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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5839-5845, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432415

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, cancer patients have suffered the most from the COVID-19 pandemic process. However, cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and each patient has responded differently to COVID-19. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer and COVID-19. We retrospectively reviewed 45 cancer patients hospitalized in the Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty COVID-19 department from March 23 to October 23, 2020. We analyzed the demographic characteristics, symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment, prognosis, and cancer subtypes of patients and mortality who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Between March 23 and October 23, 2020, 45 hospitalized cancer patients who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were included, with a median age of 60 years (range: 23-92). Patients were divided into two groups a survivor and a non-survivor. Symptoms, demographic information, comorbidities, treatments for COVID-19, and laboratory findings of the two groups were evaluated separately. Two parameters were found, which showed a significant difference between non-survivors and survivors displaying a disadvantage for COPD and low platelet count (p = 0.044-0.038). The mortality rate of all patients was 66%. The presence of comorbidities such as COPD and low platelet count in cancer patients with COVID-19 infection may draw the attention of physicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/classification , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
2.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 48(4): 403-411, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378127

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the experiences of Turkish parents of hospitalized children with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS & SETTING: Participants were recruited at the pediatric hematology-oncology clinic of a university hospital in Turkey. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify participants. Parents who had a child aged 0-18 years with cancer were eligible. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: This study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative research design. Semistructured individual interviews with 14 parents of children with cancer were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using the content analysis method. FINDINGS: Two main themes with related subthemes were identified that revealed the lived experiences of parents of children with cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Pediatric oncology nurses can develop clinical practices that help parents to cope with anxiety about COVID-19. Nurses should share with parents current and valid information about the child's care during the pandemic. Future research should examine the experiences of children with cancer and their parents from different cultures during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child, Hospitalized , Neoplasms , Child , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Parents , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey
3.
J Cancer ; 12(12): 3558-3565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355160

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Data are extremely limited with regards to the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients. Our study explored the distinct clinical features of COVID-19 patients with cancer. Experimental Design: 189 COVID-19 patients, including 16 cancer patients and 173 patients without cancer, were recruited. Propensity score 1:4 matching (PSM) was performed between cancer patients and patients without cancer based on age, gender and comorbidities. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the difference was compared by the log-rank test. Results: PSM analysis yielded 16 cancer patients and 64 propensity score-matched patients without cancer. Compared to patients without cancer, cancer patients tended to have leukopenia and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and procalcitonin. For those with critical COVID-19, cancer patients had an inferior survival than those without cancer. Also, cancer patients with severe/critical COVID-19 tended to be male and present with low SPO2 and albumin, and high hs-CRP, lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen on admission compared to those with mild COVID-19. In terms of risk factors, recent cancer diagnosis (within 1 year of onset of COVID-19) and anti-tumor treatment within 3 months of COVID-19 diagnosis were associated with inferior survival. Conclusions: We found COVID-19 patients with cancer have distinct clinical features as compared to patients without cancer. Importantly, cancer patients with critical COVID-19 were found to have poorer outcomes compared to those without cancer. In the cancer cohort, patients with severe/critical COVID-19 presented with a distinct clinical profile from those with mild COVID-19; short cancer history and recent anti-cancer treatment were associated with inferior survival.

