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1.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(Suppl 1): S253-S263, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. Time to negative conversion of viral RNA, time to clinical improvement, and safety outcomes were assessed after 6 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA. There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses. These findings should be confirmed in randomized, controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5425-5431, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363680

ABSTRACT

A rapid outbreak of novel coronavirus, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has made it a global pandemic. This study focused on the possible association between lymphopenia and computed tomography (CT) scan features and COVID-19 patient mortality. The clinical data of 596 COVID-19 patients were collected from February 2020 to September 2020. The patients' serological survey and CT scan features were retrospectively explored. The median age of the patients was 56.7 ± 16.4 years old. Lung involvement was more than 50% in 214 COVID-19 patients (35.9%). The average blood lymphocyte percentage was 20.35 ± 10.16 (normal range, 20%-50%). Although the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were high in more than 80% of COVID-19 patients; CRP, ESR, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may not indicate the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. Patients with severe lung involvement and lymphopenia were found to be significantly associated with increased odds of death (odds ratio, 9.24; 95% confidence interval, 4.32-19.78). These results indicated that lymphopenia < 20% along with pulmonary involvement >50% impose a multiplicative effect on the risk of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate of this group was significantly higher than other COVID-19 hospitalized cases. Furthermore, they meaningfully experienced a prolonged stay in the hospital (p = .00). Lymphocyte count less than 20% and chest CT scan findings with more than 50% involvement might be related to the patient's mortality. These could act as laboratory and clinical indicators of disease severity, mortality, and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/complications , Pneumonia/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphopenia/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Viral Immunol ; 34(5): 342-351, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343608

ABSTRACT

The spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, related to cellular immune functions, has not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the alteration of peripheral blood cells in patients with COVID-19. The flow cytometric characterization of immune cell subset was performed on 69 COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy controls. These data were evaluated based on the disease severity. A total of 69 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were classified as asymptomatic infection (n = 14), nonsevere (n = 39), and severe (n = 16) groups. Decreased lymphocytes and increased CD14 + 4- monocytes are found in patients with severe COVID-19. Decreased CD4 expression level was observed in the monocytes of patients with severe COVID-19. The total lymphocytes, B and T lymphocytes, CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells, and natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells were found to be decreased in patients with severe COVID-19. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly different between patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. The percentage of activated T cells (CD3+HLA-DR+) and B cells (CD19+CD38+) was lower in patients with severe COVID-19. Age and CD4- monocytes were independent predictors of disease severity. The SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect lymphocyte subsets, resulting in decreased T and B cells, monocytes, and NK and NKT cells. Decreased CD4 expression level by monocytes was significantly correlated with disease severity. Further studies on the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are necessary to predict the disease severity and protect against the virus.


Subject(s)
CD4 Antigens/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12775, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275948

ABSTRACT

With increasing numbers of patients recovering from COVID-19, there is increasing evidence for persistent symptoms and the need for follow-up studies. This retrospective study included patients without comorbidities, who recovered from COVID-19 and attended an outpatient clinic at a university hospital for follow-up care and potential convalescent plasma donation. Network analysis was applied to visualize symptom combinations and persistent symptoms. Comprehensive lab-testing was ascertained at each follow-up to analyze differences regarding patients with vs without persistent symptoms. 116 patients were included, age range was 18-69 years (median: 41) with follow-ups ranging from 22 to 102 days. The three most frequent persistent symptoms were Fatigue (54%), Dyspnea (29%) and Anosmia (25%). Lymphopenia was present in 13 of 112 (12%) cases. Five of 35 cases (14%) had Lymphopenia in the later follow-up range of 80-102 days. Serum IgA concentration was the only lab parameter with significant difference between patients with vs without persistent symptoms with reduced serum IgA concentrations in the patient cohort of persistent symptoms (p = 0.0219). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that patients with lymphopenia experienced more frequently persistent symptoms. In conclusion, lymphopenia persisted in a noticeable percentage of recovered patients. Patients with persistent symptoms had significantly lower serum IgA levels. Furthermore, our data provides evidence that lymphopenia is associated with persistence of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
PeerJ ; 9: e11560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270239

