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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2511-2518, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the mental health condition of the world's population. Although the direct effect of COVID-19 on the mental health status of chronic medical patients is well understood, the burden of depression and anxiety on patients with chronic medical conditions is not well studied yet. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and associated factors among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Mettu, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to July 30, 2020 among chronic medical patients in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Consecutive sampling technique was applied with a total of 423 samples. Quantitative data were employed by using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistical procedures, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions with odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed. The statistical significance was declared at p value < 0.05. RESULTS: The findings showed that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among chronic medical patients was 55.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Female gender (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI (1.06, 2.59)), poor social support (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.10, 3.42)), widowed/divorced (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI (1.59, 9.64)), separated (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI (1.64, 8.19)), and longer duration of illness (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI (1.15, 2.89)) were significantly associated with depression, whereas earlier age at onset of illness, having more than three co-morbid diagnoses, tobacco use and poor social support were found to have significant association with anxiety among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of concurrent depression and anxiety in the current study was high. Strategies for prompt identification and treatment of depression and anxiety should be developed among medically ill patients.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725877

ABSTRACT

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confined Spaces , Diet/methods , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100287, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683718

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms underlying severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease remain poorly understood. We analyze several thousand plasma proteins longitudinally in 306 COVID-19 patients and 78 symptomatic controls, uncovering immune and non-immune proteins linked to COVID-19. Deconvolution of our plasma proteome data using published scRNA-seq datasets reveals contributions from circulating immune and tissue cells. Sixteen percent of patients display reduced inflammation yet comparably poor outcomes. Comparison of patients who died to severely ill survivors identifies dynamic immune-cell-derived and tissue-associated proteins associated with survival, including exocrine pancreatic proteases. Using derived tissue-specific and cell-type-specific intracellular death signatures, cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, and our data, we infer whether organ damage resulted from direct or indirect effects of infection. We propose a model in which interactions among myeloid, epithelial, and T cells drive tissue damage. These datasets provide important insights and a rich resource for analysis of mechanisms of severe COVID-19 disease.

5.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 275-283, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543144

ABSTRACT

The magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic found health systems unprepared, not allowing for prompt evaluation, collaboration among specialities and treatment of severely ill patients admitted to intensive care units, with many of them having an unfortunate outcome. Current data demonstrate an acute immune dysregulation in severe forms of the disease. The above is concluded by clinical evolution and laboratory findings, indicating a severe inflammatory response of the innate immune system, initiating predominately with the involvement of the respiratory tract epithelial cells, occasionally progressing to thrombotic diathesis and related complications. Besides the clinical manifestations, the immune response expresses an extremely high acute phase reactants repertoire including hyperferritinemia, hyper-fibrinogenaemia, and a storm of cytokines that require an alternative view and collaboration with rheumatologists. Thrombotic diathesis in some cases may not attribute only to a possible disseminated intravascular coagulation, but also to an additional activation of adaptive immunity and the development of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Unifying speciality evaluation and treatment may improve patient outcomes by recognizing early the evolving syndromes, treating properly, in a stratifying manner, with medications that alleviate the inflammatory reaction. Corticosteroids, colchicine, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, and possibly potent immunosuppressants are in the armamentarium. Additionally, biologics that interrupt the innate immune dysfunction, such as IL-1, IL-6 and selective JAK inhibitors, are also used. Convalescent plasma therapy and human immunoglobulin may be restricted for those whom the proposed treatments are found inadequate. The above combined with antiretroviral medications may improve the outcome until the development of safe and effective vaccination.

6.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(2): 22-27, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447883

ABSTRACT

About a decade ago, Dian Baker, a professor at Sacramento State School of Nursing, responded to a directive from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) asking health care practitioners to do something about the thorny and serious problem of ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia, which afflicts thousands of people each year. After consulting with colleagues on the issue, Baker noticed something interesting. Although hospital ventilators had been widely assumed to be the cause of this problem, the truth was that most people getting pneumonia in hospitals weren't on ventilators. The true culprit may come as a surprise: Nurses were shirking the unpleasant task of brushing the teeth of seriously ill patients.


