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1.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448935

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-based vaccine approach is a promising alternative to traditional vaccines due to its ability for prompt development, high potency, and potential for secure administration and low-cost production. Nonetheless, the application has still been limited by the instability as well as the ineffective delivery of mRNA in vivo. Current technological improvements have now mostly overcome these concerns, and manifold mRNA vaccine plans against various forms of malignancies and infectious ailments have reported inspiring outcomes in both humans and animal models. This article summarizes recent mRNA-based vaccine developments, advances of in vivo mRNA deliveries, reflects challenges and safety concerns, and future perspectives, in developing the mRNA vaccine platform for extensive therapeutic use.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2459, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387462

ABSTRACT

A deeper understanding of the molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the host response to the virus, is urgently needed. Commonalities exist between the host immune response to viral infections and cancer. Here, we defined transcriptional signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infection involving hundreds of genes common across lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, Calu-3) and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), with additional signatures being specific to one or both adenocarcinoma lines. Cross-examining eight transcriptomic databases, we found that host transcriptional responses of lung adenocarcinoma cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection shared broad similarities with host responses to multiple viruses across different model systems and patient samples. Furthermore, these SARS-CoV-2 transcriptional signatures were manifested within specific subsets of human cancer, involving ~ 20% of cases across a wide range of histopathological types. These cancer subsets show immune cell infiltration and inflammation and involve pathways linked to the SARS-CoV-2 response, such as immune checkpoint, IL-6, type II interferon signaling, and NF-κB. The cell line data represented immune responses activated specifically within the cancer cells of the tumor. Common genes and pathways implicated as part of the viral host response point to therapeutic strategies that may apply to both SARS-CoV-2 and cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , A549 Cells , Bronchi/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Transcriptome , Virus Replication/genetics
4.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 27: 100321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ACE2 a key molecule of the Renin-Angiotensin system has been identified as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells. In the context of human cancers, there is evidence that ACE2 might function as a tumor suppressor. The expression levels of ACE2 among the different subtypes of breast cancer has not been investigated. METHODS: We have examined the differential expression of ACE2 and its correlation with prognosis in breast cancer subtypes using the METABRIC (n = 1898) and TCGA (n = 832) cohorts. Correlations were evaluated by Pearsons's correlation co-efficient and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate differences in disease-free survival between the ACE2 high and ACE2 low groups. RESULTS: There is minimal expression of ACE2 in the luminal classes, but significantly higher levels in the Basal-like and HER2-enriched subclasses. Metastatic biopsies of these tumor types also show enhanced expression of ACE2. High levels of ACE2 correlated with decreased disease-free survival in the HER2-enriched subtype, and it was positively correlated with EGFR expression. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest ACE2 might function as a context dependent factor driving tumor progression in breast cancer and permit new opportunities for targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 682, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260957

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease, has infected almost one hundred million people since the end of 2019, killed over two million, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption. Because the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells and its pathogenesis remain largely unclear, there are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy. Besides severe respiratory and systematic symptoms, several comorbidities increase risk of fatal disease outcome. Therefore, it is required to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on pre-existing diseases of patients, such as cancer and other infectious diseases. In the current study, we report that SARS-CoV-2 encoded proteins and some currently used anti-COVID-19 drugs are able to induce lytic reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), one of major human oncogenic viruses, through manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways. Our data indicate that those KSHV + patients especially in endemic areas exposure to COVID-19 or undergoing the treatment may have increased risks to develop virus-associated cancers, even after they have fully recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , Virus Activation , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Benzamidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Guanidines/pharmacology , Herpesviridae Infections/chemically induced , Herpesviridae Infections/etiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/drug effects , Humans , Oncogenic Viruses/drug effects , Oncogenic Viruses/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sarcoma, Kaposi/chemically induced , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Activation/drug effects
6.
OMICS ; 25(6): 358-371, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243453