ABSTRACT

Background: To date, information on COVID-19 pediatric patients is still sparse. We aimed to highlight the epidemiological and clinical data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents to improve the understanding of the disease in this age group and inform physicians during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study in "Marie Curie" Emergency Children's Hospital from Bucharest, Romania. We analyzed clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, between April 1, 2020-October 31, 2020. Results: A total of 172 patients aged 0-18 years were included, 79 (45.93%) female and 93 (54.07%) male patients. 28 (16.28%) patients had co-morbidities (more often identified in asymptomatic group; p < 0.0001). 47 (27.32%) had exposure to an identified source. 30 (17.44%) patients were asymptomatic; 142 (85.56%) had mild or moderate disease. The most frequent symptoms were: pyrexia (78.87%), digestive symptoms (50%), cough (40.14%). Chest X-ray was performed in 50 patients and it was abnormal in half of them, all being symptomatic. About 2/3 of the evaluated patients had normal leukocytes. The most common hematological change was lymphopenia; monocytes tended to be higher in symptomatic patients. About 40% of the patients were admitted; none required admission to ICU. No significant differences were found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding gender, age distribution, and exposure to a source. Conclusions: All the patients had asymptomatic, mild or moderate disease. Patients with comorbidities, classically considered high risk patients, presented the same pattern of disease.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 667487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268236

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health. There remains an urgent need to address the clinical significance of laboratory finding changes in predicting disease progression in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to analyze the clinical and immunological features of severe and critically severe patients with COVID-19 in comparison with non-severe patients and identify risk factors for disease severity and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The consecutive records of 211 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from December 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 211 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 111 patients were classified as non-severe, 59 as severe, and 41 as critically severe cases. The median age was obviously higher in severe and critically severe cases than in non-severe cases. Severe and critically severe patients showed more underlying comorbidities than non-severe patients. Fever was the predominant presenting symptom in COVID-19 patients, and the duration of fever was longer in critically severe patients. Moreover, patients with increased levels of serum aminotransferases and creatinine (CREA) were at a higher risk for severe and critical COVID-19 presentations. The serum levels of IL-6 in severe and critically severe patients were remarkably higher than in non-severe patients. Lymphopenia was more pronounced in severe and critically severe patients compared with non-severe patients. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that severe and critically severe patients had significantly decreased count of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells. A multivariate logistic analysis indicated that older age, male sex, the length of hospital stay, body temperature before admission, comorbidities, higher white blood cell (WBC) counts, lower lymphocyte counts, and increased levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with predicting the progression to severe stage of COVID-19. Conclusion: Older age, male sex, underlying illness, sustained fever status, abnormal liver and renal functions, excessive expression of IL-6, lymphopenia, and selective loss of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were related to disease deterioration and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. This study would provide clinicians with valuable information for risk evaluation and effective interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Virol J ; 18(1): 126, 2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tens of million cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have occurred globally. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attacks the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and lymphopenia in infected individuals. The aim of the present study is to investigate the laboratory characteristics of the viral load, lymphocyte subset and cytokines in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison with those in symptomatic patients with COVID-19. METHODS: From January 24, 2020, to April 11, 2020, 48 consecutive subjects were enrolled in this study. Viral loads were detected by RT-PCR from throat-swab, sputum and feces samples. Lymphocyte subset levels of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + T lymphocytes, B cells and NK cells were determined with biological microscope and flow cytometric analysis. Plasma cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-γ) were detected using flow cytometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and Pearson's Correlation assay was used for all data. RESULTS: Asymptomatic (AS), mild symptoms (MS) and severe or critical cases (SCS) with COVID-19 were 11 (11/48, 22.9%), 26 (54.2%, 26/48) and 11 cases (11/48, 22.9%), respectively. The mean age of AS group (47.3 years) was lower than SCS group (63.5 years) (P < 0.05). Diabetes mellitus in AS, MS and SCS patients with COVID-19 were 0, 6 and 5 cases, respectively, and there was a significant difference between AS and SCS (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 between AS, MS and SCS groups on admission to hospital and during hospitalization. The concentration of CD 3 + T cells (P < 0.05), CD3 + CD4 + T cells (P < 0.05), CD3 + CD8 + T cells (P < 0.01), and B cells (P < 0.05) in SCS patients was lower than in AS and MS patients, while the level of IL-5 (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05), IL-8 (P < 0.01) and IL-10 (P < 0.01), and TNF-α (P < 0.05) was higher. The age was negatively correlated with CD3 + T cells (P < 0.05), CD3 + CD4 + T cells (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with IL-2 (P < 0.001), IL-5 (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05) IL-8 (P < 0.05), and IL-10 (P < 0.05). The viral loads were positively correlated with IL-2 (P < 0.001), IL-5 (P < 0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05) IL-8 (P < 0.05) and IL-10 (P < 0.05), while negatively correlated with CD 3 + T cells (P < 0.05) and CD3 + CD4 + T cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The viral loads are similar between asymptomatic, mild and severe or critical patients with COVID-19. The severity of COVID-19 may be related to underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Lymphocyte subset and plasma cytokine levels may be as the markers to distinguish severely degrees of disease, and asymptomatic patients may be as an important source of infection for the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266400

