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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 614024, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542362

ABSTRACT

Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a major contributor to the poor outcomes of septic shock. As an add-on with conventional sepsis management for over 15 years, the effect of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) on the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction was not well understood. The material basis of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) in managing infections and infection-related complications remains to be defined. A murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model and cardiomyocytes in vitro culture were adopted to study the influence of XBJ on infection-induced cardiac dysfunction. XBJ significantly improved the survival of septic-mice and rescued cardiac dysfunction in vivo. RNA-seq revealed XBJ attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and related signalings in the heart which was further confirmed on the mRNA and protein levels. Xuebijing also protected cardiomyocytes from LPS-induced mitochondrial calcium ion overload and reduced the LPS-induced ROS production in cardiomyocytes. The therapeutic effect of XBJ was mediated by the combination of paeoniflorin and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) (C0127-2). C0127-2 improved the survival of septic mice, protected their cardiac function and cardiomyocytes while balancing gene expression in cytokine-storm-related signalings, such as TNF-α and NF-κB. In summary, Paeoniflorin and HSYA are key active compounds in XBJ for managing sepsis, protecting cardiac function, and controlling inflammation in the cardiac tissue partially by limiting the production of IL-6, IL-1ß, and CXCL2.

2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922281, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden and serious disease with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a novel target for inflammatory disease, and ibudilast (IBU), a PDE4 inhibitor, inhibits inflammatory response. Our study investigated the effect of IBU on the pathogenesis of neonatal ARDS and the underlying mechanism related to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of PDE4, CXCR4, SDF-1, CXCR5, CXCL1, inflammatory cytokines, and proteins related to cell apoptosis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological morphology of lung tissue. Pulmonary edema score was used to assess the degree of lung water accumulation after pulmonary injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1) in serum. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. RESULTS Increased expression of PDE4 was observed in an LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model, and IBU ameliorated LPS-induced pathological manifestations and pulmonary edema in lung tissue. In addition, IBU attenuated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by inactivating the chemokine axis in the LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model. Finally, IBU significantly reduced LPS-induced cell apoptosis in lung tissue. CONCLUSIONS IBU, a PDE4 inhibitor, protected against ARDS by interfering with pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis. Our findings provide a novel and promising strategy to regulate pulmonary inflammation in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
3.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104820, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318923

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a huge threaten to global health, which raise urgent demand of developing efficient therapeutic strategy. The aim of the present study is to dissect the chemical composition and the pharmacological mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QFPD), a clinically used Chinese medicine for treating COVID-19 patients in China. Through comprehensive analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 129 compounds of QFPD were putatively identified. We also constructed molecular networking of mass spectrometry data to classify these compounds into 14 main clusters, in which exhibited specific patterns of flavonoids (45 %), glycosides (15 %), carboxylic acids (10 %), and saponins (5 %). The target network model of QFPD, established by predicting and collecting the targets of identified compounds, indicated a pivotal role of Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction (MXSG) in the therapeutic efficacy of QFPD. Supportively, through transcriptomic analysis of gene expression after MXSG administration in rat model of LPS-induced pneumonia, the thrombin and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway were suggested to be essential pathways for MXSG mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, changes in content of major compounds in MXSG during decoction were found by the chemical analysis. We also validate that one major compound in MXSG, i.e. glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited TLR agonists induced IL-6 production in macrophage. In conclusion, the integration of in silico and experimental results indicated that the therapeutic effects of QFPD against COVID-19 may be attributed to the anti-inflammatory effects of MXSG, which supports the rationality of the compatibility of TCM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopeptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thrombin/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273453