ABSTRACT

About a tenth of all cancers are caused by viruses or associated with viral infection. Recent global events including the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic means that human encounter with viruses is increased. Cancer development in individuals with viral infection can take many years after infection, demonstrating that the involvement of viruses in cancer development is a long and complex process. This complexity emanates from individual genetic heterogeneity and the many steps involved in cancer development owing to viruses. The process of tumorigenesis is driven by the complex interaction between several viral factors and host factors leading to the creation of a tumor microenvironment (TME) that is ideal and promotes tumor formation. Viruses associated with human cancers ensure their survival and proliferation through activation of several cellular processes including inflammation, migration, and invasion, resistance to apoptosis and growth suppressors. In addition, most human oncoviruses evade immune detection and can activate signaling cascades including the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, Notch and Wnt pathways associated with enhanced proliferation and angiogenesis. This expert review examines and synthesizes the multiple biological factors related to oncoviruses, and the signaling cascades activated by these viruses contributing to viral oncogenesis. In particular, I examine and review the Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, and Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus in a context of cancer pathogenesis. I conclude with a future outlook on therapeutic targeting of the viruses and their associated oncogenic pathways within the TME. These anticancer strategies can be in the form of, but not limited to, antibodies and inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Retroviridae Infections/virology , Retroviridae/physiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Retroviridae Infections/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/pathology
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231516

ABSTRACT

Increases in the world's population and population density promote the spread of emerging pathogens. Vaccines are the most cost-effective means of preventing this spread. Traditional methods used to identify and produce new vaccines are not adequate, in most instances, to ensure global protection. New technologies are urgently needed to expedite large scale vaccine development. mRNA-based vaccines promise to meet this need. mRNA-based vaccines exhibit a number of potential advantages relative to conventional vaccines, namely they (1) involve neither infectious elements nor a risk of stable integration into the host cell genome; (2) generate humoral and cell-mediated immunity; (3) are well-tolerated by healthy individuals; and (4) are less expensive and produced more rapidly by processes that are readily standardized and scaled-up, improving responsiveness to large emerging outbreaks. Multiple mRNA vaccine platforms have demonstrated efficacy in preventing infectious diseases and treating several types of cancers in humans as well as animal models. This review describes the factors that contribute to maximizing the production of effective mRNA vaccine transcripts and delivery systems, and the clinical applications are discussed in detail.

8.
J Food Biochem ; 45(6): e13750, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218148

ABSTRACT

Nutraceuticals need special attention as preventive molecules to create a natural barrier against various dreadful diseases like cancer and to regulate metabolism. In the present study, two spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Cinnamomum verum, been identified as excellent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPases) sources that play significant role in the regulation of cell signal transduction and developmental processes in plants as well as animals, being lucrative and potential targets for pharmacological modulation. PTPases from both cases were partially purified into 0%-40% and 40%-80% fractions based on ammonium sulfate saturation levels. Fraction (40%-80%) exhibited a purification level of 4.44-fold and 2.86-fold with specific activity of 44.06 and 23.33 U/mg for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. PTPases being found to be thermally stable up to 70°C imply their industrial significance. Kinetic studies showed Km values to be 7.14 and 8.33 mM, whereas the activation energy (Ea ) values were 25.89 and 29.13 kJ/mol, respectively. Divalent cations: Cu2+ , Zn2+ , and Mn2+ acted as inhibitors of PTPases, from both sources. The Ki values of inhibitors varied from 0.014-0.125 mM in the descending order Cu2+  > Zn2+  > Mn2+ and Mn2+  > Cu2+  > Zn2+ for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. The inhibitory effect of sodium metavanadate aligns with prominent PTPase characteristics. In addition to these properties, the thermostability of PTPases from two spices enhances their significance in industries with therapeutically vital products. Although the source of PTPases is culinary spices, further studies are required to establish the utilization of PTPases as nutraceuticals and in therapeutic formulations. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: For a healthy lifestyle, awareness needs to be created by humankind towards food habits to minimize illnesses. Numerous studies have explored the consumption of nutraceutical products acts as a natural barrier and immune booster for various human ailments including SARS-COV-2. PTPases play important roles in regulating intracellular signaling and, ultimately, biological function along with their structural features. The importance of PTPases and their inhibitors has been implicated in various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Further investigations need to be undertaken to explore the therapeutic properties of PTPases in both in vivo and in vitro for their clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Ammi , COVID-19 , Ammi/metabolism , Animals , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Kinetics , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spices
9.
In Vivo ; 35(3): 1805-1810, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Kidney cancers account for about 2% of human malignancies. In recent decades, the incidence of this cancer type has gradually increased, mainly due to advances in imaging. The metastatic potential of these cancers is significant: a quarter of patients will immediately present with metastases and more than one third of patients treated with nephrectomy for a localized disease will develop metastases during their course. In total, more than half of patients will suffer from the consequences of metastasis. The median survival at this stage is only thirteen months, so the therapeutic challenge is immense. CASE REPORT: The present case report describes a case of left renal clear cell carcinoma with brain, lung, right adrenal, bone and lymph node metastases in a 55-year-old male. The patient received only one line of anticancer treatment with sunitinib, which could not be continued due to haemorrhagic manifestations in brain metastases. The treatment was changed with immunotherapy which showed its effect even if it was stopped due to the patient wishes in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. CONCLUSION: Immunotherapy opens the doors to a new era in treatment of metastatic renal cancer and shows efficiency even after it has been stopped.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/drug therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 626821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175535

