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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2099: 137-159, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292550

ABSTRACT

Since 2012, monthly cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue to cause severe respiratory disease that is fatal in ~35% of diagnosed individuals. The ongoing threat to global public health and the need for novel therapeutic countermeasures have driven the development of animal models that can reproducibly replicate the pathology associated with MERS-CoV in human infections. The inability of MERS-CoV to replicate in the respiratory tracts of mice, hamsters, and ferrets stymied initial attempts to generate small animal models. Identification of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV (hDPP4) as the receptor for MERS-CoV infection opened the door for genetic engineering of mice. Precise molecular engineering of mouse DPP4 (mDPP4) with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology maintained inherent expression profiles, and limited MERS-CoV susceptibility to tissues that naturally express mDPP4, notably the lower respiratory tract wherein MERS-CoV elicits severe pulmonary pathology. Here, we describe the generation of the 288-330+/+ MERS-CoV mouse model in which mice were made susceptible to MERS-CoV by modifying two amino acids on mDPP4 (A288 and T330), and the use of adaptive evolution to generate novel MERS-CoV isolates that cause fatal respiratory disease. The 288-330+/+ mice are currently being used to evaluate novel drug, antibody, and vaccine therapeutic countermeasures for MERS-CoV. The chapter starts with a historical perspective on the emergence of MERS-CoV and animal models evaluated for MERS-CoV pathogenesis, and then outlines the development of the 288-330+/+ mouse model, assays for assessing a MERS-CoV pulmonary infection in a mouse model, and describes some of the challenges associated with using genetically engineered mice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Mice/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Genetic Engineering , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
2.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035695

ABSTRACT

Virus-specific T cells play essential roles in protection against multiple virus infections, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. While SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been identified in COVID-19 patients, their role in the protection of SARS-CoV-2-infected mice is not established. Here, using mice sensitized for infection with SARS-CoV-2 by transduction with an adenovirus expressing the human receptor (Ad5-hACE2), we identified SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Virus-specific T cells were polyfunctional and were able to lyse target cells in vivo. Further, type I interferon pathway was proved to be critical for generating optimal antiviral T cell responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection. T cell vaccination alone partially protected SARS-CoV-2-infected mice from severe disease. In addition, the results demonstrated cross-reactive T cell responses between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but not MERS-CoV, in mice. Understanding the role of the T cell response will guide immunopathogenesis studies of COVID-19 and vaccine design and validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024661

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory symptoms. Due to the lack of medical countermeasures, effective and safe vaccines against MERS-CoV infection are urgently required. Although different types of candidate vaccines have been developed, their immunogenicity is limited, and the dose and administration route need optimization to achieve optimal protection. We here investigated the potential use of human ß-defensin 2 (HBD 2) as an adjuvant to enhance the protection provided by MERS-CoV vaccination. We found that immunization of human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4)-transgenic (hDPP4-Tg) mice with spike protein receptor-binding domain (S RBD) conjugated with HBD 2 (S RBD-HBD 2) induced potent antigen (Ag)-specific adaptive immune responses and protected against MERS-CoV infection. In addition, immunization with S RBD-HBD 2 alleviated progressive pulmonary fibrosis in the lungs of MERS-CoV-infected hDPP4-Tg mice and suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling activation upon viral infection. Compared to intramuscular administration, intranasal administration of S RBD-HBD 2 induced more potent mucosal IgA responses and was more effective for protecting against intranasal MERS-CoV infection. In conclusion, our findings suggest that HBD 2 potentiates Ag-specific immune responses against viral Ag and can be used as an adjuvant enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccine candidates against MERS-CoV.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 216, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1017751