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common and devastating clinical disorders with high mortality and no specific therapy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is usually used intratracheally to induce ALI in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in mice subjected to LPS-induced ALI. Histopathological analysis reveals that um-PEA reduced alteration in lung after LPS intratracheal administration. Besides, um-PEA decreased wet/dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase, a marker of neutrophils infiltration, macrophages and total immune cells number and mast cells degranulation in lung. Moreover, um-PEA could also decrease cytokines release of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-18. Furthermore, um-PEA significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation in ALI, and at the same time decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK) expression, that was increased after LPS administration. Our study suggested that um-PEA contrasted LPS-induced ALI, exerting its potential role as an adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapeutic for treating lung injury, maybe also by p38/NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Amides/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Amides/therapeutic use , Animals , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/pathology , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Peroxidase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 56, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled inflammation is a central problem for many respiratory diseases. The development of potent, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies to reduce lung inflammation and re-establish the homeostasis in the respiratory tract is still a challenge. Previously, we developed a unique anti-inflammatory nanodrug, P12 (made of hexapeptides and gold nanoparticles), which can attenuate Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages. However, the effect of the administration route on its therapeutic efficacy and tissue distribution remained to be defined. RESULTS: In this study, we systematically compared the effects of three different administration routes [the intratracheal (i.t.), intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.)] on the therapeutic activity, biodistribution and pulmonary cell targeting features of P12. Using the LPS-induced ALI mouse model, we found that the local administration route via i.t. instillation was superior in reducing lung inflammation than the other two routes even treated with a lower concentration of P12. Further studies on nanoparticle biodistribution showed that the i.t. administration led to more accumulation of P12 in the lungs but less in the liver and other organs; however, the i.v. and i.p. administration resulted in more nanoparticle accumulation in the liver and lymph nodes, respectively, but less in the lungs. Such a lung favorable distribution was also determined by the unique surface chemistry of P12. Furthermore, the inflammatory condition in the lung could decrease the accumulation of nanoparticles in the lung and liver, while increasing their distribution in the spleen and heart. Interestingly, the i.t. administration route helped the nanoparticles specifically target the lung macrophages, whereas the other two administration routes did not. CONCLUSION: The i.t. administration is better for treating ALI using nanodevices as it enhances the bioavailability and efficacy of the nanodrugs in the target cells of the lung and reduces the potential systematic side effects.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Gold/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/pathology , Tissue Distribution
6.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1463-1477.e11, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263294

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), an inflammatory condition with high mortality rates, is common in severe COVID-19, whose risk is reduced by metformin rather than other anti-diabetic medications. Detecting of inflammasome assembly in post-mortem COVID-19 lungs, we asked whether and how metformin inhibits inflammasome activation while exerting its anti-inflammatory effect. We show that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1ß production in cultured and alveolar macrophages along with inflammasome-independent IL-6 secretion, thus attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS. By targeting electron transport chain complex 1 and independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or NF-κB, metformin blocked LPS-induced and ATP-dependent mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis and generation of oxidized mtDNA, an NLRP3 ligand. Myeloid-specific ablation of LPS-induced cytidine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2), which is rate limiting for mtDNA synthesis, reduced ARDS severity without a direct effect on IL-6. Thus, inhibition of ATP and mtDNA synthesis is sufficient for ARDS amelioration.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial/biosynthesis , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Metformin/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Metformin/therapeutic use , Mice , Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(9): 2330-2340, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261763

ABSTRACT

The molecular mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein was characterized to identify novel therapies. The impact of tofacitinib, IL-6R Ab, or TNFi therapy was determined on Spike protein or LPS/IFN-γ-induced signaling, inflammation, and metabolic reprogramming in MΦs and/or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS). ACE2 frequency was markedly expanded in MΦs compared to T cells and RA FLS. Tofacitinib suppresses Spike protein potentiated STAT1 signaling, whereas this function was unchanged by TNFi. Tofacitinib impairs IL-6/IFN/LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in RA MΦs and FLS. Interestingly, tofacitinib had a broader inhibitory effect on the monokines, glycolytic regulators, or oxidative metabolites compared to IL-6R Ab and TNFi in Spike-protein-activated MΦs. In contrast, all three therapies disrupted IFN-α and IFN-ß secretion in response to Spike protein; nonetheless, the IFN-γ was only curtailed by tofacitinib or IL-6R Ab. While tofacitinib counteracted MΦ metabolic rewiring instigated by Spike protein, it was inconsequential on the glycolysis expansion mediated via HK2 and/or LDHA in the activated RA MΦ and FLS. Nevertheless, the potentiated inflammatory response and the diminished oxidative phosphorylation modulated by Spike protein and/or LPS/IFN-γ stimulation in MΦs or RA FLS were reversed by tofacitinib. In conclusion, tofacitinib suppresses MΦ inflammation and immunometabolism triggered by Spike protein and may provide a promising strategy for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , Piperidines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
8.
J Anesth ; 35(4): 543-554, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248731

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic threatens our current ICU capabilities nationwide. As the number of COVID-19 positive patients across the nation continues to increase, the need for options to address ventilator shortages is inevitable. Multi-patient ventilation (MPV), in which more than one patient can use a single ventilator base unit, has been proposed as a potential solution to this problem. To our knowledge, this option has been discussed but remains untested in live patients with differing severity of lung pathology. METHODS: The objective of this study was to address ventilator shortages and patient stacking limitations by developing and validating a modified breathing circuit for two patients with differing lung compliances using simple, off-the-shelf components. A multi-patient ventilator circuit (MPVC) was simulated with a mathematical model and validated with four animal studies. Each animal study had two human-sized pigs: one healthy and one with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ARDS. LPS was chosen because it lowers lung compliance similar to COVID-19. In a previous study, a control group of four pigs was given ARDS and placed on a single patient ventilation circuit (SPVC). The oxygenation of the MPVC ARDS animals was then compared to the oxygenation of the SPVC animals. RESULTS: Based on the comparisons, similar oxygenation and morbidity rates were observed between the MPVC ARDS animals and the SPVC animals. CONCLUSION: As healthcare systems worldwide deal with inundated ICUs and hospitals from pandemics, they could potentially benefit from this approach by providing more patients with respiratory care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Ventilators, Mechanical
9.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(8): 4379-4392, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245619

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Corticosteroid (CS) therapy for infectious and rheumatological diseases showed to decrease serum magnesium (Mg++) level and induce muscle atrophy in patients. The present study investigated the effects of Mg++ supplementation on preventing CS-induced muscle atrophy in an animal model, which provided experimental data for potential clinical translation. METHODS: Twelve 24-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CS methylprednisolone (MPS) to induce muscle atrophy, with half of the rats also given daily 50 mg/kg Mg++ oral supplementation. Additional six rats without LPS + CS treatments were used as normal controls. After treatment for 6 weeks, serum was collected for Mg++ quantification, animal dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed for tissue composition, and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) was collected for muscle functional test and histology including muscle fiber size, intramuscular fat infiltration and fiber typing. In vitro myotube atrophy model was used to study the in vitro effect associated with in vivo muscle atrophy. RESULTS: LPS + CS treatments induced hypomagnesemia while the serum Mg++ level was in normal range after Mg++ supplementation. DXA showed 53.0% lower fat percent and 29.7% higher lean mass in LPS + CS + Mg group when compared to LPS + CS group. Muscle functional test showed 22.2% higher specific twitch force and 40.3% higher specific tetanic force in LPS + CS + Mg group when compared to LPS + CS group. Histological analysis showed 4.1% higher proportion of muscle fibers area to total area and 63.6% lower intramuscular fat infiltration in EDL sections in LPS + CS + Mg group when compared to LPS + CS group. LPS + CS + Mg group had 33.0% higher area proportion and 29.4% higher cross-sectional area (CSA) of type IIb muscle fiber. Myoblast culture results showed that Mg++ supplementation group had larger myotube diameter. The mRNA expressions of the muscle atrophy marker genes MuRF1 and MAFbx were lower in Mg++ supplementation group both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that Mg++ supplementation successfully alleviated CS-associated muscle atrophy in rats at both functional and morphology levels, indicating a translational potential for patients undergoing CS therapy. This study provided the evidence for the first time that Mg++ supplementation could prevent muscle atrophy-an adverse effect of CS therapy, currently also adopted for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnesium , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Animals , Dietary Supplements , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Atrophy/chemically induced , Muscular Atrophy/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Analyst ; 146(12): 4022-4032, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242051

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by heightened host immune responses post infection. Despite intensive research, most of the existing diagnostic methods remain non-specific, labour-intensive, time-consuming or are not sensitive enough for rapid and timely diagnosis of the onset and progression of sepsis. The present work was undertaken to explore the potential of Raman spectroscopy to identify the biomarkers of sepsis in a label-free and minimally invasive manner using different mouse models of inflammation. The sera of BALB/c mice infected with Salmonella Typhimurium reveal extensive hemolysis, as indicated by the Raman bands that are characteristic of the porphyrin ring of hemoglobin (668, 743, 1050, 1253 and 1397 cm-1) which increase in a kinetic manner. These markers are also observed in a lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock model, but not in a thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis model. These data demonstrate that hemolysis is a signature of systemic, but not localised, inflammation. To further validate our observations, sepsis was induced in the nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2-/-) deficient strain which is more sensitive to infection. Interestingly, Nos2-/- mice exhibit a higher degree of hemolysis than C57BL/6 mice. Sepsis-induced hemolysis was also confirmed using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 442 nm excitation which demonstrated a pronounced increase in the resonant Raman bands at 670 and 1350 cm-1 in sera of the infected mice. This is the first study to identify inflammation-induced hemolysis in mouse models of sepsis using Raman spectral signatures for hemoglobin. The possible implications of this method in detecting hemolysis in different inflammatory pathologies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Animals , Biomarkers , Hemoglobins , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107773, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237729

ABSTRACT

To date, drugs to attenuate cytokine storm in severe cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not available. In this study, we investigated the effects of intragastric and atomized administration of canagliflozin (CAN) on cytokine storm in lung tissues of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced mice. Results showed that intragastric administration of CAN significantly and widely inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of LPS-induced sepsis mice. Simultaneously, intragastric administration of CAN significantly improved inflammatory pathological changes of lung tissues. Atomized administration of CAN also exhibited similar effects in LPS-induced sepsis mice. Furthermore, CAN significantly inhibited hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) protein levels in LPS-treated lung tissues. These results indicated that CAN might attenuate cytokine storm and reduce the inflammatory symptoms in critical cases in COVID-19. Its action mechanism might involve the regulation of HIF-1α and glycolysis in vivo. However, further studies about clinical application and mechanism analysis should be validated in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Canagliflozin/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/chemically induced
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 624895, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238878

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical illness complication that is associated with high mortality. ARDS is documented in severe cases of COVID-19. No effective pharmacological treatments for ARDS are currently available. Dysfunctional immune responses and pulmonary and systemic inflammation are characteristic features of ARDS pathogenesis. Recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of inflammation point to an important role of the vagus-nerve-mediated inflammatory reflex and neural cholinergic signaling. We examined whether pharmacological cholinergic activation using a clinically approved (for myasthenia gravis) cholinergic drug, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine alters pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS. Male C57Bl/6 mice received one intratracheal instillation of LPS or were sham manipulated (control). Both groups were treated with either vehicle or pyridostigmine (1.5 mg/kg twice daily, 3 mg/day) administered by oral gavage starting at 1 h post-LPS and euthanized 24 h after LPS administration. Other groups were either sham manipulated or received LPS for 3 days and were treated with vehicle or pyridostigmine and euthanized at 72 h. Pyridostigmine treatment reduced the increased total number of cells and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in mice with ARDS at 24 and 72 h. Pyridostigmine also reduced the number of macrophages and lymphocytes at 72 h. In addition, pyridostigmine suppressed the levels of TNF, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IFN-γ in BALF and plasma at 24 and 72 h. However, this cholinergic agent did not significantly altered BALF and plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Neither LPS nor pyridostigmine affected BALF IFN-γ and IL-10 levels at 24 h post-LPS. In conclusion, treatments with the cholinergic agent pyridostigmine ameliorate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in mice with endotoxin-induced ARDS. Considering that pyridostigmine is a clinically approved drug, these findings are of substantial interest for implementing pyridostigmine in therapeutic strategies for ARDS.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236794

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Anilides/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Anilides/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Thiadiazoles/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 642860, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231336

