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Reprod Health ; 18(1): 111, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259201


|BACKGROUND: Women are at a higher risk for depression progression, especially during pregnancy. The current study purposed to investigate depression, anxiety, and stress levels of pregnant mothers in the initial stage of the COVID-19 infection in the southwest of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April, 2020, in Shiraz, Iran. Pregnant mothers registered in maternity clinics affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were included. An online self-administered checklist was used. It included socio-demographic, obstetric and medical histories, and the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: In total, 540 pregnant mothers answered the questionnaire. 83.5% had no comorbidity. Abnormal depression scores were significantly higher in those who had no insurance (OR = 2.5) and in those with poor self-rated health (SRH) (OR = 27.8). Pregnant mothers with lower SRH and two or more comorbidities had a higher chance of having an abnormal level of anxiety subscale (6.9, 3.7 times, retrospectively). CONCLUSION: The results revealed that an abnormal level of depression was associated with SRH and medical insurance status. Moreover, the number of comorbidities and poor SRH significantly increased the chance of achieving abnormal anxiety levels in pregnant mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Children of mothers who experience high psychological distress during pregnancy are more susceptible to cognitive and behavioral problems. Few studies have reported the psychological distress of pregnant mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it may be considered as a risk factor for child developmental disorders.In total, 540 out of 920 registered pregnant mothers in maternity clinics affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences answered the online questionnaire and were included in this study. An online self-administered data gathering tool was used so that the respondents felt more secure. The data gathering tool had three main parts: socio-demographic, obstetric and medical histories, and the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) which consisting of 21 questions, 7 in each subscale; depression (DASS-D), anxiety (DASS-A) and stress (DASS-S).Pregnant mothers who had two or more comorbidities or those with lower self-rated health (SRH) had a higher chance of having an abnormal anxiety level. Depression levels were higher in pregnant mothers who had no insurance. Additionally, depression symptoms were more prevalent in pregnant mothers who had low health status than in those with good or intermediated SRH.In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic contributes to a significant increase in depression and anxiety symptoms among pregnant mothers. Moreover, lack of insurance, poor SRH, and having comorbidities are significantly associated with increasing depressive and anxiety scores.

Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Mothers , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Eur Neurol ; 84(3): 192-199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183420


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although anyone can be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, it may cause additional concern for people with chronic conditions. Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine anxiety levels among the mothers of children under follow-up for epilepsy in our clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study group consisted of the mothers of epilepsy patients who were under follow-up in the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic of the tertiary care center and were scheduled for a routine examination during the COVID-19 pandemic. The mothers' anxiety levels according to the Beck Anxiety Inventory and their opinions about COVID-19 in relation to their child were assessed and compared based on whether the mother/patient attended their appointments in person and whether the child had frequent or infrequent seizures. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in anxiety level between the mothers of 64 children with epilepsy who attended their appointment during the pandemic and those of the mothers of 52 who did not attend their appointment. However, the mothers of children with frequent seizures had significantly higher anxiety levels. CONCLUSION: Anxiety level of mothers whose children have frequent seizures was significantly higher compared to mothers whose children have infrequent seizures. It is important to be aware about this point and using telemedicine approach in suitable population and postpone routine outpatient follow-up appointments as much as possible.

Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Epilepsy , Mothers/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(1): 264-270, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833925


BACKGROUND: Due to advances in technology, home ventilation in children has increased in recent years. The provision of proper care for a home-ventilated (HV) child can have a strong impact on the lifestyle of caregivers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels of the mothers of HV children during the current COVID-19 pandemic and compare them to those of mothers of healthy peers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on HV children (n = 21) and a control group of healthy peers (n = 32) by means of a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the children of both groups. Psychometric scales, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T), were used to assess participants. RESULTS: During the pandemic signs of depression were present in 8 (38.1%) of the case group and 8 (25%) of the healthy control group. Comparison of the BDI scores from before and during the pandemic showed no difference between mothers of the HV children (p = .09). Scores for BDI and STAI-T were higher in the case group than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference in STAI-S scores. CONCLUSION: Depression and anxiety levels of mothers of HV children were found to be higher during the COVID-19 pandemic. Economic, medical, and social support resources are needed to reduce levels of depression and anxiety and help mothers of those children dependent on technology.

Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Home Nursing , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology