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Transplantation ; 105(6): 1381-1387, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091169


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in >72 million cases and 1.6 million deaths. End-stage lung disease from COVID-19 is a new and growing entity that may benefit from lung transplant; however, there are limited data on the patient selection, perioperative management, and expected outcomes of transplantation for this indication. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed with searches of MEDLINE and Web of Science databases as well as the gray literature. All manuscripts, editorials, commentaries, and gray literature reports of lung transplantation for COVID-related respiratory failure were included. A case from the University of Virginia is described and included in the review. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies were included: 11 manuscripts, 5 commentaries, and 11 gray literature reports. The total number of transplantations for COVID-related lung disease was 21. The mean age was 55±12 years, 16 (76%) were male individuals, and the acuity was high, with 85% on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation preoperatively. There was a 95% early survival rate, with 1 additional late death. There is growing histopathologic evidence for permanent structural damage with no replicating virus at the time of transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral lung transplantation is an effective treatment option with reasonable short-term outcomes for patients with end-stage lung failure secondary to COVID-19. However, specific considerations in this new population require a multidisciplinary approach. As we move into the second wave of the COVID-19 global pandemic, lung transplantation will likely have a growing role in management of these complex patients.

COVID-19/therapy , Lung Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Combined Modality Therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Lung Transplantation/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039519, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639482


INTRODUCTION: The rapid worldwide spread of COVID-19 has caused a global health crisis. To date, symptomatic supportive care has been the most common treatment. It has been reported that the mechanism of COVID-19 is related to cytokine storms and subsequent immunogenic damage, especially damage to the endothelium and alveolar membrane. Vitamin C (VC), also known as L-ascorbic acid, has been shown to have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. A high dose of intravenous VC (HIVC) was proven to block several key components of cytokine storms, and HIVC showed safety and varying degrees of efficacy in clinical trials conducted on patients with bacterial-induced sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, we hypothesise that HIVC could be added to the treatment of ARDS and multiorgan dysfunction related to COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The investigators designed a multicentre prospective randomised placebo-controlled trial that is planned to recruit 308 adults diagnosed with COVID-19 and transferred into the intensive care unit. Participants will randomly receive HIVC diluted in sterile water or placebo for 7 days once enrolled. Patients with a history of VC allergy, end-stage pulmonary disease, advanced malignancy or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency will be excluded. The primary outcome is ventilation-free days within 28 observational days. This is one of the first clinical trials applying HIVC to treat COVID-19, and it will provide credible efficacy and safety data. We predict that HIVC could suppress cytokine storms caused by COVID-19, help improve pulmonary function and reduce the risk of ARDS of COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University (identifiers: Clinical Ethical Approval No. 2020001). Findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04264533.

Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravenous , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment