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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3384-3395, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Information regarding multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is scarce. The study objective was to describe the incidence and characteristics of MS patients with COVID-19, to identify susceptibility and severity risk factors and to assess the proportion of positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serologies according to disease-modifying treatments. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of an MS cohort analysing data collected between February and May 2020. Cases were identified through an email survey and clinical visits. The relationship of demographic and MS characteristics with COVID-19 and of the disease-modifying treatments with SARS-CoV-2 serostatus were examined. RESULTS: Data from 48 suspected cases out of 758 valid respondents and from 45 COVID-19 cases identified through clinical visits were collected. Incidence was 6.3%. Nineteen (20.3%) patients were hospitalized and two (2.2%) died. Multivariable models determined that age (odds ratio [OR] per 10 years 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.85), contact with a confirmed case (OR 197.02, 95% CI 56.36-688.79), residence in Barcelona (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03-4.80), MS duration (OR per 5 years 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83) and time on anti-CD20 treatment (OR per 2 years 3.48, 95% CI 1.44-8.45) were independent factors for presenting COVID-19 and age (OR per 10 years 2.71, 95% CI 1.13-6.53) for a severe COVID-19. Out of the 79 (84.9%) with serological test, 45.6% generated antibodies, but only 17.6% of those on anti-CD20 therapies. Lymphopaenia or immunoglobulin levels did not relate to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis patients present similar incidence, risk factors and outcomes for COVID-19 as the general population. Patients treated with an anti-CD20 therapy for a longer period of time might be at a higher risk of COVID-19 and less than 20% generate an antibody response. Only age was related to severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Child , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(Suppl 1): S253-S263, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. Time to negative conversion of viral RNA, time to clinical improvement, and safety outcomes were assessed after 6 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA. There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses. These findings should be confirmed in randomized, controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104946, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279674

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sparked a global pandemic, affecting more than 4 million people worldwide. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); with a fatality of 7.0 %. Accumulating evidence suggested that the progression of COVID-19 is associated with lymphopenia and excessive inflammation, and a subset of severe cases might exhibit cytokine storm triggered by secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Furthermore, secondary bacterial infection may contribute to the exacerbation of COVID-19. We recommend using both IL-10 and IL-6 as the indicators of cytokine storm, and monitoring the elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) as an alert for initiating antibacterial agents. Understanding the dynamic progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial to determine an effective treatment strategy to reduce the rising mortality of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PeerJ ; 9: e11560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, information on COVID-19 pediatric patients is still sparse. We aimed to highlight the epidemiological and clinical data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents to improve the understanding of the disease in this age group and inform physicians during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study in "Marie Curie" Emergency Children's Hospital from Bucharest, Romania. We analyzed clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, between April 1, 2020-October 31, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 172 patients aged 0-18 years were included, 79 (45.93%) female and 93 (54.07%) male patients. 28 (16.28%) patients had co-morbidities (more often identified in asymptomatic group; p < 0.0001). 47 (27.32%) had exposure to an identified source. 30 (17.44%) patients were asymptomatic; 142 (85.56%) had mild or moderate disease. The most frequent symptoms were: pyrexia (78.87%), digestive symptoms (50%), cough (40.14%). Chest X-ray was performed in 50 patients and it was abnormal in half of them, all being symptomatic. About 2/3 of the evaluated patients had normal leukocytes. The most common hematological change was lymphopenia; monocytes tended to be higher in symptomatic patients. About 40% of the patients were admitted; none required admission to ICU. No significant differences were found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding gender, age distribution, and exposure to a source. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients had asymptomatic, mild or moderate disease. Patients with comorbidities, classically considered high risk patients, presented the same pattern of disease.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 667487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268236

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health. There remains an urgent need to address the clinical significance of laboratory finding changes in predicting disease progression in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to analyze the clinical and immunological features of severe and critically severe patients with COVID-19 in comparison with non-severe patients and identify risk factors for disease severity and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The consecutive records of 211 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from December 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 211 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 111 patients were classified as non-severe, 59 as severe, and 41 as critically severe cases. The median age was obviously higher in severe and critically severe cases than in non-severe cases. Severe and critically severe patients showed more underlying comorbidities than non-severe patients. Fever was the predominant presenting symptom in COVID-19 patients, and the duration of fever was longer in critically severe patients. Moreover, patients with increased levels of serum aminotransferases and creatinine (CREA) were at a higher risk for severe and critical COVID-19 presentations. The serum levels of IL-6 in severe and critically severe patients were remarkably higher than in non-severe patients. Lymphopenia was more pronounced in severe and critically severe patients compared with non-severe patients. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that severe and critically severe patients had significantly decreased count of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells. A multivariate logistic analysis indicated that older age, male sex, the length of hospital stay, body temperature before admission, comorbidities, higher white blood cell (WBC) counts, lower lymphocyte counts, and increased levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with predicting the progression to severe stage of COVID-19. Conclusion: Older age, male sex, underlying illness, sustained fever status, abnormal liver and renal functions, excessive expression of IL-6, lymphopenia, and selective loss of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were related to disease deterioration and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. This study would provide clinicians with valuable information for risk evaluation and effective interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266400

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has highly variable disease severity and a bimodal course characterized by acute respiratory viral infection followed by hyperinflammation in a subset of patients with severe disease. This immune dysregulation is characterized by lymphocytopenia, elevated levels of plasma cytokines and proliferative and exhausted T cells, among other dysfunctional cell types. Immunocompromised persons often fare worse in the context of acute respiratory infections, but preliminary data suggest this may not hold true for COVID-19. In this review, we explore the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mortality in four populations with distinct forms of immunocompromise: (1) persons with hematological malignancies (HM) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients; (2) solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs); (3) persons with rheumatological diseases; and (4) persons living with HIV (PLWH). For each population, key immunological defects are described and how these relate to the immune dysregulation in COVID-19. Next, outcomes including mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection are described for each population, giving comparisons to the general population of age-matched and comorbidity-matched controls. In these four populations, iatrogenic or disease-related immunosuppression is not clearly associated with poor prognosis in HM, HCT, SOTR, rheumatological diseases, or HIV. However, certain individual immunosuppressants or disease states may be associated with harmful or beneficial effects, including harm from severe CD4 lymphocytopenia in PLWH and possible benefit to the calcineurin inhibitor ciclosporin in SOTRs, or tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in persons with rheumatic diseases. Lastly, insights gained from clinical and translational studies are explored as to the relevance for repurposing of immunosuppressive host-directed therapies for the treatment of hyperinflammation in COVID-19 in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Pandemics , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data
9.
Endocr Pract ; 27(8): 850-855, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the use of melatonin as an early treatment option on the first day of diagnosis for COVID-19. METHODS: Medical Subject Headings terms "COVID-19" and "viral diseases" were manually searched on PubMed, and relevant articles were included. RESULTS: The results showed that melatonin acts to reduce reactive oxygen species-mediated damage, cytokine-induced inflammation, and lymphopenia in viral diseases similar to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: These conclusions provide evidence for potential benefits in melatonin use for COVID-19 treatment as early as the day of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Melatonin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Integr Med ; 18(5): 395-400, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised concern around the world as an epidemic or pandemic. As data on COVID-19 has grown, it has become clear that older adults have a disproportionately high rate of death from COVID-19. This study describes the early clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with more than 80 years of age. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data from 17 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 20 and February 20, 2020 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Treatment outcomes among subgroups of patients with non-severe and severe symptoms of COVID-19 were compared. RESULTS: Of the 17 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the median age was 88.0 years (interquartile range, 86.6-90.0 years; range, 80.0-100.0 years) and 12 (70.6%) were men. The age distribution of patients was not significantly different between non-severe group and severe group. All patients had chronic pre-existing conditions. Hypertension and cardiovascular diseases were the most common chronic conditions in both subgroups. The most common symptoms at the onset of COVID-19 were fever (n = 13; 76.5%), fatigue (n = 11; 64.7%), and cough (n = 5; 29.4%). Lymphopenia was observed in all patients, and lymphopenia was significantly more severe in the severe group than that in non-severe group (0.4 × 109/L vs 1.2 × 109/L, P = 0.014). The level of serum creatinine was higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group (99.0 µmol/L vs 62.5 µmol/L, P = 0.038). The most common features of chest computed tomography images were nodular foci in 10 (58.8%) patients and pleural thickening in 7 (41.2%) patients. All patients received antiviral therapy, while some patients also received intravenous antibiotics therapy (76.5%), Chinese medicinal preparation therapy (Lianhuaqingwen capsule, 64.7%), corticosteroids (35.3%) or immunoglobin (29.4%). Eight patients (47.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit because of complications. Ten patients (58.8%) received intranasal oxygen, while 3 (17.6%) received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (23.5%) received high-flow oxygen. As of June 20, 7 (41.2%) patients had been discharged and 10 (58.8% of this cohort, 77.8% of severe patients) had died. CONCLUSION: The mortality of patients aged 80 years and older with severe COVID-19 symptoms was high. Lymphopenia was a characteristic laboratory result in these patients, and the severity of lymphopenia was indicative of the severity of COVID-19. However, the majority of patients with COVID-19 in this age cohort had atypical symptoms, and early diagnosis depends on prompt use of a viral nucleic acid test.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clin Ther ; 43(6): 1007-1019, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245895