5.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 695-700, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Health care priorities of individuals may change during a pandemic, which may, in turn, affect health services utilization. We examined Canadians' online relative search interest in five common solid tumors (breast, colon, lung, prostate, and thyroid) during the COVID-19 pandemic to that observed in the same months in the prior 5 years. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study using Google Trends aggregate anonymous online search data from Canada. We compared the respective relative search volumes for breast, colon, lung, prostate, and thyroid cancers for the months March-November 2020 with the mean for the same months in 2015-2019. Welch's two-sample t tests were performed and the raw P values were then adjusted using Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to correct for multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance was defined by choosing false discovery rate at .05 for the primary analysis. RESULTS: We observed temporary statistically significant reductions in Canadians' relative search volumes for various cancers, largely early in the pandemic, in the spring of 2020. Specifically, significant reductions (after adjustment for multiple comparisons) were observed for breast cancer in April, May, and October 2020; colon cancer in March and April of 2020; lung cancer in April and September 2020; and prostate cancer in April and May 2020. Thyroid cancer relative search volumes were not significantly different from those observed prior to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Although Canadians' online interest in various cancers temporarily waned early in the COVID-19 pandemic, recent relative search volumes for various cancers are largely not significantly different from prior to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Information Seeking Behavior , Internet , Neoplasms , Search Engine , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
6.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 163: 103365, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to estimate mortality in adult patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, up to 31 January 2021, identified publications reporting the case-fatality rate (CFR) among adult patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The CFR, defined as the rate of death in this population, was assessed with a random effect model; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Among 135 selected studies (N = 33,879 patients), the CFR was 25.4% (95% CI 22.9%-28.2%). At a sensitivity analysis including studies with at least 100 patients, the CFR was 21.9% (95% CI 19.1%-25.1%). Among COVID-19 patients with lung (N = 1,135) and breast (N = 1,296) cancers, CFR were 32.4% (95% CI 26.5%-39.6%) and 14.2% (95% CI 9.3%-21.8%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection have a high probability of mortality, with comparatively higher and lower CFRs in patients with lung and breast cancers, respectively.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(8): 1569-1574, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the novel coronavirus has caused a global pandemic affecting millions of people around the world. Although children, including children with cancer, have been found to be affected less commonly and less severely than adults, indirect effects of the pandemic on the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer have been less described. METHODS: A survey was performed in the four largest tertiary pediatric hematology-oncology medical centers in Israel. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the medical files of patients diagnosed or treated with cancer during April-October 2020. RESULTS: Seventeen patients are described, who had a significant delay in diagnosis or treatment of cancer. These represent approximately 10% of all pediatric cancer diagnosed during the study period in these centers. A main cause of delay was fear of exposure to COVID-19 (fears felt by the patient, parent, physician, or decision-makers at the institution; or the implementation of national guidelines). Delays also resulted from co-infection with COVID-19 and the attribution of the oncologic symptoms to the infection. In addition, treatment was delayed of patients already diagnosed with cancer, due to COVID-19 infection detected in the patient, a family member, or a bone marrow donor. CONCLUSION: Fear from the COVID-19 pandemic may result in delayed diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer, which may carry a risk to dismal prognosis. It is crucial that pediatricians and patients alike remember that other diseases still prevail and must be thought of and treated in a timely fashion.

8.
JMIR Cancer ; 7(2): e27384, 2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are particularly vulnerable to stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing is critical for patients with cancer; however, it can also reduce their access to psychosocial coping resources. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore patient experiences to generate a model of how virtual mind-body programs can support the psychosocial well-being of patients with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study among patients (aged ≥18 years) who participated in a virtual mind-body program offered by a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center during the COVID-19 pandemic. The program consisted of mind-body group therapy sessions of fitness, yoga, tai chi, dance therapy, music therapy, and meditation. Live integrative medicine clinicians held each session via Zoom videoconferencing for 30-45 minutes. In semistructured phone interviews (n=30), patients were asked about their overall impressions and perceptions of the benefits of the sessions, including impacts on stress and anxiety. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Among the 30 participants (average age 64.5 years, SD 9.36, range 40-80, 29 female), three major themes were identified relating to experiences in the virtual mind-body program: (1) the sessions helped the patients maintain structured routines and motivated them to adhere to healthy behaviors; (2) the sessions enhanced coping with COVID-19-related-stressors, allowing patients to "refocus" and "re-energize"; and (3) the sessions allowed patients to connect, fostering social relationships during a time of isolation. These themes informed the constructs of a novel behavioral-psychological-social coping model for patients with cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual mind-body programming supported patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic through a behavioral-psychological-social coping model by enhancing psychological coping for external stressors, supporting adherence to motivation and health behaviors, and increasing social connection and camaraderie. These programs have potential to address the behavioral, psychological, and social challenges faced by patients with cancer during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. The constructs of the conceptual model proposed in this study can inform future interventions to support isolated patients with cancer. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm the specific benefits of virtual mind-body programming for the psychosocial well-being and healthy behaviors of patients with cancer.

9.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270324

ABSTRACT

Background: While pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) appears to be associated with poor outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), data on patients with CVD and concomitant cancer is limited. Evaluate the effect of underlying CVD and CVD risk factors with cancer history on in-hospital mortality in those with COVID-19. Methods: Data from symptomatic adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 86 hospitals in the US enrolled in the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 CVD Registry was analyzed. The primary exposure was cancer history. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, and CVD. Interaction between history of cancer with concomitant CVD and CVD risk factors were tested. Results: Among 8222 patients, 892 (10.8%) had a history of cancer and 1501 (18.3%) died. Cancer history had significant interaction with CVD risk factors of age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking history, but not underlying CVD itself. History of cancer was significantly associated with increased in-hospital death (among average age and BMI patients, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07-6.24; p<0.0001 in those with a smoking history and aOR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.76; p=0.04 in non-smokers). Among the cancer subgroup, prior use of chemotherapy within 2 weeks of admission was associated with in-hospital death (aOR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.05-2.80; p=0.03). Underlying CVD demonstrated a numerical but statistically nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality (aOR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.99 - 1.41; p=0.07). Conclusion: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, cancer history was a predictor of in-hospital mortality. Notably, among cancer patients, recent use of chemotherapy, but not underlying CVD itself, was associated with worse survival. These findings have important implications in cancer therapy considerations and vaccine distribution in cancer patients with and without underlying CVD and CVD risk factors.

10.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(9): e1382-e1393, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268196

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The benefit of routine pre-emptive screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in patients with cancer before cancer-directed therapies is unclear. Herein, we characterize the outcomes of a cohort of patients with cancer who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by routine screening (RS) in comparison with those diagnosed on the basis of clinical suspicion or exposure history (nonroutine screening [NRS]). METHODS: A multisite prospective observational study was conducted at three major and five satellite campuses of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center between March 18 and July 31, 2020. The primary outcome was COVID-19-related hospital admission. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit admissions and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Five thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent RS in the outpatient setting only, and 44 (0.81%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. RS detected 19 additional patients from the scheduled inpatient admissions for surgical or interventional procedures or inpatient chemotherapy. One hundred sixty-one patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 on the basis of NRS. COVID-19-related hospitalization rate (17.5% v 26.7%; P = .14), intensive care unit admission (1.6% v 5.6%; P = .19), and mortality (4.8% v 3.7%; P = .72) were not significantly different between the RS and NRS groups. In the multivariable analysis, age ≥ 60 years (odds ratio, 4.4; P = .023) and an absolute lymphocyte count ≤ 1.4 × 109/L (odds ratio, 9.2; P = .002) were independent predictors of COVID-19-related hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 positivity rate was low on the basis of RS. Comparing the hospital admission and mortality outcomes with the NRS cohort, there were no significant differences. The value of routine pre-emptive screening of asymptomatic patients with cancer for COVID-19 remains low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Bone Oncol ; 29: 100375, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267729

ABSTRACT

Optimum management of patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic has proved extremely challenging. Patients, clinicians and hospital authorities have had to balance the risks to patients of attending hospital, many of whom are especially vulnerable, with the risks of delaying or modifying cancer treatment. Those whose care has been significantly impacted include patients suffering from the effects of cancer on bone, where delivering the usual standard of care for bone support has often not been possible and clinicians have been forced to seek alternative options for adequate management. At a virtual meeting of the Cancer and Bone Society in July 2020, an expert group shared experiences and solutions to this challenge, following which a questionnaire was sent internationally to the symposium's participants, to explore the issues faced and solutions offered. 70 respondents, from 9 countries (majority USA, 39%, followed by UK, 19%) included 50 clinicians, spread across a diverse range of specialties (but with a high proportion, 64%, of medical oncologists) and 20 who classified themselves as non-clinical (solely lab-based). Spread of clinician specialty across tumour types was breast (65%), prostate (27%), followed by renal, myeloma and melanoma. Analysis showed that management of metastatic bone disease in all solid tumour types and myeloma, adjuvant bisphosphonate breast cancer therapy and cancer treatment induced bone loss, was substantially impacted. Respondents reported delays to routine CT scans (58%), standard bone scans (48%) and MRI scans (46%), though emergency scans were less affected. Delays in palliative radiotherapy for bone pain were reported by 31% of respondents with treatments often involving only a single dose without fractionation. Delays to, or cancellation of, prophylactic surgery for bone pain were reported by 35% of respondents. Access to treatments with intravenous bisphosphonates and subcutaneous denosumab was a major problem, mitigated by provision of drug administration at home or in a local clinic, reduced frequency of administration or switching to oral bisphosphonates taken at home. The questionnaire also revealed damaging delays or complete stopping of both clinical and laboratory research. In addition to an analysis of the questionnaire, this paper presents a rationale and recommendations for adaptation of the normal guidelines for protection of bone health during the pandemic.