ABSTRACT

While a number of human coronaviruses are believed to be originated from ancestral viruses in bats, it remains unclear if bat coronaviruses are ready to cause direct bat-to-human transmission. Here, we report the isolation of a MERS-related coronavirus, Tylonycteris-bat-CoV-HKU4, from lesser bamboo bats. Tylonycteris-bat-CoV-HKU4 replicates efficiently in human colorectal adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells with cytopathic effects, and can utilize human-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 and dromedary camel-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 as the receptors for cell entry. Flow cytometry, co-immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance assays show that Tylonycteris-bat-CoV-HKU4-receptor-binding-domain can bind human-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4, dromedary camel-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4, and Tylonycteris pachypus-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4. Tylonycteris-bat-CoV-HKU4 can infect human-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-transgenic mice by intranasal inoculation with self-limiting disease. Positive virus and inflammatory changes were detected in lungs and brains of infected mice, associated with suppression of antiviral cytokines and activation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The results suggest that MERS-related bat coronaviruses may overcome species barrier by utilizing dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 and potentially emerge in humans by direct bat-to-human transmission.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Brain/pathology , Caco-2 Cells , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Host Specificity , Humans , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Acta Naturae ; 12(3): 114-123, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918830

ABSTRACT

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute inflammatory disease of the respiratory system caused by the MERS-CoV coronavirus. The mortality rate for MERS is about 34.5%. Due to its high mortality rate, the lack of therapeutic and prophylactic agents, and the continuing threat of the spread of MERS beyond its current confines, developing a vaccine is a pressing task, because vaccination would help limit the spread of MERS and reduce its death toll. We have developed a combined vector vaccine for the prevention of MERS based on recombinant human adenovirus serotypes 26 and 5. Studies of its immunogenicity have shown that vaccination of animals (mice and primates) induces a robust humoral immune response that lasts for at least six months. Studies of the cellular immune response in mice after vaccination showed the emergence of a specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response. A study of the vaccine protectivity conducted in a model of transgenic mice carrying the human DPP4 receptor gene showed that our vaccination protected 100% of the animals from the lethal infection caused by the MERS-CoV virus (MERS-CoV EMC/2012, 100LD50 per mouse). Studies of the safety and tolerability of the developed vaccine in rodents, rabbits, and primates showed a good safety profile and tolerance in animals; they revealed no contraindications for clinical testing.

6.
J Virol ; 95(3)2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910217

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a highly lethal pneumonia that emerged in 2012. There is limited information on MERS-CoV pathogenesis, as data from patients are scarce and the generation of animal models reproducing MERS clinical manifestations has been challenging. Human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 knock-in (hDPP4-KI) mice and a mouse-adapted MERS-CoV strain (MERSMA-6-1-2) were recently described. hDPP4-KI mice infected with MERSMA-6-1-2 show pathological signs of respiratory disease, high viral titers in the lung, and death. In this work, a mouse-adapted MERS-CoV infectious cDNA was engineered by introducing nonsynonymous mutations contained in the MERSMA-6-1-2 genome into a MERS-CoV infectious cDNA, leading to a recombinant mouse-adapted virus (rMERS-MA) that was virulent in hDDP4-KI mice. MERS-CoV adaptation to cell culture or mouse lungs led to mutations and deletions in genus-specific gene 5 that prevented full-length protein expression. In contrast, analysis of 476 MERS-CoV field isolates showed that gene 5 is highly stable in vivo in both humans and camels. To study the role of protein 5, two additional viruses were engineered expressing a full-length gene 5 (rMERS-MA-5FL) or containing a complete gene 5 deletion (rMERS-MA-Δ5). rMERS-MA-5FL virus was unstable, as deletions appeared during passage in different tissue culture cells, highlighting MERS-CoV instability. The virulence of rMERS-MA-Δ5 was analyzed in a sublethal hDPP4-KI mouse model. Unexpectedly, all mice died after infection with rMERS-MA-Δ5, in contrast to those infected with the parental virus, which contains a 17-nucleotide (nt) deletion and a stop codon in protein 5 at position 108. Expression of interferon and proinflammatory cytokines was delayed and dysregulated in the lungs of rMERS-MA-Δ5-infected mice. Overall, these data indicated that the rMERS-MA-Δ5 virus was more virulent than the parental one and suggest that the residual gene 5 sequence present in the mouse-adapted parental virus had a function in ameliorating severe MERS-CoV pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus causing human infections with high mortality rate (∼35%). Animal models together with reverse-genetics systems are essential to understand MERS-CoV pathogenesis. We developed a reverse-genetics system for a mouse-adapted MERS-CoV that reproduces the virus behavior observed in humans. This system is highly useful to investigate the role of specific viral genes in pathogenesis. In addition, we described a virus lacking gene 5 expression that is more virulent than the parental one. The data provide novel functions in IFN modulation for gene 5 in the context of viral infection and will help to develop novel antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Mutation , Viral Load , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782193

