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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3384-3395, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Information regarding multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is scarce. The study objective was to describe the incidence and characteristics of MS patients with COVID-19, to identify susceptibility and severity risk factors and to assess the proportion of positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serologies according to disease-modifying treatments. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of an MS cohort analysing data collected between February and May 2020. Cases were identified through an email survey and clinical visits. The relationship of demographic and MS characteristics with COVID-19 and of the disease-modifying treatments with SARS-CoV-2 serostatus were examined. RESULTS: Data from 48 suspected cases out of 758 valid respondents and from 45 COVID-19 cases identified through clinical visits were collected. Incidence was 6.3%. Nineteen (20.3%) patients were hospitalized and two (2.2%) died. Multivariable models determined that age (odds ratio [OR] per 10 years 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.85), contact with a confirmed case (OR 197.02, 95% CI 56.36-688.79), residence in Barcelona (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03-4.80), MS duration (OR per 5 years 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83) and time on anti-CD20 treatment (OR per 2 years 3.48, 95% CI 1.44-8.45) were independent factors for presenting COVID-19 and age (OR per 10 years 2.71, 95% CI 1.13-6.53) for a severe COVID-19. Out of the 79 (84.9%) with serological test, 45.6% generated antibodies, but only 17.6% of those on anti-CD20 therapies. Lymphopaenia or immunoglobulin levels did not relate to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis patients present similar incidence, risk factors and outcomes for COVID-19 as the general population. Patients treated with an anti-CD20 therapy for a longer period of time might be at a higher risk of COVID-19 and less than 20% generate an antibody response. Only age was related to severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Child , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Mult Scler ; 28(1): 132-138, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses unique challenges in the management of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVES: To collect data about the impact of COVID-19 emergency on access to care for PwMS and on MS treatment practices. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) promoted an online survey covering patient access to care, management of relapses and visits, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) and experience with COVID-19. RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty neurologists from 52 countries (68% from Europe) completed the survey. 98% reported COVID-19-related restrictions. Telemedicine was adopted to overcome the limited access to care and was newly activated (73%) or widely implemented (17%). 70% reported changes in DMT management. Interferons and glatiramer were considered safe. Dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod were considered safe except for patients developing lymphopenia. No modifications were considered for natalizumab in 64%, cladribine in 24%, anti-CD20 in 22% and alemtuzumab in 17%; 18% (for alemtuzumab and cladribine) and 43% (for anti-CD20) considered postponing treatment. CONCLUSION: The ECTRIMS survey highlighted the challenges in keeping standards of care in clinical practice. Telemedicine clearly needs to be implemented. Gathering data on DMT safety will remain crucial to inform treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 632965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575687

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is raising with a second wave threatening many countries. Therefore, it is important to understand COVID-19 characteristics across different countries. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 525 hospitalized symptomatic COVID-19 patients, from the central federal hospital in Dubai-UAE during period of March to August 2020. Results: UAE's COVID-19 patients were relatively young; mean (SD) of the age 49(15) years, 130 (25%) were older than 60 and 4 (<1%) were younger than 18 years old. Majority were male(47; 78%). The mean (SD) BMI was 29 (6) kg/m2. While the source of contracting COVID-19 was not known in 369 (70%) of patients, 29 (6%) reported travel to overseas-country and 127 (24%) reported contact with another COVID-19 case/s. At least one comorbidity was present in 284 (54%) of patients and 241 (46%) had none. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (177; 34%) and hypertension (166; 32%). The mean (SD) of symptoms duration was 6 (3) days. The most common symptoms at hospitalization were fever (340; 65%), cough (296; 56%), and shortness of breath (SOB) (243; 46%). Most of the laboratory values were within normal range, but (184; 35%) of patients had lymphopenia, 43 (8%) had neutrophilia, and 116 (22%) had prolong international normalized ratio (INR), and 317 (60%) had high D-dimer. Chest x ray findings of consolidation was present in 334 (64%) of patients and CT scan ground glass appearance was present in 354 (68%). Acute cardiac injury occurred in 124 (24%), acute kidney injury in 111 (21%), liver injury in 101 (19%), ARDS in 155 (30%), acidosis in 118 (22%), and septic shock in 93 (18%). Consequently, 150 (29%) required ICU admission with 103 (20%) needed mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the special profile of COVID-19 in UAE. Patients were young with diabetes and/or hypertension and associated with severe infection as shown by various clinical and laboratory data necessitating ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Stem Cells , Aged , Child , Humans , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(Suppl 1): S253-S263, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. Time to negative conversion of viral RNA, time to clinical improvement, and safety outcomes were assessed after 6 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA. There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses. These findings should be confirmed in randomized, controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5425-5431, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363680

ABSTRACT

A rapid outbreak of novel coronavirus, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has made it a global pandemic. This study focused on the possible association between lymphopenia and computed tomography (CT) scan features and COVID-19 patient mortality. The clinical data of 596 COVID-19 patients were collected from February 2020 to September 2020. The patients' serological survey and CT scan features were retrospectively explored. The median age of the patients was 56.7 ± 16.4 years old. Lung involvement was more than 50% in 214 COVID-19 patients (35.9%). The average blood lymphocyte percentage was 20.35 ± 10.16 (normal range, 20%-50%). Although the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were high in more than 80% of COVID-19 patients; CRP, ESR, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may not indicate the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. Patients with severe lung involvement and lymphopenia were found to be significantly associated with increased odds of death (odds ratio, 9.24; 95% confidence interval, 4.32-19.78). These results indicated that lymphopenia < 20% along with pulmonary involvement >50% impose a multiplicative effect on the risk of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate of this group was significantly higher than other COVID-19 hospitalized cases. Furthermore, they meaningfully experienced a prolonged stay in the hospital (p = .00). Lymphocyte count less than 20% and chest CT scan findings with more than 50% involvement might be related to the patient's mortality. These could act as laboratory and clinical indicators of disease severity, mortality, and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/complications , Pneumonia/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphopenia/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Viral Immunol ; 34(5): 342-351, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343608

ABSTRACT

The spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, related to cellular immune functions, has not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the alteration of peripheral blood cells in patients with COVID-19. The flow cytometric characterization of immune cell subset was performed on 69 COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy controls. These data were evaluated based on the disease severity. A total of 69 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were classified as asymptomatic infection (n = 14), nonsevere (n = 39), and severe (n = 16) groups. Decreased lymphocytes and increased CD14 + 4- monocytes are found in patients with severe COVID-19. Decreased CD4 expression level was observed in the monocytes of patients with severe COVID-19. The total lymphocytes, B and T lymphocytes, CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells, and natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells were found to be decreased in patients with severe COVID-19. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly different between patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. The percentage of activated T cells (CD3+HLA-DR+) and B cells (CD19+CD38+) was lower in patients with severe COVID-19. Age and CD4- monocytes were independent predictors of disease severity. The SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect lymphocyte subsets, resulting in decreased T and B cells, monocytes, and NK and NKT cells. Decreased CD4 expression level by monocytes was significantly correlated with disease severity. Further studies on the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are necessary to predict the disease severity and protect against the virus.


Subject(s)
CD4 Antigens/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12775, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275948

ABSTRACT

With increasing numbers of patients recovering from COVID-19, there is increasing evidence for persistent symptoms and the need for follow-up studies. This retrospective study included patients without comorbidities, who recovered from COVID-19 and attended an outpatient clinic at a university hospital for follow-up care and potential convalescent plasma donation. Network analysis was applied to visualize symptom combinations and persistent symptoms. Comprehensive lab-testing was ascertained at each follow-up to analyze differences regarding patients with vs without persistent symptoms. 116 patients were included, age range was 18-69 years (median: 41) with follow-ups ranging from 22 to 102 days. The three most frequent persistent symptoms were Fatigue (54%), Dyspnea (29%) and Anosmia (25%). Lymphopenia was present in 13 of 112 (12%) cases. Five of 35 cases (14%) had Lymphopenia in the later follow-up range of 80-102 days. Serum IgA concentration was the only lab parameter with significant difference between patients with vs without persistent symptoms with reduced serum IgA concentrations in the patient cohort of persistent symptoms (p = 0.0219). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that patients with lymphopenia experienced more frequently persistent symptoms. In conclusion, lymphopenia persisted in a noticeable percentage of recovered patients. Patients with persistent symptoms had significantly lower serum IgA levels. Furthermore, our data provides evidence that lymphopenia is associated with persistence of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
11.
PeerJ ; 9: e11560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, information on COVID-19 pediatric patients is still sparse. We aimed to highlight the epidemiological and clinical data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents to improve the understanding of the disease in this age group and inform physicians during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study in "Marie Curie" Emergency Children's Hospital from Bucharest, Romania. We analyzed clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, between April 1, 2020-October 31, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 172 patients aged 0-18 years were included, 79 (45.93%) female and 93 (54.07%) male patients. 28 (16.28%) patients had co-morbidities (more often identified in asymptomatic group; p < 0.0001). 47 (27.32%) had exposure to an identified source. 30 (17.44%) patients were asymptomatic; 142 (85.56%) had mild or moderate disease. The most frequent symptoms were: pyrexia (78.87%), digestive symptoms (50%), cough (40.14%). Chest X-ray was performed in 50 patients and it was abnormal in half of them, all being symptomatic. About 2/3 of the evaluated patients had normal leukocytes. The most common hematological change was lymphopenia; monocytes tended to be higher in symptomatic patients. About 40% of the patients were admitted; none required admission to ICU. No significant differences were found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding gender, age distribution, and exposure to a source. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients had asymptomatic, mild or moderate disease. Patients with comorbidities, classically considered high risk patients, presented the same pattern of disease.

12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 667487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268236

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health. There remains an urgent need to address the clinical significance of laboratory finding changes in predicting disease progression in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to analyze the clinical and immunological features of severe and critically severe patients with COVID-19 in comparison with non-severe patients and identify risk factors for disease severity and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The consecutive records of 211 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from December 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 211 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 111 patients were classified as non-severe, 59 as severe, and 41 as critically severe cases. The median age was obviously higher in severe and critically severe cases than in non-severe cases. Severe and critically severe patients showed more underlying comorbidities than non-severe patients. Fever was the predominant presenting symptom in COVID-19 patients, and the duration of fever was longer in critically severe patients. Moreover, patients with increased levels of serum aminotransferases and creatinine (CREA) were at a higher risk for severe and critical COVID-19 presentations. The serum levels of IL-6 in severe and critically severe patients were remarkably higher than in non-severe patients. Lymphopenia was more pronounced in severe and critically severe patients compared with non-severe patients. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that severe and critically severe patients had significantly decreased count of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells. A multivariate logistic analysis indicated that older age, male sex, the length of hospital stay, body temperature before admission, comorbidities, higher white blood cell (WBC) counts, lower lymphocyte counts, and increased levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with predicting the progression to severe stage of COVID-19. Conclusion: Older age, male sex, underlying illness, sustained fever status, abnormal liver and renal functions, excessive expression of IL-6, lymphopenia, and selective loss of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were related to disease deterioration and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. This study would provide clinicians with valuable information for risk evaluation and effective interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 126, 2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tens of million cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have occurred globally. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attacks the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and lymphopenia in infected individuals. The aim of the present study is to investigate the laboratory characteristics of the viral load, lymphocyte subset and cytokines in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison with those in symptomatic patients with COVID-19. METHODS: From January 24, 2020, to April 11, 2020, 48 consecutive subjects were enrolled in this study. Viral loads were detected by RT-PCR from throat-swab, sputum and feces samples. Lymphocyte subset levels of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + T lymphocytes, B cells and NK cells were determined with biological microscope and flow cytometric analysis. Plasma cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-γ) were detected using flow cytometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and Pearson's Correlation assay was used for all data. RESULTS: Asymptomatic (AS), mild symptoms (MS) and severe or critical cases (SCS) with COVID-19 were 11 (11/48, 22.9%), 26 (54.2%, 26/48) and 11 cases (11/48, 22.9%), respectively. The mean age of AS group (47.3 years) was lower than SCS group (63.5 years) (P < 0.05). Diabetes mellitus in AS, MS and SCS patients with COVID-19 were 0, 6 and 5 cases, respectively, and there was a significant difference between AS and SCS (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 between AS, MS and SCS groups on admission to hospital and during hospitalization. The concentration of CD 3 + T cells (P < 0.05), CD3 + CD4 + T cells (P < 0.05), CD3 + CD8 + T cells (P < 0.01), and B cells (P < 0.05) in SCS patients was lower than in AS and MS patients, while the level of IL-5 (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05), IL-8 (P < 0.01) and IL-10 (P < 0.01), and TNF-α (P < 0.05) was higher. The age was negatively correlated with CD3 + T cells (P < 0.05), CD3 + CD4 + T cells (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with IL-2 (P < 0.001), IL-5 (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05) IL-8 (P < 0.05), and IL-10 (P < 0.05). The viral loads were positively correlated with IL-2 (P < 0.001), IL-5 (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05) IL-8 (P < 0.05) and IL-10 (P < 0.05), while negatively correlated with CD 3 + T cells (P < 0.05) and CD3 + CD4 + T cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The viral loads are similar between asymptomatic, mild and severe or critical patients with COVID-19. The severity of COVID-19 may be related to underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Lymphocyte subset and plasma cytokine levels may be as the markers to distinguish severely degrees of disease, and asymptomatic patients may be as an important source of infection for the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266400