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has highly variable disease severity and a bimodal course characterized by acute respiratory viral infection followed by hyperinflammation in a subset of patients with severe disease. This immune dysregulation is characterized by lymphocytopenia, elevated levels of plasma cytokines and proliferative and exhausted T cells, among other dysfunctional cell types. Immunocompromised persons often fare worse in the context of acute respiratory infections, but preliminary data suggest this may not hold true for COVID-19. In this review, we explore the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mortality in four populations with distinct forms of immunocompromise: (1) persons with hematological malignancies (HM) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients; (2) solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs); (3) persons with rheumatological diseases; and (4) persons living with HIV (PLWH). For each population, key immunological defects are described and how these relate to the immune dysregulation in COVID-19. Next, outcomes including mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection are described for each population, giving comparisons to the general population of age-matched and comorbidity-matched controls. In these four populations, iatrogenic or disease-related immunosuppression is not clearly associated with poor prognosis in HM, HCT, SOTR, rheumatological diseases, or HIV. However, certain individual immunosuppressants or disease states may be associated with harmful or beneficial effects, including harm from severe CD4 lymphocytopenia in PLWH and possible benefit to the calcineurin inhibitor ciclosporin in SOTRs, or tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in persons with rheumatic diseases. Lastly, insights gained from clinical and translational studies are explored as to the relevance for repurposing of immunosuppressive host-directed therapies for the treatment of hyperinflammation in COVID-19 in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Pandemics , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data
10.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(7): e00801, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263122

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause severe lymphopenia and respiratory failure requiring prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). COVID-19 patients with severe lymphopenia or respiratory failure are at risk of developing secondary infections. Here, we present the needle autopsy findings of a critically ill patient with COVID-19 who required reintubation and prolonged MV, and eventually died of secondary cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. This case highlights the potential risk of long-term steroid use and the need for routine monitoring for CMV infection in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

11.
J Integr Med ; 18(5): 395-400, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised concern around the world as an epidemic or pandemic. As data on COVID-19 has grown, it has become clear that older adults have a disproportionately high rate of death from COVID-19. This study describes the early clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with more than 80 years of age. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data from 17 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 20 and February 20, 2020 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Treatment outcomes among subgroups of patients with non-severe and severe symptoms of COVID-19 were compared. RESULTS: Of the 17 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the median age was 88.0 years (interquartile range, 86.6-90.0 years; range, 80.0-100.0 years) and 12 (70.6%) were men. The age distribution of patients was not significantly different between non-severe group and severe group. All patients had chronic pre-existing conditions. Hypertension and cardiovascular diseases were the most common chronic conditions in both subgroups. The most common symptoms at the onset of COVID-19 were fever (n = 13; 76.5%), fatigue (n = 11; 64.7%), and cough (n = 5; 29.4%). Lymphopenia was observed in all patients, and lymphopenia was significantly more severe in the severe group than that in non-severe group (0.4 × 109/L vs 1.2 × 109/L, P = 0.014). The level of serum creatinine was higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group (99.0 µmol/L vs 62.5 µmol/L, P = 0.038). The most common features of chest computed tomography images were nodular foci in 10 (58.8%) patients and pleural thickening in 7 (41.2%) patients. All patients received antiviral therapy, while some patients also received intravenous antibiotics therapy (76.5%), Chinese medicinal preparation therapy (Lianhuaqingwen capsule, 64.7%), corticosteroids (35.3%) or immunoglobin (29.4%). Eight patients (47.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit because of complications. Ten patients (58.8%) received intranasal oxygen, while 3 (17.6%) received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (23.5%) received high-flow oxygen. As of June 20, 7 (41.2%) patients had been discharged and 10 (58.8% of this cohort, 77.8% of severe patients) had died. CONCLUSION: The mortality of patients aged 80 years and older with severe COVID-19 symptoms was high. Lymphopenia was a characteristic laboratory result in these patients, and the severity of lymphopenia was indicative of the severity of COVID-19. However, the majority of patients with COVID-19 in this age cohort had atypical symptoms, and early diagnosis depends on prompt use of a viral nucleic acid test.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 267, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here we report the first case series of 7 children diagnosed with MIS-C in Qatar. METHODS: Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients admitted to Sidra Medicine, Qatar from June to October 2020, who met the WHO case definition for MIS-C were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean age in our case series was 5.6 years, of which 71.4% were males. All patients were previously healthy but had a history of COVID-19 infection. Fever, rash, vomiting and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms (70-100%). The average hospitalization was 12.9 days with no case fatalities. Laboratory findings included lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia in most patients, as well as evidence of coagulopathy and elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, ferritin and procalcitonin. Many patients (71.4%) required inotropic support in intensive care, while only one required respiratory support. Although all patients had elevated cardiac biomarkers, cardiovascular involvement was observed in 42.9% of patients with one patient developing a giant coronary aneurysm. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and 86% of patients received corticosteroids, with two patients requiring treatment with IL-1 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Our report is one of the first reports on MIS-C from Asia. Although clinical features and outcomes are not significantly different from those reported elsewhere, lack of case fatalities in our cohort may indicate that early recognition and prompt medical attention is necessary for a favorable outcome in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Healthcare
13.
Acta Clin Belg ; : 1-8, 2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254243