ABSTRACT

Deciphering the functional impact of genetic variation is required to understand phenotypic diversity and the molecular mechanisms of inherited disease and cancer. While millions of genetic variants are now mapped in genome sequencing projects, distinguishing functional variants remains a major challenge. Protein-coding variation can be interpreted using post-translational modification (PTM) sites that are core components of cellular signaling networks controlling molecular processes and pathways. ActiveDriverDB is an interactive proteo-genomics database that uses more than 260,000 experimentally detected PTM sites to predict the functional impact of genetic variation in disease, cancer and the human population. Using machine learning tools, we prioritize proteins and pathways with enriched PTM-specific amino acid substitutions that potentially rewire signaling networks via induced or disrupted short linear motifs of kinase binding. We then map these effects to site-specific protein interaction networks and drug targets. In the 2021 update, we increased the PTM datasets by nearly 50%, included glycosylation, sumoylation and succinylation as new types of PTMs, and updated the workflows to interpret inherited disease mutations. We added a recent phosphoproteomics dataset reflecting the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 to predict the impact of human genetic variation on COVID-19 infection and disease course. Overall, we estimate that 16-21% of known amino acid substitutions affect PTM sites among pathogenic disease mutations, somatic mutations in cancer genomes and germline variants in the human population. These data underline the potential of interpreting genetic variation through the lens of PTMs and signaling networks. The open-source database is freely available at www.ActiveDriverDB.org.

11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165102

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China in December 2019 and its spread as worldwide pandemic has been a major global health crisis. Extremely high infection and mortality rate has severely affected all sectors of life and derailed the global economy. While drug and vaccine development have been prioritized and have made significant progression, use of phytochemicals and herbal constituents is deemed as a low-cost, safer and readily available alternative. We investigated therapeutic efficacy of eight withanolides (derived from Ashwagandha) against the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteins, a target cell surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and report results on the (i) computational analyses including binding affinity and stable interactions with ACE2, occupancy of ACE2 residues in making polar and nonpolar interactions with different withanolides/ligands and (2) in vitro mRNA and protein analyses using human cancer (A549, MCF7 and HSC3) cells. We found that among all withanolides, Withaferin-A, Withanone, Withanoside-IV and Withanoside-V significantly inhibited the ACE2 expression. Analysis of withanolides-rich aqueous extracts derived from Ashwagandha leaves and stem showed a higher ACE2 inhibitory potency of stem-derived extracts. Taken together, we demonstrated the inhibitory potency of Ashwagandha withanolides and its aqueous extracts against ACE2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

12.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 59(1): 89-100, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139384