Subject(s)
Dental Care , Dental Caries , Medically Underserved Area , Primary Health Care , Adult , Child , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/therapy , Humans , Oral Health , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/nursing
7.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 80(3): 714-717, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399547

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a condition caused by a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease's course ranges from entirely asymptomatic to severely ill patients. Hypercoagulation is often a complication of this disease, worsening the prognosis, which is extremely important in patients at higher risk of thromboembolic events, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), where thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage (LAA) is frequent. LAA could be of various sizes, volumes, and shapes, distinguish several morphologies, from which the WindSock LAA is the most frequent. In contrast, thromboembolic complications occur most frequently in patients with AF and the Cactus LAA. We present a clinical case of a 70-year-old woman with an initial negative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2, suspicion of device-related infection after dual pacemaker implantation, AF, and LAA without thrombus in the initial transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Despite apixaban treatment, spontaneous restoration of sinus rhythm, and WindSock LAA morphology, the sludge in LAA was diagnosed in control TEE. The patient did not present any typical clinical COVID-19 symptoms but re-checked the RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection was positive. The described case presents echocardiographic evidence of hypercoagulation as the first and only feature of SARS-CoV-2 condition besides the usual morphological presentation of the WindSock LAA.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Echocardiography , Thrombophilia , Aged , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology
8.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388432

ABSTRACT

Using AI, we identified baricitinib as having antiviral and anticytokine efficacy. We now show a 71% (95% CI 0.15 to 0.58) mortality benefit in 83 patients with moderate-severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with few drug-induced adverse events, including a large elderly cohort (median age, 81 years). An additional 48 cases with mild-moderate pneumonia recovered uneventfully. Using organotypic 3D cultures of primary human liver cells, we demonstrate that interferon-α2 increases ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in parenchymal cells by greater than fivefold. RNA-seq reveals gene response signatures associated with platelet activation, fully inhibited by baricitinib. Using viral load quantifications and superresolution microscopy, we found that baricitinib exerts activity rapidly through the inhibition of host proteins (numb-associated kinases), uniquely among antivirals. This reveals mechanistic actions of a Janus kinase-1/2 inhibitor targeting viral entry, replication, and the cytokine storm and is associated with beneficial outcomes including in severely ill elderly patients, data that incentivize further randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Liver/virology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/metabolism , Italy , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Platelet Activation , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA-Seq , Spain , Virus Internalization/drug effects
9.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(6): e26452, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges to delivering safe and effective health care while minimizing virus exposure among staff and patients without COVID-19. Health systems worldwide have moved quickly to implement telemedicine in diverse settings to reduce infection, but little is understood about how best to connect patients who are acutely ill with nearby clinical team members, even in the next room. OBJECTIVE: To inform these efforts, this paper aims to provide an early example of inpatient telemedicine implementation and its perceived acceptability and effectiveness. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, this study conducted 15 semistructured interviews with nurses (5/15, 33%), attending physicians (5/15, 33%), and resident physicians (5/15, 33%) on a single COVID-19 unit within Stanford Health Care to evaluate implementation outcomes and perceived effectiveness of inpatient telemedicine. Semistructured interview protocols and qualitative analysis were framed around the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework, and key themes were identified using a rapid analytic process and consensus approach. RESULTS: All clinical team members reported wide reach of inpatient telemedicine, with some use for almost all patients with COVID-19. Inpatient telemedicine was perceived to be effective in reducing COVID-19 exposure and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) without significantly compromising quality of care. Physician workflows remained relatively stable, as most standard clinical activities were conducted via telemedicine following the initial intake examination, though resident physicians reported reduced educational opportunities given limited opportunities to conduct physical exams. Nurse workflows required significant adaptations to cover nonnursing duties, such as food delivery and facilitating technology connections for patients and physicians alike. Perceived patient impact included consistent care quality, with some considerations around privacy. Reported challenges included patient-clinical team communication and personal connection with the patient, perceptions of patient isolation, ongoing technical challenges, and certain aspects of the physical exam. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical team members reported inpatient telemedicine encounters to be acceptable and effective in reducing COVID-19 exposure and PPE use. Nurses adapted their workflows more than physicians in order to implement the new technology and bore a higher burden of in-person care and technical support. Recommendations for improved inpatient telemedicine use include information technology support and training, increased technical functionality, and remote access for the clinical team.

10.
Nurse Pract ; 46(7): 22-28, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19-associated pneumonia is a complex acute care diagnosis that requires careful evaluation and management. This article includes pertinent recommendations for management of acutely ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Advanced Practice Nursing , COVID-19/nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Critical Care Nursing , Humans , Nursing Diagnosis
11.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269044