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm (CS), an excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines upon overactivation of the innate immune system, came recently to the focus of interest because of its role in the life-threatening consequences of certain immune therapies and viral diseases, including CAR-T cell therapy and Covid-19. Because complement activation with subsequent anaphylatoxin release is in the core of innate immune stimulation, studying the relationship between complement activation and cytokine release in an in vitro CS model holds promise to better understand CS and identify new therapies against it. We used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultured in the presence of autologous serum to test the impact of complement activation and inhibition on cytokine release, testing the effects of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome), zymosan and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as immune activators and heat inactivation of serum, EDTA and mini-factor H (mfH) as complement inhibitors. These activators induced significant rises of complement activation markers C3a, C4a, C5a, Ba, Bb, and sC5b-9 at 45 min of incubation, with or without ~5- to ~2,000-fold rises of IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and TNFα at 6 and 18 h later. Inhibition of complement activation by the mentioned three methods had differential inhibition, or even stimulation of certain cytokines, among which effects a limited suppressive effect of mfH on IL-6 secretion and significant stimulation of IL-10 implies anti-CS and anti-inflammatory impacts. These findings suggest the utility of the model for in vitro studies on CS, and the potential clinical use of mfH against CS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Complement Factor H/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7777, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174704

ABSTRACT

Due to frequent and often severe lung affections caused by COVID-19, murine models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are increasingly used in experimental lung research. The one induced by a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure is practical. However, whether it is preferable to administer LPS intranasally or intratracheally remains an open question. Herein, female C57Bl/6 J mice were exposed intranasally or intratracheally to one dose of either saline or 3 mg/kg of LPS. They were studied 24 h later. The groups treated with LPS, either intranasally or intratracheally, exhibited a pronounced neutrophilic inflammation, signs of lung tissue damage and protein extravasation into the alveoli, and mild lung dysfunction. The magnitude of the response was generally not different between groups exposed intranasally versus intratracheally. However, the variability of some the responses was smaller in the LPS-treated groups exposed intranasally versus intratracheally. Notably, the saline-treated mice exposed intratracheally demonstrated a mild neutrophilic inflammation and alterations of the airway epithelium. We conclude that an intranasal exposure is as effective as an intratracheal exposure in a murine model of ARDS induced by LPS. Additionally, the groups exposed intranasally demonstrated less variability in the responses to LPS and less complications associated with the sham procedure.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Inflammation/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Proteins/analysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
16.
Int J Pharm ; 601: 120536, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157426

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life threatening respiratory disease associated with pulmonary edema, alveolar dysfunction, hypoxia, and inflammatory cell accumulation. The most contagious form of COVID-19 associated with ARDS caused by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 majorly produces the cytokine storm and severe lung inflammation and ultimately leads to respiratory failure. ARDS is a complex disease and there is no proper therapeutics for effective therapy. Still, there is a huge scope to identify novel targets to combat respiratory illness. In the current study, we have identified the epigenetic regulating protein BRD4 and developed siRNA based nanomedicine to treat the ARDS. The liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration method, where BRD4 siRNA complexed with cationic lipid and exhibited 96.24 ± 18.01 nm size and stable even in the presence of RNase. BRD4 siRNA lipoplexes (BRD4-siRNA-LP) inhibited inflammatory cells in lungs and suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the neutrophil infiltration and mast cell accumulation. Also, BRD4 siRNA based nanomedicine significantly reduced the LPS induced cytokine storm followed by inflammatory signaling pathways. Interestingly, BRD4-siRNA-LP suppressed the LPS-induced p65 and STAT3 nuclear translocation and ameliorated the lung inflammation. Thus, BRD4-siRNA-LP could be a plausible therapeutic option for treating ARDS and might be useful for combating the COVID-19 associated respiratory illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cell Cycle Proteins , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Nuclear Proteins , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors/genetics
17.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(5): 441, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145635

ABSTRACT

Acid preconditioning (APC) through carbon dioxide inhalation can exert protective effects during acute lung injury (ALI) triggered by ischemia-reperfusion. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the novel coronavirus disease-19. Downregulation of ACE2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of severe lung failure after viral or bacterial infections. The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism through which APC alleviates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in vivo and in vitro. The present results demonstrated that LPS significantly downregulated the expression of ACE2, while APC significantly reduced LPS-induced ALI and provided beneficial effects. In addition, bioinformatics analysis indicated that microRNA (miR)-200c-3p directly targeted the 3'untranslated region of ACE2 and regulated the expression of ACE2 protein. LPS exposure inhibited the expression of ACE2 protein in A549 cells by upregulating the levels of miR-200c-3p. However, APC inhibited the upregulation of miR-200c-3p induced by LPS, as well as the downregulation of ACE2 protein, through the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, although LPS can inhibit the expression of ACE2 by upregulating the levels of miR-200c-3p through the NF-κB pathway, APC inhibited this effect, thus reducing inflammation during LPS-induced ALI.