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a global urgency to discover an effective treatment for patients withthis disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the widely used antiparasitic drug ivermectin on outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, patients with COVID-19 admitted to 2 referral tertiary hospitals in Mazandaran, Iran, were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention and control. In addition to standard treatment for COVID-19, the intervention group received a single weight-based dose (0.2 mg/kg) of ivermectin; the control group received the standard of care. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data from participants were recorded at baseline. Patients were assessed daily for symptoms and disease progression. The primary clinical outcome measures were the durations of hospital stay, fever, dyspnea, and cough; and overall clinical improvement. FINDINGS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled (mean [SD] ages: ivermectin, 47.63 [22.20] years; control, 45.18 [23.11] years; P = 0.65). Eighteen patients (51.4%) in the ivermectin group and 18 (52.9%) in control group were male (P = 0.90). The mean durations of dyspnea were 2.6 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group and 3.8 (0.4) days in the control group (P = 0.048). Also, persistent cough lasted for 3.1 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group compared to 4.8 (0.4) days in control group (PP = 0.019). The mean durations of hospital stay were 7.1 (0.5) days versus 8.4 (0.6) days in the ivermectin and control groups, respectively (P = 0.016). Also, the frequency of lymphopenia decreased to 14.3% in the ivermectin group and did not change in the control group (P = 0.007). IMPLICATIONS: A single dose of ivermectin was well-tolerated in symptomatic patients with COVID-19, and important clinical features of COVID-19 were improved with ivermectin use, including dyspnea, cough, and lymphopenia. Further studies with larger sample sizes, different drug dosages, dosing intervals and durations, especially in different stages of the disease, may be useful in understanding the potential clinical benefits ivermectin. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials identifier: IRCT20111224008507N3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Adult , Humans , Iran , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(3): 561-567, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235720

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by lymphopenia as well as a proinflammatory cytokine storm, which are responsible for the poor prognosis and multiorgan defects. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) modulates the functions of the immune cells and alters the gene expression profile of different cytokines in response to various pathogenic stimuli, while many proinflammatory factors have been known to induce NF-κB signalling cascade. Besides, NF-κB has been known to potentiate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis in various tissues in many diseases and viral infections. Though the reports on the involvement of the NF-κB signalling pathway in COVID-19 are limited, the therapeutic benefits of NF-κB inhibitors including dexamethasone, a synthetic form of glucocorticoid, have increasingly been realized. Considering the fact, the abnormal activation of the NF-κB resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection might be associated with the pathogenic profile of immune cells, cytokine storm and multiorgan defects. Thus, the pharmacological inactivation of the NF-κB signalling pathway can strongly represent a potential therapeutic target to treat the symptomatology of COVID-19. This article signifies pharmacological blockade of the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta (IKKß), a key downstream effector of NF-κB signalling, for a therapeutic consideration to attenuate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/trends , I-kappa B Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfones/administration & dosage
13.
Appl Math Comput ; 408: 126364, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225115