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatological disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation and disease course. Case presentationWe report a case concerning a young woman with pleuropneumonia, non-responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy, who was, upon further inquiry and passage of time, diagnosed with SLE. Key pointsBy means of this case, we would like to emphasize the clinical implications and prognostic significance of lymphopenia in patients with SLE. Moreover, we attempt to make the reader aware of some of the protean manifestations of SLE and we would like to raise suspicion of acute lupus pneumonitis by demonstrating a case of a young female with non-resolving pneumonia.

14.
Infection ; 49(6): 1079-1090, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is increasingly identified on lower respiratory tract specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our narrative review aims to determine whether the diagnosis of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in COVID-19 patients represents coinfection or colonization based on the evidence available in the literature. We also discuss the decision to treat COVID-19 patients with coinfection by PJP. METHODS: A literature search was performed through the Pubmed and Web of Science databases from inception to March 10, 2021. RESULTS: We identified 12 COVID-19 patients suspected to have PJP coinfection. All patients were critically ill and required mechanical ventilation. Many were immunosuppressed from HIV or long-term corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents. In both the HIV and non-HIV groups, severe lymphocytopenia was encountered with absolute lymphocyte and CD4+T cell count less than 900 and 200 cells/mm, respectively. The time to PJP diagnosis from the initial presentation was 7.8 (range 2-21) days. Serum lactate dehydrogenase and beta-D-glucan were elevated in those coinfected with PJP. All patients were treated with anti-PJP therapy, predominantly sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with corticosteroids. The overall mortality rate was 41.6%, and comparable for both HIV and non-HIV groups. CONCLUSION: As the current evidence is restricted to case reports, the true incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with PJP coinfections cannot be accurately determined. Comorbidities of poorly controlled HIV with lymphocytopenia and multiple immunosuppressive therapies are likely predisposing factors for PJP coinfection.