ABSTRACT

Purpose of the study: To discuss selected aspects of our local and national experience in treating and vaccinating pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.Materials and methods: A comprehensive, retrospective review of COVID-19 parturients in our center as well as a detailed literature review of several aspects from the groundbreaking research done in Israel to investigate the direct obstetrical impact of COVID-19, indirect effect of the lockdown measures and the vaccination effort among pregnant women.Results: The study shows our local and national experience in treating COVID-19 in pregnancy and the maternal and neonatal impact of vaccination in nationwide scale. We treated our first COVID-19 pregnant patient on April 4th, 2020 reaching a total of 193 pregnant women, with PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 by 8th March 2021. Several studies from Israel have evaluated pregnancy-related outcomes of COVID-19, be it maternal, obstetrical or neonatal complications. We suggest that only in a small subset of severely ill mothers, intubated and otherwise respiratory or hemodynamically unstable, an emergency cesarean delivery should be considered, factoring gestational age, in order to assist maternal ventilation and circulation, as well as to avoid possible secondary fetal compromise due the maternal deterioration.In addition, there is conflicting evidence as to the price of lockdown on obstetrical outcomes, i.e., not the direct medical impact of the virus, but rather the impact of the measures to contain its spread - mainly lockdowns, which has been a major tool in Israel to combat COVID-19.Finally, we demonstrate to overall safety and efficacy of vaccination pregnant women and the beneficial impact on pregnancy outcome and neonatal gain of protecting antibodies.Conclusion: The data emerging from Israel is overall reassuring, as for the association of COVID-19 with adverse pregnancy outcome and the possible protective effect of the vaccinations. Further, long term studies, should be conducted to answer the long-term maternal outcomes, as well and neonatal prognosis.

12.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(5): 311-319, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263726

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19 hit the world amidst an unprecedented suicide epidemic in this century. As the world focuses on limiting the spread of the virus and prioritizing acutely medically ill patients, containment measures are not without mental health consequences. With rising anxiety and depression, risk of suicide-acutely and in the aftermath of the pandemic-also rises. This article aims to shed light on this major public health problem and better understand what factors may create or exacerbate psychiatric symptoms and suicide. We review suicide data predating the pandemic and examine impact of previous epidemics on suicide rates. We then focus on the current pandemic's impacts and the world's response to COVID-19. We examine how these may lead to increased suicide rates, focusing on the US population. Finally, we offer suggestions on mitigating interventions to curb the impending rise in suicide and the resultant increased burden on an already stretched health care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide/trends , Anxiety/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/psychology , Humans , Public Health , Quarantine
13.
Soins ; 66(855): 54-56, 2021 May.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261968

ABSTRACT

An enclosed space with specific constraints, prison authorises volunteers to support seriously ill patients at the end of life. After receiving relevant training, these volunteers become members of an approved association and can enter compounds such as Fresnes penitentiary hospital in Val-de-Marne. While the missions of these volunteers have been disrupted by covid-19, solutions have been put in place to allow the connection with the prisoners to be maintained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Caregivers , Humans , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers
14.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 17: 471-487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256187

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a known cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among acutely ill medical patients. Although VTE prophylaxis is part of post-discharge clinical care in surgical patients, there is controversy regarding its use in acutely ill medical patients and the current guideline statements suggest against its routine use. Recent clinical trials (APEX, MAGELLAN and MARINER) compared the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (including betrixaban and rivaroxaban) with the standard of the care, enoxaparin, to identify the risk-benefit tradeoff. In this review, we summarized the key findings from these trials and substudies and recent updates in society guidelines regarding VTE prevention. In addition, we discussed the potential barriers, cost-effectiveness, and COVID-19 with respect to the implementation of extended-duration or post-discharge usage of direct oral anticoagulants.

15.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
16.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 80(3): 714-717, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249726

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a condition caused by a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease's course ranges from entirely asymptomatic to severely ill patients. Hypercoagulation is often a complication of this disease, worsening the prognosis, which is extremely important in patients at higher risk of thromboembolic events, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), where thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage (LAA) is frequent. LAA could be of various sizes, volumes, and shapes, distinguish several morphologies, from which the WindSock LAA is the most frequent. In contrast, thromboembolic complications occur most frequently in patients with AF and the Cactus LAA. We present a clinical case of a 70-year-old woman with an initial negative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2, suspicion of device-related infection after dual pacemaker implantation, AF, and LAA without thrombus in the initial transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Despite apixaban treatment, spontaneous restoration of sinus rhythm, and WindSock LAA morphology, the sludge in LAA was diagnosed in control TEE. The patient did not present any typical clinical COVID-19 symptoms but re-checked the RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection was positive. The described case presents echocardiographic evidence of hypercoagulation as the first and only feature of SARS-CoV-2 condition besides the usual morphological presentation of the WindSock LAA.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Echocardiography , Thrombophilia , Aged , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology
17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6198-6207, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research has shown that acute kidney injury (AKI) has a noticeable incidence in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with prior renal insufficiency are particularly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), due to their immune dysfunction. However, most patients with COVID-19 do not have a history of kidney dysfunction, and few studies have focused on the incidence of AKI among COVID-19 patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of AKI in severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a particular focus on those without a CKD history. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study of 96 patients with COVID-19 in China between February 7 and March 3, 2020 was conducted. All patients were diagnosed by nucleic acid test (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2. Enrolled patients were divided into the severely or critically ill group according to the defined criteria. Patients' epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, along with their treatment information, were collected from the medical history system. The occurrence of AKI was compared between the severe and critical patients, and between patients with or without a history of CKD. The diagnostic criteria for AKI included an increase in the serum creatinine level to ≥1.5-fold the level at baseline within 7 days according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Renal outcomes were defined as AKI or non-AKI. RESULTS: Four patients (4.2%) developed AKI, all of whom were in the critically ill group, and 3 (75%) of whom died. Out of the 90 severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients without CKD, 3 (3.3%) patients developed AKI; out of the 6 patients with CKD, 1 (16.7%) patient developed AKI. Age, disease severity, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were correlated with AKI onset in severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients, while lymphocyte count and estimated glomerular filtration rate at admission were inversely related to the development of AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Only 3.3% of severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients without CKD in our research cohort developed AKI. Critically ill patients may be more susceptible to AKI than severely ill patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , China , Critical Illness , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am Surg ; : 31348211023416, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247476