ABSTRACT

The world is going through a critical period due to a new respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mathematical modeling is one of the most important tools that can speed up finding a drug or vaccine for COVID-19. COVID-19 can lead to death especially for patients having chronic diseases such as cancer, AIDS, etc. We construct a new within-host SARS-CoV-2/cancer model. The model describes the interactions between six compartments: nutrient, healthy epithelial cells, cancer cells, SARS-CoV-2 virus particles, cancer-specific CTLs, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We verify the nonnegativity and boundedness of its solutions. We outline all possible equilibrium points of the proposed model. We prove the global stability of equilibria by constructing proper Lyapunov functions. We do some numerical simulations to visualize the obtained results. According to our model, lymphopenia in COVID-19 cancer patients may worsen the outcomes of the infection and lead to death. Understanding dysfunctions in immune responses during COVID-19 infection in cancer patients could have implications for the development of treatments for this high-risk group.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 642822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221964

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Approximately 15% of severe cases require an intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation due to development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Tetracyclines (TCs) are a group of bacteriostatic antibiotics, like tetracycline, minocycline, and doxycycline, effective against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Based on available evidences, TCs may be effective against coronaviruses and thus useful to treat COVID-19. Thus, this review aims to provide a brief overview on the uses of TCs for COVID-19 management. SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses depend mainly on the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for their proliferation, cell adhesion, and infiltration. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of TCs are linked to different pathways. Briefly, TCs inhibit mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase pathway with improvement of lymphopenia in early COVID-19. Specifically, minocycline is effective in reducing COVID-19-related complications, through attenuation of cytokine storm as apparent by reduction of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Different clinical trials recommend the replacement of azithromycin by minocycline in the management of COVID-19 patients at high risk due to two main reasons: 1) minocycline does not prolong the QT interval and even inhibits ischemia-induced arrhythmia; 2) minocycline displays synergistic effect with chloroquine against SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, the data presented here show that TCs, mainly doxycycline or minocycline, may be potential partners in COVID-19 management, derived pneumonia, and related complications, such as acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS.

15.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(8): 1069-1076, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COPD is not one of the most common comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, it can be more fatal in this group. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and prognosis of COPD patients among the population with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with positive PCR test were included in our multicentered, retrospective study. Patients with airway obstruction (previous spirometry) were included in 'COPD group'. RESULTS: The prevalence of COPD in COVID-19 patients was 4.96%(53/1069). There was a significant difference between COPD and non-COPD COVID-19 patients in terms of gender, mean age, presence of dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia and presence of pneumonia. The mortality rate was 13.2% in COPD, 7% in non-COPD patients(p = 0.092). The significant predictors of mortality were higher age, lymphopenia (p < 0.001), hypoxemia (p = 0.028), high D-dimer level (p = 0.011), and presence of pneumonia (p = 0.043) in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our research is one of the first studies investigating characteristics of COPD patients with COVID-19 in Turkey. Although COPD patients had some poor prognostic features, there was no statistical difference between overall survival rates of two groups. Age, status of oxygenization, serum D-dimer level, lymphocyte count and pneumonia were significantly associated parameters with mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Hum Pathol ; 113: 92-103, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201239

ABSTRACT

Information on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with COVID-19 is limited, and clinical correlation has not been reported. This study investigated the key features of BAL fluids from COVID-19 patients and assessed their clinical significance. A total of 320 BAL samples from 83 COVID-19 patients and 70 non-COVID-19 patients (27 patients with other respiratory viral infections) were evaluated, including cell count/differential, morphology, flow cytometric immunophenotyping, and immunohistochemistry. The findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Compared to non-COVID-19 patients, BAL from COVID-19 patients was characterized by significant lymphocytosis (p < 0.001), in contrast to peripheral blood lymphopenia commonly observed in COVID-19 patients and the presence of atypical lymphocytes with plasmacytoid/plasmablastic features (p < 0.001). Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that BAL lymphocytes, including plasmacytoid and plasmablastic cells, were composed predominantly of T cells with a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Both populations had increased expression of T-cell activation markers, suggesting important roles of helper and cytotoxic T-cells in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung. More importantly, BAL lymphocytosis was significantly associated with longer hospital stay (p < 0.05) and longer requirement for mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05), whereas the median atypical (activated) lymphocyte count was associated with shorter hospital stay (p < 0.05), shorter time on mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05) and improved survival. Our results indicate that BAL cellular analysis and morphologic findings provide additional important information for diagnostic and prognostic work-up, and potential new therapeutic strategies for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2867-2874, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196522