15.
Clin Ther ; 43(6): 1007-1019, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245895

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a global urgency to discover an effective treatment for patients withthis disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the widely used antiparasitic drug ivermectin on outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, patients with COVID-19 admitted to 2 referral tertiary hospitals in Mazandaran, Iran, were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention and control. In addition to standard treatment for COVID-19, the intervention group received a single weight-based dose (0.2 mg/kg) of ivermectin; the control group received the standard of care. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data from participants were recorded at baseline. Patients were assessed daily for symptoms and disease progression. The primary clinical outcome measures were the durations of hospital stay, fever, dyspnea, and cough; and overall clinical improvement. FINDINGS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled (mean [SD] ages: ivermectin, 47.63 [22.20] years; control, 45.18 [23.11] years; P = 0.65). Eighteen patients (51.4%) in the ivermectin group and 18 (52.9%) in control group were male (P = 0.90). The mean durations of dyspnea were 2.6 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group and 3.8 (0.4) days in the control group (P = 0.048). Also, persistent cough lasted for 3.1 (0.4) days in the ivermectin group compared to 4.8 (0.4) days in control group (PP = 0.019). The mean durations of hospital stay were 7.1 (0.5) days versus 8.4 (0.6) days in the ivermectin and control groups, respectively (P = 0.016). Also, the frequency of lymphopenia decreased to 14.3% in the ivermectin group and did not change in the control group (P = 0.007). IMPLICATIONS: A single dose of ivermectin was well-tolerated in symptomatic patients with COVID-19, and important clinical features of COVID-19 were improved with ivermectin use, including dyspnea, cough, and lymphopenia. Further studies with larger sample sizes, different drug dosages, dosing intervals and durations, especially in different stages of the disease, may be useful in understanding the potential clinical benefits ivermectin. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials identifier: IRCT20111224008507N3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Adult , Humans , Iran , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Discoveries (Craiova) ; 9(1): e126, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244377

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory markers, such as IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis alpha, less CD4 interferon-gamma expression, and fewer CD4 and CD8 cells, which increase the susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. One such opportunistic fungal infection is mucormycosis. Initially, it was debated whether a person taking immunosuppressants, such as corticosteroids, and monoclonal antibodies will be at higher risk for COVID-19 or whether the immunosuppresive state would cause a more severe COVID-19 disease. However, immunosuppressants are currently continued unless the patients are at greater risk of severe COVID-19 infection or are on high-dose corticosteroids therapy. As understood so far, COVID-19 infection may induce significant and persistent lymphopenia, which in turn increases the risk of opportunistic infections. It is also noted that 85% of the COVID-19 patients' laboratory findings showed lymphopenia. This means that patients with severe COVID-19 have markedly lower absolute number of T lymphocytes, CD4+T and CD8+ T cells and, since the lymphocytes play a major role in maintaining the immune homeostasis, the patients with COVID-19 are highly susceptible to fungal co-infections. This report is intended to raise awareness of the importance of early detection and treatment of mucormycosis and other fungal diseases, such as candidiasis, SARS-CoV-2-associated pulmonary aspergillosis, pneumocystis pneumonia and cryptococcal disease, in COVID-19 patients, to reduce the risk of mortality.

17.
Cureus ; 13(5): e14865, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239159

ABSTRACT

Introduction Different factors are critical when assessing COVID-19 mortality, and can explain why severity differs so widely among populations. However, there is little information regarding prognostic factors and mortality in COVID-19 from Latin American countries. Objectives To determine prognostic factors in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and to evaluate the impact of tocilizumab use in patients with hyperinflammatory syndrome and severe disease defined by the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) with a value greater than or equal to seven points. Materials and methods This retrospective cohort study included hospitalized COVID-19 patients from May to July 2020. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 136 patients required hospital admission. In-hospital mortality was 39.7%. Mortality was observed to be potentiated by older age, LDH serum levels and the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lymphopenia and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio were more common in these patients. Similarly, patients who died were classified more frequently with severe disease. The independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality were age greater than 65 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus, NEWS2 greater than or equal to seven points and LDH greater than 400U/L. The use of Tocilizumab alone was not related with decreased in-hospital mortality. Subgroup analysis performed in patients with hyperinflammation and severe disease showed similar results. Conclusions COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients was high and mainly related with older age, comorbidities, LDH and the severity of disease at hospital admission.

18.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 64(7): 364-369, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak continues to evolve, it is crucially important for pediatricians to be aware of the differences in demographic and clinical features between COVID-19 and influenza A and B infections. PURPOSE: This study analyzed and compared the clinical features and laboratory findings of COVID-19 and influenza A and B infections in children. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the medical data of 206 pediatric COVID-19 and 411 pediatric seasonal influenza A or B patients. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients were older than seasonal influenza patients (median [interquartile range], 7.75 [2-14] years vs. 4 [2-6] years). The frequency of fever and cough in COVID-19 patients was lower than that of seasonal influenza patients (80.6% vs. 94.4%, P<0.001 and 22.8 % vs. 71.5%, P<0.001, respectively). Ageusia (4.9%) and anosmia (3.4%) were present in only COVID-19 patients. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia were encountered more frequently in influenza patients than in COVID-19 patients (22.1% vs. 8.5%, P=0.029; 17.6% vs. 5.6%, P=0.013; and 13.2% vs. 5.6%, P= 0.048, respectively). Both groups showed significantly elevated monocyte levels in the complete blood count (70.4% vs. 69.9%, P=0.511). Major chest x-ray findings in COVID-19 patients included mild diffuse ground-glass opacity and right lower lobe infiltrates. There were no statistically significant intergroup differences in hospitalization or mortality rates; however, the intensive care unit admission rate was higher among COVID-19 patients (2.4% vs. 0.5%, P=0.045). CONCLUSION: In this study, pediatric COVID-19 patients showed a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic/mild to severe illness. We found no intergroup differences in hospitalization rates, oxygen requirements, or hospital length of stay; however, the intensive care unit admission rate was higher among COVID-19 patients.