18.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 110(5): 1283-1294, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been described in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recently, early clinical data reported the feasibility of low doses of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of ARDS in patients with severe COVID-19. However, the involved mechanisms remained unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Here, we used airways-instilled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and influenza virus (H1N1) as murine models of pneumonia, and toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 stimulation in human lung macrophages. RESULTS: Low doses of RT (0.5-1 Gray) decreased LPS-induced pneumonia, and increased the percentage of nerve- and airway-associated macrophages producing interleukin (IL) 10. During H1N1 viral infection, we observed decreased lung tissue damage and immune cell infiltration in irradiated animals. Low doses of RT increased IL-10 production by infiltrating immune cells into the lung. Irradiation of TLR-3 ligand-stimulated human lung macrophages ex vivo increased IL-10 secretion and decreased interferon γ production in the culture supernatant. The percentage of human lung macrophages producing IL-6 was also decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight a mechanism by which low doses of RT regulate lung inflammation and skew lung macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory profile. These data provide a preclinical mechanistic support to clinical trials evaluating low doses of RT, such as COVID-19-induced ARDS.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/radiation effects , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Macrophages/radiation effects , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/radiotherapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/radiation effects , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/radiation effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poly I-C , Radiotherapy Dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Viral Load/radiation effects
19.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 45, 2021 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) is a pro-inflammatory alarmin associated with several inflammation-related diseases. However, the role of S100A9 in lung injury in sepsis has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the role of S100A9 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury murine model and its underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: LPS was utilized to induce sepsis and lung injury in C57BL/6 or NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-/- mice. To investigate the effects of S100A9 blockade, mice were treated with a specific inhibitor of S100A9. Subsequently, lung injury and inflammation were evaluated by histology and enzyme­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Furthermore, western blot analysis and RT-qPCR were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of S100A9. RESULTS: S100A9 was upregulated in the lung tissues of LPS-treated mice. However, inhibition of S100A9 alleviated LPS-induced lung injury. Additionally, S100A9 blockade also attenuated the inflammatory responses and apoptosis in the lungs of LPS-challenged mice. Furthermore, the increased expression of NLRP3 was also suppressed by S100A9 blockade, while S100A9 blockade had no effect on NLRP3-/- mice. In vitro, S100A9 downregulation mitigated LPS-induced inflammation. Interestingly, these effects were blunted by NLRP3 overexpression. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study suggested that inhibition of S100A9 could protect against LPS-induced lung injury via inhibiting the NLRP3 pathway. Therefore, S100A9 blockade could be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for lung injury in sepsis.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Calgranulin B/biosynthesis , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/biosynthesis , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 71, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, enters the cells through a mechanism dependent on its binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protein highly expressed in the lungs. The putative viral-induced inhibition of ACE2 could result in the defective degradation of bradykinin, a potent inflammatory substance. We hypothesize that increased bradykinin in the lungs is an important mechanism driving the development of pneumonia and respiratory failure in COVID-19. METHODS: This is a phase II, single-center, three-armed parallel-group, open-label, active control superiority randomized clinical trial. One hundred eighty eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either the inhibitor of C1e/kallikrein 20 U/kg intravenously on day 1 and day 4 plus standard care; or icatibant 30 mg subcutaneously, three doses/day for 4 days plus standard care; or standard care alone, as recommended in the clinical trials published to date, which includes supplemental oxygen, non-invasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, prophylactic antithrombotic therapy, vasopressor support, and renal replacement therapy. DISCUSSION: Accumulation of bradykinin in the lungs is a common side effect of ACE inhibitors leading to cough. In animal models, the inactivation of ACE2 leads to severe acute pneumonitis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the inhibition of bradykinin almost completely restores the lung structure. We believe that inhibition of bradykinin in severe COVID-19 patients could reduce the lung inflammatory response, impacting positively on the severity of disease and mortality rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1250-1843. Registered on May/5/2020.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bradykinin/administration & dosage , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Bradykinin/antagonists & inhibitors , Bradykinin/immunology , Bradykinin/metabolism , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Kallikreins/metabolism , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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