ABSTRACT

Increased levels of acute-phase reactants and lymphopenia are predictors of disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the role of apoptosis in the etiology of lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. This multicentered, prospective, and case-control study was conducted with polymerase chain reaction (+) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients, and an age-gender-matched control group. Samples were taken at the time of diagnosis and analyzed via flow cytometry within 24 h. The participants' demographic data and initial laboratory tests were also recorded. In total, 33 patients with COVID-19 (mean age = 45.4 ± 17.2) and 25 controls (mean age = 43.4 ± 17.4) participated in the study. All patients were identified as having mild (16), moderate (5), or severe (12) disease severity. Both early and late apoptotic cells in B and T lymphocytes were increased in all patients with COVID-19 (p < .05). Early apoptotic (EA) B and T lymphocytes were also higher in severe cases compared to mild cases (p = .026). There was no significant difference between lymphopenia and apoptosis in patients with COVID-19. However, patients with lymphopenia (n = 14) and severe COVID-19 (p = .013) had increased EA T lymphocytes. This study's results show that B and T lymphocytes' apoptosis increases in patients with COVID-19. In addition, enhanced T lymphocyte apoptosis is associated with disease severity in lymphopenic patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and in severe cases associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ARDS-COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved 197 male Egyptian participants, among them111 COVID-19 patients presented with ARDS, 60 COVID-19 patients presented with non-ARDS, and 26 Non-COVID-19 patients. We reported the analysis results of clinical and laboratory information, including blood routine tests, blood biochemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and C-reactive protein (CRP)], thrombotic activity (D-dimer) and serum ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RESULTS: The levels of hemoglobin, AST, creatinine, monocyte count, monocyte %, RBC count, TLC, and platelet count were not significantly different among the groups. The lymphopenia and increased CRP, ALT, D-dimer, ferritin, and LDH were observed in patients with ARDS-COVID-19. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with ARDS presented with lymphopenia, increased thrombotic activity, increased CRP, LDH, and ferritin levels. The results revealed that CRP, D-dimer, LDH levels, and lymphopenia have a significant association with the COVID-19 severity and can be used as biomarkers to predict the disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/metabolism , Egypt/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 625377, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170105

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that several children diagnosed with COVID-19 have developed Kawasaki Disease (KD)-like symptoms. This systematic review aims to assess the demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of children with KD-like syndrome during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate efficacy of treatments and patients' outcome. A comprehensive search was carried out systematically through PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WoS), medRxiv, and bioRxiv by two reviewers independently for all studies or preprints data on the demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of children with K.D-like signs during the COVID-19 outbreak. Overall, 378 studies were identified by the systematic search, of which 25 studies were included in the study. The included studies involved 599 patients in total. Thirteen studies (52%) were case reports or case series, and the rest (48%) were cohort studies. In 19 studies, patients were diagnosed with Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In 16 studies COVID-19 was diagnosed in all patients based on their polymerase chain reaction result, serological findings, and computed tomography results. Higher C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate level were the most prevalent laboratory findings. In most studies, patients had leucopenia with marked lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and increased ferritin, as well as hyponatremia. Abnormal echocardiography and respiratory outcomes were the most common clinical outcomes. In 11 studies, all patients required intensive care unit admission. Findings of the present systematic review show that the incidence of KD-like syndrome in the COVID-19 pandemic increased significantly. Moreover, this study offers new insights in the KD-like syndrome pathogenesis and clinical spectrum during COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(1): 84-92, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167911

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a distinct entity that rapidly evolves and may abruptly culminate in to a critical illness. As per Chinese experience, approximately, 15% of patients of COVID-19 progress to severe disease and 5% become critically ill. The incidence of severe and critical illness is higher among men, patients older than 65 years of age and in persons with other medical comorbidities. Cytokine storm cause pronounced lung damage and multiorgan failure. Coagulopathy is a key component of severe COVID-19. Critically ill patients are generally predisposed to a high risk of thromboembolism as well. Lymphopenia predisposes to severe disease. None of the antiviral or immunomodulators has proven efficacy in severe COVID-19. Supplemental oxygen need be administered in patients with hypoxemia. Excessive breathing effort, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), encephalopathy, and multiorgan failure are indications for mechanical ventilation. In a large number of patients, the overall outcome is poor. Health care workers in intensive care units are exposed to the enormous risk of acquiring hospital acquired SARS-COV-2 infection.

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