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 refers to viral respiratory infections and is the predisposing factor for the development of venous and arterial thrombotic events due to a pronounced inflammatory response, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. Recent studies have confirmed a high incidence of thromboembolic events, especially in the group of patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia. There have been an increasing number of reports of peripheral arterial thrombosis as well. Most cases of arterial thrombosis are noted in critical ill patients in intensive care setting. However, an increase of adverse arterial events was also noted in cases of asymptomatic or mild forms of COVID-19. Herein, we report a case of patient with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, who developed a threatening lower limb ischemia. Our own clinical observation suggests that COVID-19-associated arterial thrombosis can be successfully treated by embolectomy, administration of in-hospital parenteral anticoagulation, and continuation of antithrombotic therapy with a "vascular" dose of rivaroxaban after discharge.

19.
J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry ; 62(6): 588-594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been an increasing number of emergency department visits for behavioral health reasons, even as overall emergency department volumes have decreased. The impact of the pandemic and related public health interventions on specialized psychiatric emergency services has not been described. These services provide high-intensity care for severely ill patients who are likely to be homeless and underserved. OBJECTIVE: We describe the change in total volume and psychiatric hospitalization rates among three psychiatric emergency services across the United States. METHODS: Changes in volumes and hospitalization were assessed for statistical significance using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous factors model from January 2018 to December 2020. RESULTS: The pandemic's impact on volumes and hospitalization varied by site. In Denver (CO), there was a statistically significant 9% decrease in overall volumes, although an 18% increase in hospitalizations was not significant. In New York City (NY), there was a significant 7% decrease in volumes as well as a significant 6% decrease in hospitalizations. In Portland (OR), volumes decreased by 4% and hospitalizations increased by 6% although differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a decrease in volume at these services after the pandemic, but there are substantial variations in the magnitude of change and demand for hospitalization by region. These findings suggest a need to understand where patients in crisis are seeking care and how systems of care must adapt to changing utilization in the pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(1): 49-60, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of otorhinolaryngological symptoms in patients with the diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases was performed up to August 19, 2020.We included studies that reported infections with COVID-19 and symptoms of otolaryngology. The retrieved data from the respective studies were evaluated and summarized. The study's immediate result was to assess the combined prevalence of otorhinolaryngological symptoms in patients with COVID-19. However, the secondary result was to determine the exacerbation of COVID-19 infection in patients with otorhinolaryngological symptoms. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies with 16,478 patients were included. Olfactory dysfunction, sneezing and sputum production were the 3 most prevalent otorhinolaryngological symptoms in patients with COVID-19. The pooled prevalence amongst the prevalent symptoms was 47% (95% CI 29-65; range 0-98; I2 = 99.58%), 27% (95% CI 11-48; range 12-40; I2 = 93.34%), and 22% (95% CI 16-30; range 2-56; I2 = 97.60%), respectively. The proportion of severely ill patients with sputum production and shortness of breath was significantly higher among patients with COVID-19 infections (OR 1.66 [95% CI 1.08-2.54]; P = 0.02, I2 = 51% and 3.29 [95% CI 1.57-6.90]; P = 0.002, I2 = 49%, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed no statistically significant differences between the incidence of otolaryngology symptoms in severely ill patients and non-severely ill patients (OR 1.43 [95% CI 1.12-1.82]; P = 0.07 I2 = 53.1%). In contrast, the incidence of shortness of breath in severely ill patients was significantly increased (3.29 [1.57-6.90]; P = 0.002, I2 = 49%). CONCLUSION: Our research shows that otorhinolaryngology symptoms in patients with COVID-19 are not uncommon, which should attract otorhinolaryngologists' attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
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