12.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5839-5845, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267465

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, cancer patients have suffered the most from the COVID-19 pandemic process. However, cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and each patient has responded differently to COVID-19. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer and COVID-19. We retrospectively reviewed 45 cancer patients hospitalized in the Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty COVID-19 department from March 23 to October 23, 2020. We analyzed the demographic characteristics, symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment, prognosis, and cancer subtypes of patients and mortality who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Between March 23 and October 23, 2020, 45 hospitalized cancer patients who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were included, with a median age of 60 years (range: 23-92). Patients were divided into two groups a survivor and a non-survivor. Symptoms, demographic information, comorbidities, treatments for COVID-19, and laboratory findings of the two groups were evaluated separately. Two parameters were found, which showed a significant difference between non-survivors and survivors displaying a disadvantage for COPD and low platelet count (p = 0.044-0.038). The mortality rate of all patients was 66%. The presence of comorbidities such as COPD and low platelet count in cancer patients with COVID-19 infection may draw the attention of physicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/classification , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
13.
Cancer Med ; 10(13): 4424-4436, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 leads to COVID-19, the course of which is highly variable and depends on numerous patient-specific risk factors. Patients with tumor diseases are considered to be more susceptible to severe COVID-19; however, they also represent a heterogeneous group of individuals with variable risk. Identifying specific risk factors for a severe course of COVID-19 in patients with cancer is of great importance. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with solid tumors or hematological malignancies and PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included into the multicentric ADHOK (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Hämatologen und Onkologen im Krankenhaus e.V.) coronavirus tumor registry. Detailed information about the patients' cancer disease, treatment, and laboratory parameters prior to infection, was collected retrospectively. The outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was graded according to the WHO. RESULTS: A total of 195 patients (68% with solid neoplasms and 32% with hematological malignancies) were included in the registry. Overall, the course of the SARS-CoV-2 infection varied greatly, as 69% of all patients were either asymptomatic or encountered a mild to moderate course, while 23% of the cohort died from COVID-19. In multivariable analysis, preinfection laboratory parameters (determined at least 10 days and a median of 21 days before the first documentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection) significantly correlated with severe course of the disease. Out of these, the absolute neutrophil count prior to infection showed the strongest association with COVID-19-related death. CONCLUSION: The course of COVID-19 in patients with tumor diseases is highly variable. Preinfection laboratory parameters may aid to identify patients at risk for severe COVID-19 at an early stage prior to infection with the virus. German Clinical Trials Register identification: DRKS00023012.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 577696, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264351

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have become the standard of care treatment for several tumor types. ICI-induced pneumonitis is a serious complication seen with treatment with these agents. Cancer has been reported to be one of the risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that has engulfed the world in the last couple of months. In patients with cancer treated with ICI who present at the emergency department with respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, correct diagnosis can be challenging. Symptoms and radiological features of ICI pneumonitis can be overlapping with those of COVID-19 related pneumonia. For the latter, dexamethasone and remdesivir have shown encouraging results, while vaccines are currently being evaluated in phase III trials. The mainstay of treatment in ICI pneumonitis is immunosuppressive therapy, as this is a potentially fatal adverse event. It has been speculated that immunosuppression may be associated with increased risk of progression to severe COVID-19, especially during the early stage of infection with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, distinction between these two entities is warranted. We summarize the clinical, radiological features as well as additional investigations of both entities, and suggest a diagnostic algorithm for distinction between the two. This algorithm may be a supportive tool for clinicians to diagnose the underlying cause of the pneumonitis in patients treated with ICI during this COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(9): e1293-e1302, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262530