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant global event in the history of infectious diseases. The SARS-CoV-2 appears to have originated from bats but is now easily transmissible among humans, primarily through droplet or direct contact. Clinical features of COVID-19 include high fever, cough, and fatigue which may progress to ARDS. Respiratory failure can occur rapidly after this. The primary laboratory findings include lymphopenia and eosinopenia. Elevated D-dimer, procalcitonin, and CRP levels may correlate with disease severity. Imaging findings include ground-glass opacities and patchy consolidation on CT scan. Mortality is higher in patients with hypertension, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and COPD. Elderly patients are more susceptible to severe disease and death, while children seem to have lower rates of infection and lower mortality. Diagnostic criteria and the identification of persons under investigation have evolved as more data has emerged. However, the approach to diagnosis is still very variable from region to region, country to country, and even among different hospitals in the same city. The importance of a clinical pathway to implement the most effective and relevant diagnostic strategy is of critical importance to establish the control of this virus that is responsible for more and more deaths each day.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Pathways , Early Diagnosis , Evidence-Based Practice , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Medical History Taking , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Quarantine , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
EPMA J ; 11(2): 289-309, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086691

ABSTRACT

RELEVANCE: Ivermectin, as an old anti-parasite drug, can suppress almost completely the growth of various human cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). However, its anticancer mechanism remained to be further studied at the molecular levels. Ivermectin-related molecule-panel changes will serve a useful tool for its personalized drug therapy and prognostic assessment in OCs. PURPOSE: To explore the functional significance of ivermectin-mediated lncRNA-EIF4A3-mRNA axes in OCs and ivermectin-related molecule-panel for its personalized drug therapy monitoring. METHODS: Based on our previous study, a total of 16 lncRNA expression patterns were analyzed using qRT-PCR before and after ivermectin-treated different OC cell lines (TOV-21G and A2780). Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics was used to analyze the protein expressions of EIF4A3 and EIF4A3-binding mRNAs in ovarian cancer cells treated with and without ivermectin. A total of 411 OC patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database with the selected lncRNA expressions and the corresponding clinical data were included. Lasso regression was constructed to examine the relationship between lncRNA signature and OC survival risk. The overall survival analysis between high-risk and low-risk groups used the Kaplan-Meier method. Heatmap showed the correlation between risk groups and clinical characteristics. The univariate and multivariate models were established with Cox regression. RESULTS: SILAC-based quantitative proteomics found the protein expression levels of EIF4A3 and 116 EIF4A3-binding mRNAs were inhibited by ivermectin in OC cells. Among the analyzed 16 lncRNAs (HCG15, KIF9-AS1, PDCD4-AS1, ZNF674-AS1, ZNRF3-AS1, SOS1-IT1, LINC00565, SNHG3, PLCH1-AS1, WWTR1-AS1, LINC00517, AL109767.1, STARD13-IT1, LBX2-AS1, LEMD1-AS1, and HOXC-AS3), only 7 lncRNAs (HCG15, KIF9-AS1, PDCD4-AS1, ZNF674-AS1, ZNRF3-AS1, SOS1-IT1, and LINC00565) were obtained for further lasso regression when combined with the results of drug testing and overall survival analysis. Lasso regression identified the prognostic model of ivermectin-related three-lncRNA signature (ZNRF3-AS1, SOS1-IT1, and LINC00565). The high-risk and low-risk groups based on the prognostic model were significantly related to overall survival and clinicopathologic characteristics (survival status, lymphatic invasion, cancer status, and clinical stage) in OC patients and remained independent risk factors according to multivariate COX analysis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Those findings provided the potential targeted lncRNA-EIF4A3-mRNA pathways of ivermectin in OC, and constructed the effective prognostic model, which benefits discovery of novel mechanism of ivermectin to suppress ovarian cancer cells, and the ivermectin-related molecule-panel changes benefit for its personalized drug therapy and prognostic assessment towards its predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM) in OCs.