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has highly variable disease severity and a bimodal course characterized by acute respiratory viral infection followed by hyperinflammation in a subset of patients with severe disease. This immune dysregulation is characterized by lymphocytopenia, elevated levels of plasma cytokines and proliferative and exhausted T cells, among other dysfunctional cell types. Immunocompromised persons often fare worse in the context of acute respiratory infections, but preliminary data suggest this may not hold true for COVID-19. In this review, we explore the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mortality in four populations with distinct forms of immunocompromise: (1) persons with hematological malignancies (HM) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients; (2) solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs); (3) persons with rheumatological diseases; and (4) persons living with HIV (PLWH). For each population, key immunological defects are described and how these relate to the immune dysregulation in COVID-19. Next, outcomes including mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection are described for each population, giving comparisons to the general population of age-matched and comorbidity-matched controls. In these four populations, iatrogenic or disease-related immunosuppression is not clearly associated with poor prognosis in HM, HCT, SOTR, rheumatological diseases, or HIV. However, certain individual immunosuppressants or disease states may be associated with harmful or beneficial effects, including harm from severe CD4 lymphocytopenia in PLWH and possible benefit to the calcineurin inhibitor ciclosporin in SOTRs, or tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in persons with rheumatic diseases. Lastly, insights gained from clinical and translational studies are explored as to the relevance for repurposing of immunosuppressive host-directed therapies for the treatment of hyperinflammation in COVID-19 in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Pandemics , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data
15.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(7): e00801, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263122

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause severe lymphopenia and respiratory failure requiring prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). COVID-19 patients with severe lymphopenia or respiratory failure are at risk of developing secondary infections. Here, we present the needle autopsy findings of a critically ill patient with COVID-19 who required reintubation and prolonged MV, and eventually died of secondary cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. This case highlights the potential risk of long-term steroid use and the need for routine monitoring for CMV infection in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

16.
J Integr Med ; 18(5): 395-400, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised concern around the world as an epidemic or pandemic. As data on COVID-19 has grown, it has become clear that older adults have a disproportionately high rate of death from COVID-19. This study describes the early clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with more than 80 years of age. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data from 17 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 20 and February 20, 2020 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Treatment outcomes among subgroups of patients with non-severe and severe symptoms of COVID-19 were compared. RESULTS: Of the 17 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the median age was 88.0 years (interquartile range, 86.6-90.0 years; range, 80.0-100.0 years) and 12 (70.6%) were men. The age distribution of patients was not significantly different between non-severe group and severe group. All patients had chronic pre-existing conditions. Hypertension and cardiovascular diseases were the most common chronic conditions in both subgroups. The most common symptoms at the onset of COVID-19 were fever (n = 13; 76.5%), fatigue (n = 11; 64.7%), and cough (n = 5; 29.4%). Lymphopenia was observed in all patients, and lymphopenia was significantly more severe in the severe group than that in non-severe group (0.4 × 109/L vs 1.2 × 109/L, P = 0.014). The level of serum creatinine was higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group (99.0 µmol/L vs 62.5 µmol/L, P = 0.038). The most common features of chest computed tomography images were nodular foci in 10 (58.8%) patients and pleural thickening in 7 (41.2%) patients. All patients received antiviral therapy, while some patients also received intravenous antibiotics therapy (76.5%), Chinese medicinal preparation therapy (Lianhuaqingwen capsule, 64.7%), corticosteroids (35.3%) or immunoglobin (29.4%). Eight patients (47.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit because of complications. Ten patients (58.8%) received intranasal oxygen, while 3 (17.6%) received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (23.5%) received high-flow oxygen. As of June 20, 7 (41.2%) patients had been discharged and 10 (58.8% of this cohort, 77.8% of severe patients) had died. CONCLUSION: The mortality of patients aged 80 years and older with severe COVID-19 symptoms was high. Lymphopenia was a characteristic laboratory result in these patients, and the severity of lymphopenia was indicative of the severity of COVID-19. However, the majority of patients with COVID-19 in this age cohort had atypical symptoms, and early diagnosis depends on prompt use of a viral nucleic acid test.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 267, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here we report the first case series of 7 children diagnosed with MIS-C in Qatar. METHODS: Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients admitted to Sidra Medicine, Qatar from June to October 2020, who met the WHO case definition for MIS-C were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean age in our case series was 5.6 years, of which 71.4% were males. All patients were previously healthy but had a history of COVID-19 infection. Fever, rash, vomiting and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms (70-100%). The average hospitalization was 12.9 days with no case fatalities. Laboratory findings included lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia in most patients, as well as evidence of coagulopathy and elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, ferritin and procalcitonin. Many patients (71.4%) required inotropic support in intensive care, while only one required respiratory support. Although all patients had elevated cardiac biomarkers, cardiovascular involvement was observed in 42.9% of patients with one patient developing a giant coronary aneurysm. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and 86% of patients received corticosteroids, with two patients requiring treatment with IL-1 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Our report is one of the first reports on MIS-C from Asia. Although clinical features and outcomes are not significantly different from those reported elsewhere, lack of case fatalities in our cohort may indicate that early recognition and prompt medical attention is necessary for a favorable outcome in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Healthcare
18.
Acta Clin Belg ; 77(3): 616-623, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254243

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatological disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation and disease course. Case presentationWe report a case concerning a young woman with pleuropneumonia, non-responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy, who was, upon further inquiry and passage of time, diagnosed with SLE. Key pointsBy means of this case, we would like to emphasize the clinical implications and prognostic significance of lymphopenia in patients with SLE. Moreover, we attempt to make the reader aware of some of the protean manifestations of SLE and we would like to raise suspicion of acute lupus pneumonitis by demonstrating a case of a young female with non-resolving pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Pneumonia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology
19.
Infection ; 49(6): 1079-1090, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is increasingly identified on lower respiratory tract specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our narrative review aims to determine whether the diagnosis of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in COVID-19 patients represents coinfection or colonization based on the evidence available in the literature. We also discuss the decision to treat COVID-19 patients with coinfection by PJP. METHODS: A literature search was performed through the Pubmed and Web of Science databases from inception to March 10, 2021. RESULTS: We identified 12 COVID-19 patients suspected to have PJP coinfection. All patients were critically ill and required mechanical ventilation. Many were immunosuppressed from HIV or long-term corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents. In both the HIV and non-HIV groups, severe lymphocytopenia was encountered with absolute lymphocyte and CD4+T cell count less than 900 and 200 cells/mm, respectively. The time to PJP diagnosis from the initial presentation was 7.8 (range 2-21) days. Serum lactate dehydrogenase and beta-D-glucan were elevated in those coinfected with PJP. All patients were treated with anti-PJP therapy, predominantly sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with corticosteroids. The overall mortality rate was 41.6%, and comparable for both HIV and non-HIV groups. CONCLUSION: As the current evidence is restricted to case reports, the true incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with PJP coinfections cannot be accurately determined. Comorbidities of poorly controlled HIV with lymphocytopenia and multiple immunosuppressive therapies are likely predisposing factors for PJP coinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Ther ; 43(6): 1007-1019, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245895

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a global urgency to discover an effective treatment for patients withthis disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the widely used antiparasitic drug ivermectin on outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, patients with COVID-19 admitted to 2 referral tertiary hospitals in Mazandaran, Iran, were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention and control. In addition to standard treatment for COVID-19, the intervention group received a single weight-based dose (0.2 mg/kg) of ivermectin; the control group received the standard of care. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data from participants were recorded at baseline. Patients were assessed daily for symptoms and disease progression. The primary clinical outcome measures were the durations of hospital stay, fever, dyspnea, and cough; and overall clinical improvement. FINDINGS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled (mean [SD] ages: ivermectin, 47.63 [22.20] years; control, 45.18 [23.11] years; P = 0.65). Eighteen patients (51.4%) in the ivermectin group and 18 (52.9%) in control group were male (P = 0.90). The mean durations of dyspnea were 2.6 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group and 3.8 (0.4) days in the control group (P = 0.048). Also, persistent cough lasted for 3.1 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group compared to 4.8 (0.4) days in control group (PP = 0.019). The mean durations of hospital stay were 7.1 (0.5) days versus 8.4 (0.6) days in the ivermectin and control groups, respectively (P = 0.016). Also, the frequency of lymphopenia decreased to 14.3% in the ivermectin group and did not change in the control group (P = 0.007). IMPLICATIONS: A single dose of ivermectin was well-tolerated in symptomatic patients with COVID-19, and important clinical features of COVID-19 were improved with ivermectin use, including dyspnea, cough, and lymphopenia. Further studies with larger sample sizes, different drug dosages, dosing intervals and durations, especially in different stages of the disease, may be useful in understanding the potential clinical benefits ivermectin. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials identifier: IRCT20111224008507N3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Adult , Humans , Iran , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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