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the impact of an interdisciplinary remote patient monitoring (RPM) program on clinical outcomes and acute care utilization in cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis following a prospective observational study performed at Mayo Clinic Cancer Center. Adult patients receiving cancer-directed therapy or in recent remission on active surveillance with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 18 and July 31, 2020, were included. RPM was composed of in-home technology to assess symptoms and physiologic data with centralized nursing and physician oversight. RESULTS: During the study timeframe, 224 patients with cancer were diagnosed with COVID-19. Of the 187 patients (83%) initially managed in the outpatient setting, those who did not receive RPM were significantly more likely to experience hospitalization than those receiving RPM. Following balancing of patient characteristics by inverse propensity score weighting, rates of hospitalization for RPM and non-RPM patients were 2.8% and 13%, respectively, implying that the use of RPM was associated with a 78% relative risk reduction in hospital admission rate (95% CI, 54 to 102; P = .002). Furthermore, when hospitalized, these patients experienced a shorter length of stay and fewer prolonged hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and deaths, although these trends did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The use of RPM and a centralized virtual care team was associated with a reduction in hospital admission rate and lower overall acute care resource utilization among cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 27(4): 201-207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261400

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver transplant recipients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although several studies demonstrated the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in the general population, data in CLD patients and liver transplant recipients are lacking. Two COVID-19 vaccines were approved by the Saudi Food and Drug Authority and rolled out to several million recipients in Saudi Arabia. These vaccines are mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2 from Pfizer/BioNTech and adenovirus-based AZD1222 from Oxford/AstraZeneca from three manufacturing sites (EU Nodes, Serum Institute of India, and South Korea Bio). The Saudi Association for the Study of Liver diseases and Transplantation (SASLT) has reviewed the available evidence and issued interim recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination in CLD and liver transplant recipients. Since there is no evidence contradicting the safety and immunogenicity of the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines in patients with CLD and hepatobiliary cancer and liver transplant recipients, the SASLT recommends vaccination in those patient populations. CLD and hepatobiliary cancer patients and liver transplant recipients should be prioritized depending on the risk factors for severe COVID-19. In transplant recipients, the optimal timing of vaccination remains unknown; however, immunization is recommended after the initial immunosuppression phase. Patients with CLD and liver transplant candidates or recipients should be closely monitored after COVID-19 vaccination. These patient populations should be included in future clinical trials to provide further evidence on the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 682, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260957

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease, has infected almost one hundred million people since the end of 2019, killed over two million, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption. Because the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells and its pathogenesis remain largely unclear, there are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy. Besides severe respiratory and systematic symptoms, several comorbidities increase risk of fatal disease outcome. Therefore, it is required to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on pre-existing diseases of patients, such as cancer and other infectious diseases. In the current study, we report that SARS-CoV-2 encoded proteins and some currently used anti-COVID-19 drugs are able to induce lytic reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), one of major human oncogenic viruses, through manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways. Our data indicate that those KSHV + patients especially in endemic areas exposure to COVID-19 or undergoing the treatment may have increased risks to develop virus-associated cancers, even after they have fully recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , Virus Activation , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Benzamidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Guanidines/pharmacology , Herpesviridae Infections/chemically induced , Herpesviridae Infections/etiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/drug effects , Humans , Oncogenic Viruses/drug effects , Oncogenic Viruses/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sarcoma, Kaposi/chemically induced , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Activation/drug effects
18.
Int J Nurs Stud Adv ; 3: 100030, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare services have responded to the challenges of service delivery during COVID-19 with telehealth and hybrid models of care. However, there is limited understanding of the experiences of care amongst people affected by cancer and how their experiences may change and evolve against the shifting landscape of COVID-19 incidence, mortality, vaccination and refinements in service delivery. OBJECTIVES: This study explores the experiences of cancer care amongst people affected by cancer in Ireland during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents the results of the initial cross-sectional semi-structured interviews and the longitudinal qualitative research design which will be employed in this study. DESIGN: A longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. SETTING: Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: People living with and after cancer or caring for someone with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants were recruited to the study via social media advertisements and consented to participate in up to three semi-structured interviews between January and July 2021. Initial semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants in January 2021. Participants completed measures of resilience (2-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale) and distress (The National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer). Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Participants reported low levels of distress and moderate to high levels of resilience on average. Three themes were generated from analysis of the first phase of cross-sectional interviews. Participants described a counterbalance of being cautious of infection and keeping safe through prevention and shielding strategies. Although hospitals felt safe and were working efficiently, some participants felt COVID-19 had compromised person-centredness and empathy in care. While participants valued the measures taken to minimize infection risk, substitution of face-to-face appointments with telehealth services and attending essential face-to-face appointments alone restricted participants' access to professional and social support. Despite this, many participants felt public health measures to reduce transmission of COVID-19 had created a sense of not missing out, feeling safe and reduced difficult social interactions requiring explanation of their diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There is an opportunity to learn from the experiences of healthcare delivery from the perspectives of people affected by cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results highlight the complexities and dualities of living with, after or caring for someone with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Opportunities for longitudinal qualitative research to explore the evolving experiences, concerns and persistent and emerging unmet information and clinical needs within the rapidly changing socio-political, socio-cultural and healthcare contexts of the COVID-19 pandemic are highlighted.