14.
Int J Oncol ; 58(2): 145-157, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040137

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus­2 (SARS­CoV­2) poses a threat to human life worldwide. Since early March, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19), characterized by an acute and often severe form of pneumonia, has been declared a pandemic. This has led to a boom in biomedical research studies at all stages of the pipeline, from the in vitro to the clinical phase. In line with this global effort, known drugs, currently used for the treatment of other pathologies, including antivirals, immunomodulating compounds and antibodies, are currently used off­label for the treatment of COVID­19, in association with the supportive standard care. Yet, no effective treatments have been identified. A new hope stems from medical oncology and relies on the use of immune­checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In particular, amongst the ICIs, antibodies able to block the programmed death­1 (PD­1)/PD ligand-1 (PD­L1) pathway have revealed a hidden potential. In fact, patients with severe and critical COVID­19, even prior to the appearance of acute respiratory distress syndrome, exhibit lymphocytopenia and suffer from T­cell exhaustion, which may lead to viral sepsis and an increased mortality rate. It has been observed that cancer patients, who usually are immunocompromised, may restore their anti­tumoral immune response when treated with ICIs. Moreover, viral-infected mice and humans, exhibit a T­cell exhaustion, which is also observed following SARS­CoV­2 infection. Importantly, when treated with anti­PD­1 and anti­PD­L1 antibodies, they restore their T­cell competence and efficiently counteract the viral infection. Based on these observations, four clinical trials are currently open, to examine the efficacy of anti­PD­1 antibody administration to both cancer and non­cancer individuals affected by COVID­19. The results may prove the hypothesis that restoring exhausted T­cells may be a winning strategy to beat SARS­CoV­2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans
15.
Cell ; 183(7): 1901-1912.e9, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950119

ABSTRACT

Long-term severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding was observed from the upper respiratory tract of a female immunocompromised individual with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. Shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2 was observed up to 70 days, and of genomic and subgenomic RNA up to 105 days, after initial diagnosis. The infection was not cleared after the first treatment with convalescent plasma, suggesting a limited effect on SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract of this individual. Several weeks after a second convalescent plasma transfusion, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was no longer detected. We observed marked within-host genomic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 with continuous turnover of dominant viral variants. However, replication kinetics in Vero E6 cells and primary human alveolar epithelial tissues were not affected. Our data indicate that certain immunocompromised individuals may shed infectious virus longer than previously recognized. Detection of subgenomic RNA is recommended in persistently SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals as a proxy for shedding of infectious virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/blood , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/virology , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/blood , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Oncotarget ; 11(46): 4201-4223, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948276

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects vulnerable populations including elderly individuals and patients with cancer. Natural Killer (NK) cells and innate-immune TRAIL suppress transformed and virally-infected cells. ACE2, and TMPRSS2 protease promote SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, while inflammatory cytokines IL-6, or G-CSF worsen COVID-19 severity. We show MEK inhibitors (MEKi) VS-6766, trametinib and selumetinib reduce ACE2 expression in human cells. In some human cells, remdesivir increases ACE2-promoter luciferase-reporter expression, ACE2 mRNA and protein, and ACE2 expression is attenuated by MEKi. In serum-deprived and stimulated cells treated with remdesivir and MEKi we observed correlations between pRB, pERK, and ACE2 expression further supporting role of proliferative state and MAPK pathway in ACE2 regulation. We show elevated cytokines in COVID-19-(+) patient plasma (N = 9) versus control (N = 11). TMPRSS2, inflammatory cytokines G-CSF, M-CSF, IL-1α, IL-6 and MCP-1 are suppressed by MEKi alone or with remdesivir. We observed MEKi stimulation of NK-cell killing of target-cells, without suppressing TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. Pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus with a lentiviral core and SARS-CoV-2 D614 or G614 SPIKE (S) protein on its envelope infected human bronchial epithelial cells, small airway epithelial cells, or lung cancer cells and MEKi suppressed infectivity of the pseudovirus. We show a drug class-effect with MEKi to stimulate NK cells, inhibit inflammatory cytokines and block host-factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection leading also to suppression of SARS-CoV-2-S pseudovirus infection of human cells. MEKi may attenuate SARS-CoV-2 infection to allow immune responses and antiviral agents to control disease progression.

17.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 24: 100844, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908867

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has impacted the world severely. The binding of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its intake by the host cell is a necessary step for infection. ACE2 has garnered widespread therapeutic possibility as it is entry/interactive point for SARS-CoV-2, responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and providing a critical regulator for immune modulation in various disease. Patients with suffering from cancer always being on the verge of being immune compromised therefore gaining knowledge about how SARS-CoV-2 viruses affecting immune cells in human cancers will provides us new opportunities for preventing or treating virus-associated cancers. Despite COVID-19 pandemic got center stage at present time, however very little research being explores, which increase our knowledge in context with how SARS-CoV-2 infection affect cancer a cellular level. Therefore, in light of the ACE-2 as an important contributor of COVID-19 global, we analyzed correlation between ACE2 and tumor immune infiltration (TIL) level and the type markers of immune cells were investigated in breast cancer subtypes by using TIMER database. Our findings shed light on the immunomodulatory role of ACE2 in the luminal A subtype which may play crucial role in imparting therapeutic resistance in this cancer subtype.