19.
World J Pediatr ; 17(4): 335-340, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been spreading rapidly around the world, while "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" (MIS-C) is a new type of syndrome that has now been reported in many countries. Similar and different characteristics between KD and MIS-C have been reported in a variety of literature. We aimed to focus on reviewing clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment of KD and MIS-C. METHODS: We searched articles in the electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library database, EMBASE, and MEDLINE with the keywords "multiple inflammatory syndrome" and/or "COVID-19" and/or "Kawasaki disease" and "children". RESULTS: Main presentations of MIS-C and KD include fever, rashes, mucous membrane involvement, conjunctivitis, hands and feet erythema/edema, and cervical lymphadenopathy. However, compared with the highest incidence of KD among some Asian countries, MIS-C is common among Black and Hispanic children. MIS-C is common in older children and teenagers, whereas classic KD is common in children under five years of age. Gastrointestinal symptoms, shock, and coagulopathy are common in MIS-C patients but are not common in classic KD. Cardiac manifestations are more common than KD, including myocarditis with cardiac dysfunction and coronary artery dilation or aneurysms. Severe cases in MIS-C present with vasodilated or cardiogenic shock that requires fluid resuscitation, muscular support, and even mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), whereas KD rarely presents with these manifestations and requires these treatments. Increased serum ferritin, leukopenia, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia are common in MIS-C. However, thrombocytosis is a characteristic feature of KD. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and moderate-high dose aspirin are still a standard recommended treatment for KD. In addition to the above-mentioned medications, steroids and biological drugs are frequently used in patients with MIS-C. Most of the children with KD have a good prognosis; however, the long-term clinical outcomes of MIS-C are not clear. CONCLUSIONS: The overall presentation and treatment of MIS-C appear to overlap with KD. However, there are still great differences between the syndromes, and it is controversial to say whether MIS-C is a new entity or is a "severe type" of KD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1717-1725, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 has been extensively described, immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 remains yet not fully understood. Similarities with bacterial sepsis were observed; however, few studies specifically addressed differences of immune response between both conditions. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis of the immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 patients, its correlation with outcome, and comparison between severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients and septic patients. DESIGN: Longitudinal, retrospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital during the first 2020 coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in France. PATIENTS: All successive patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection admitted to the emergency department, medical ward, and ICU with at least one available immunophenotyping performed during hospital stay. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Between March and April 2020, 247 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 were included and compared with a historical cohort of 108 severe septic patients. Nonsevere coronavirus disease 2019 patients (n = 153) presented normal or slightly altered immune profiles. Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (n = 94) immune profile differed from sepsis. Coronavirus disease 2019 exhibited profound and prolonged lymphopenia (mostly on CD3, CD4, CD8, and NK cells), neutrophilia, and human leukocyte antigen D receptor expression on CD14+ monocytes down-regulation. Surprisingly, coronavirus disease 2019 patients presented a unique profile of B cells expansion, basophilia, and eosinophilia. Lymphopenia, human leukocyte antigen D receptor expression on CD14+ monocytes down-regulation, and neutrophilia were associated with a worsened outcome, whereas basophilia and eosinophilia were associated with survival. Circulating immune cell kinetics differed between severe coronavirus disease 2019 and sepsis, lack of correction of immune alterations in coronavirus disease 2019 patients during the first 2 weeks of ICU admission was associated with death and nosocomial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating immune cells profile differs between mild and severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Severe coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with a unique immune profile as compared with sepsis. Several immune features are associated with outcome. Thus, immune monitoring of coronavirus disease 2019 might be of help for patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunologic Factors/analysis , Kinetics , Sepsis/complications , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/immunology
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