19.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100406, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258358

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 Pneumonia of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infection, persists to have high disease burden especially in cancer patients. Increased inflammation and thromboembolic processes are blamed to influence cancer patients more than the others but due to lack of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of the both the virus itself and the response of the host, more basic and translational disease modeling research is needed to understand Cancer-Covid-19 interaction. In this study, serum samples from the patients, who were hospitalized due to Covid-19 pneumonia, applied to different cancer cells and cytotoxicity, motility, proliferation and gene expression analysis were performed. Serum samples derived from healthy volunteers and the fetal bovine serum that is used regularly in cell culture experiments used as controls. Hospitalized Covid-19 patients who had also cancer, were retrospectively screened, and their clinical course were recorded. Overall 12 Patient (PS) and 4 healthy serums (CS) were included in the experiments. PS applied cells showed increased motility in A549 cells as well as lost cell to cell connection in MCF7 and HCT116 cells, and induced expression of VIM, ZEB1 and SNAIL2 mRNA levels. Eight cancer diagnosed patients who were hospitalized due to Covid-19 between April and September 2020 were also reviewed retrospectively, which 5 of them were dead during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thorax CT images of the 2 patients showed increased metastatic nodules in the lungs as of January 2021. The results of the study indicate that metastasis may be one of the prolonged consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in cancer sufferers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/physiology , Immune Sera , Neoplasms/pathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/adverse effects , Immune Sera/toxicity , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045679, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255597

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Childhood cancers are a leading cause of non-communicable disease deaths for children around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted on global children's cancer services, which can have consequences for childhood cancer outcomes. The Global Health Research Group on Children's Non-Communicable Diseases is currently undertaking the first international cohort study to determine the variation in paediatric cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the short-term to medium-term impacts on childhood cancer outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, international cohort study that will use routinely collected hospital data in a deidentified and anonymised form. Patients will be recruited consecutively into the study, with a 12-month follow-up period. Patients will be included if they are below the age of 18 years and undergoing anticancer treatment for the following cancers: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilms tumour, sarcoma, retinoblastoma, gliomas, medulloblastomas and neuroblastomas. Patients must be newly presented or must be undergoing active anticancer treatment from 12 March 2020 to 12 December 2020. The primary objective of the study was to determine all-cause mortality rates of 30 days, 90 days and 12 months. This study will examine the factors that influenced these outcomes. χ2 analysis will be used to compare mortality between low-income and middle-income countries and high-income countries. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis will be undertaken to identify patient-level and hospital-level factors affecting outcomes with adjustment for confounding factors. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: At the host centre, this study was deemed to be exempt from ethical committee approval due to the use of anonymised registry data. At other centres, participating collaborators have gained local approvals in accordance with their institutional ethical regulations. Collaborators will be encouraged to present the results locally, nationally and internationally. The results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Developed Countries , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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