their household contacts in Utah and Wisconsin during 22 March 2020-25 April 2020. We interviewed patients and all household contacts to obtain demographics and medical histories. At the initial household visit, 14 days later, and when a household contact became newly symptomatic, we collected respiratory swabs from patients and household contacts for testing by SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and sera for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We estimated SIR and odds ratios (ORs) to assess risk factors for secondary infection, defined by a positive rRT-PCR or ELISA test. RESULTS: Thirty-two (55%) of 58 households secondary infection among household contacts. The SIR was 29% (n = 55/188; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) overall, 42% among children (aged <18 years) of the COVID-19 patient and 33% among spouses/partners. Household contacts to COVID-19 patients with immunocompromised conditions and household contacts who themselves had diabetes mellitus had increased odds of infection with ORs 15.9 (95% CI, 2.4-106.9) and 7.1 (95% CI: 1.2-42.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial evidence of secondary infections among household contacts. People with COVID-19, particularly those with immunocompromising conditions or those with household contacts with diabetes, should take care to promptly self-isolate to prevent household transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin
20.
Clin Imaging ; 76: 123-129, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thermal ablation (TA) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) may be used alone or in combination (TACE+TA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of our study was to compare the time to tumor progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) for patients who received TA alone or TACE+TA for HCC tumors under 3 cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant IRB-approved retrospective analysis included 85 therapy-naïve patients from 2010 to 2018 (63 males, 22 females, mean age 62.4 ± 8.5 years) who underwent either TA alone (n = 64) or TA in combination with drug-eluting beads (DEB)-TACE (n = 18) or Lipiodol-TACE (n = 3) for locoregional therapy of early stage HCC with maximum tumor diameter under 3 cm. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed using the log-rank test to assess TTP and OS. RESULTS: All TA and TACE+TA treatments included were technically successful. TTP was 23.0 months in the TA group and 22.0 months in the TACE+TA group. There was no statistically significant difference in TTP (p = 0.64). Median OS was 69.7 months in the TA group and 64.6 months in the TACE+TA group. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (p = 0.14). The treatment cohorts had differences in AFP levels (p = 0.03) and BCLC stage (p = 0.047). Complication rates between patient groups were similar (p = 0.61). CONCLUSION: For patients with HCC under 3 cm, TA alone and TACE+TA have similar outcomes in terms of TTP and OS, suggesting that TACE+TA may not be needed for these tumors unless warranted by tumor location or other technical consideration.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Liver Neoplasms , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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