18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 125, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654479

ABSTRACT

Stress proteins (SPs) including heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RNA chaperones, and ER associated stress proteins are molecular chaperones essential for cellular homeostasis. The major functions of HSPs include chaperoning misfolded or unfolded polypeptides, protecting cells from toxic stress, and presenting immune and inflammatory cytokines. Regarded as a double-edged sword, HSPs also cooperate with numerous viruses and cancer cells to promote their survival. RNA chaperones are a group of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which are essential factors for manipulating both the functions and metabolisms of pre-mRNAs/hnRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II. hnRNPs involve in a large number of cellular processes, including chromatin remodelling, transcription regulation, RNP assembly and stabilization, RNA export, virus replication, histone-like nucleoid structuring, and even intracellular immunity. Dysregulation of stress proteins is associated with many human diseases including human cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's diseases, Alzheimer disease), stroke and infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the biologic function of stress proteins, and current progress on their mechanisms related to virus reproduction and diseases caused by virus infections. As SPs also attract a great interest as potential antiviral targets (e.g., COVID-19), we also discuss the present progress and challenges in this area of HSP-based drug development, as well as with compounds already under clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Heat-Shock Proteins/agonists , Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/agonists , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Polymerase II/genetics , RNA Polymerase II/metabolism , RNA Precursors/genetics , RNA Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic COVID-19 by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is facilitated by the ACE2 receptor and protease TMPRSS2. Modestly sized case series have described clinical factors associated with COVID-19, while ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression analyses have been described in some cell types. Patients with cancer may have worse outcomes to COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an integrated study of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression across and within organ systems, by normal versus tumor, across several existing databases (The Cancer Genome Atlas, Census of Immune Single Cell Expression Atlas, The Human Cell Landscape, and more). We correlated gene expression with clinical factors (including but not limited to age, gender, race, body mass index, and smoking history), HLA genotype, immune gene expression patterns, cell subsets, and single-cell sequencing as well as commensal microbiome. RESULTS: Matched normal tissues generally display higher ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression compared with cancer, with normal and tumor from digestive organs expressing the highest levels. No clinical factors were consistently identified to be significantly associated with gene expression levels though outlier organ systems were observed for some factors. Similarly, no HLA genotypes were consistently associated with gene expression levels. Strong correlations were observed between ACE2 expression levels and multiple immune gene signatures including interferon-stimulated genes and the T cell-inflamed phenotype as well as inverse associations with angiogenesis and transforming growth factor-ß signatures. ACE2 positively correlated with macrophage subsets across tumor types. TMPRSS2 was less associated with immune gene expression but was strongly associated with epithelial cell abundance. Single-cell sequencing analysis across nine independent studies demonstrated little to no ACE2 or TMPRSS2 expression in lymphocytes or macrophages. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression associated with commensal microbiota in matched normal tissues particularly from colorectal cancers, with distinct bacterial populations showing strong associations. CONCLUSIONS: We performed a large-scale integration of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression across clinical, genetic, and microbiome domains. We identify novel associations with the microbiota and confirm host immunity associations with gene expression. We suggest caution in interpretation regarding genetic associations with ACE2 expression suggested from smaller case series.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Datasets as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/immunology , HLA Antigens/blood , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/microbiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cell Mol Bioeng ; 13(4): 285-291, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617312

ABSTRACT

Millions of people are being infected with COVID-19 around the globe. Though the majority of them will recover, cancer patients remain at a higher risk to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its related severe outcomes. Understanding how viruses contribute to human cancers provides us with new opportunities for preventing or treating virus-associated cancers. However, a limited amount of research has been done to date in the context of how viral infections impact cancer at the cellular level and vice versa. Therefore, in light of the COVID-19 global infection, this review highlights the need for better understanding of the biology of viral infections in cancer patients, to enable novel therapies to co-target viral infections and cancer.

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