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute, high-mortality-rate, severe infectious disease caused by an emerging MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes severe respiratory diseases. The continuous spread and great pandemic potential of MERS-CoV make it necessarily important to develop effective vaccines. We previously demonstrated that the application of Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as a bacterial vector displaying the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS vaccine candidate that is capable of producing potential neutralization antibodies. We have also used the rabies virus (RV) as a viral vector to design a recombinant vaccine by expressing the MERS-CoV S1 (spike) protein on the surface of the RV. In this study, we compared the immunological efficacy of the vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice in terms of the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. The results show that the rabies virus vector-based vaccine can induce remarkably earlier antibody response and higher levels of cellular immunity than the GEM particles vector. However, the GEM particles vector-based vaccine candidate can induce remarkably higher antibody response, even at a very low dose of 1 µg. These results indicate that vaccines constructed using different vaccine vector platforms for the same pathogen have different rates and trends in humoral and cellular immune responses in the same animal model. This discovery not only provides more alternative vaccine development platforms for MERS-CoV vaccine development, but also provides a theoretical basis for our future selection of vaccine vector platforms for other specific pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lactococcus lactis/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Rabies virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
8.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-762192

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory disease in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. We isolated the clade B MERS-CoV ChinaGD01 strain from a patient infected during the South Korean MERS outbreak in 2015 and compared the phylogenetics and pathogenicity of MERS-CoV EMC/2012 (clade A) and ChinaGD01 (clade B) in vitro and in vivo Genome alignment analysis showed that most clade-specific mutations occurred in the orf1ab gene, including mutations that were predicted to be potential glycosylation sites. Minor differences in viral growth but no significant differences in plaque size or sensitivity to beta interferon (IFN-ß) were detected between these two viruses in vitro ChinaGD01 virus infection induced more weight loss and inflammatory cytokine production in human DPP4-transduced mice. Viral titers were higher in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice than with EMC/2012 infection. Decreased virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers were detected in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice. In conclusion, MERS-CoV evolution induced changes to reshape its pathogenicity and virulence in vitro and in vivo and to evade adaptive immune response to hinder viral clearance.IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV is an important emerging pathogen and causes severe respiratory infection in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. In this study, we showed that a clade B virus ChinaGD01 strain caused more severe disease in mice, with delayed viral clearance, increased inflammatory cytokines, and decreased antiviral T cell responses, than the early clade A virus EMC/2012. Given the differences in pathogenicity of different clades of MERS-CoV, periodic assessment of currently circulating MERS-CoV is needed to monitor potential severity of zoonotic disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Adult , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
9.
Eur Respir J ; 56(5)2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648811

ABSTRACT

While severe coronavirus infections, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), cause lung injury with high mortality rates, protective treatment strategies are not approved for clinical use.We elucidated the molecular mechanisms by which the cyclophilin inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and alisporivir (ALV) restrict MERS-CoV to validate their suitability as readily available therapy in MERS-CoV infection.Calu-3 cells and primary human alveolar epithelial cells (hAECs) were infected with MERS-CoV and treated with CsA or ALV or inhibitors targeting cyclophilin inhibitor-regulated molecules including calcineurin, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs) or mitogen-activated protein kinases. Novel CsA-induced pathways were identified by RNA sequencing and manipulated by gene knockdown or neutralising antibodies. Viral replication was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and 50% tissue culture infective dose. Data were validated in a murine MERS-CoV infection model.Both CsA and ALV reduced MERS-CoV titres and viral RNA replication in Calu-3 cells and hAECs, improving epithelial integrity. While neither calcineurin nor NFAT inhibition reduced MERS-CoV propagation, blockade of c-Jun N-terminal kinase diminished infectious viral particle release but not RNA accumulation. Importantly, CsA induced interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), a pronounced type III interferon (IFNλ) response and expression of antiviral genes. Downregulation of IRF1 or IFNλ increased MERS-CoV propagation in the presence of CsA. Importantly, oral application of CsA reduced MERS-CoV replication in vivo, correlating with elevated lung IFNλ levels and improved outcome.We provide evidence that cyclophilin inhibitors efficiently decrease MERS-CoV replication in vitro and in vivo via upregulation of inflammatory antiviral cell responses, in particular IFNλ. CsA might therefore represent a promising candidate for treating MERS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cyclophilins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Interferons/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/drug effects , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Interferons/drug effects , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(12): 9884-9894, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574652

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with high infectivity and pathogenicity, accounting for tens of thousands of deaths worldwide. Recent studies have found that the pathogen of COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), shares the same cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) as SARS-CoV. The pathological investigation of COVID-19 deaths showed that the lungs had characteristics of pulmonary fibrosis. However, how SARS-CoV-2 spreads from the lungs to other organs has not yet been determined. Here, we performed an unbiased evaluation of cell-type-specific expression of ACE2 in healthy and fibrotic lungs, as well as in normal and failed adult human hearts, using published single-cell RNA-seq data. We found that ACE2 expression in fibrotic lungs mainly locates in arterial vascular cells, which might provide a route for bloodstream spreading of SARS-CoV-2. Failed human hearts have a higher percentage of ACE2-expressing cardiomyocytes, and SARS-CoV-2 might attack cardiomyocytes through the bloodstream in patients with heart failure. Moreover, ACE2 was highly expressed in cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and in mice treated by lipopolysaccharide. Our findings indicate that patients with pulmonary fibrosis, heart failure, and virus infection have a higher risk and are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 might attack other organs by getting into the bloodstream. This study provides new insights into SARS-CoV-2 blood entry and heart injury and might propose a therapeutic strategy to prevent patients from developing severe complications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Heart Injuries/virology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Heart Failure/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Pandemics , RNA/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism
11.
Virus Res ; 278: 197863, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-35

ABSTRACT

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe pulmonary infection, with ∼35 % mortality. Spike glycoprotein (S) of MERS-CoV is a key target for vaccines and therapeutics because S mediates viral entry and membrane-fusion to host cells. Here, four different S subunit proteins, receptor-binding domain (RBD; 358-606 aa), S1 (1-751 aa), S2 (752-1296 aa), and SΔTM (1-1296 aa), were generated using the baculoviral system and immunized in mice to develop neutralizing antibodies. We developed 77 hybridomas and selected five neutralizing mAbs by immunization with SΔTM against MERS-CoV EMC/2012 strain S-pseudotyped lentivirus. However, all five monoclonal antibodies (mAb) did not neutralize the pseudotyped V534A mutation. Additionally, one mAb RBD-14F8 did not show neutralizing activity against pseudoviruses with amino acid substitution of L506 F or D509 G (England1 strain, EMC/2012 L506 F, and EMC/2012 D509 G), and RBD-43E4 mAb could not neutralize the pseudotyped I529 T mutation, while three other neutralizing mAbs showed broad neutralizing activity. This implies that the mutation in residue 506-509, 529, and 534 of S is critical to generate neutralization escape variants of MERS-CoV. Interestingly, all five neutralizing mAbs have binding affinity to RBD, although most mAbs generated by RBD did not have neutralizing activity. Additionally, chimeric antibodies of RBD-14F8 and RBD-43E4 with human Fc and light chain showed neutralizing effect against wild type MERS-CoV KOR/KNIH/002, similar to the original mouse mAbs. Thus, our mAbs can be utilized for the identification of specific mutations of MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Cross Protection , Epitopes , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Subunits , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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