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Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(31): 3370-3388, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069679


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which is a positive single-stranded RNA virus having a large genome ~30 kb. SARSCoV- 2 is zoonotic and highly contagious, causing severe pneumonia-like symptoms. The efficacy of the different potential drug and drug candidates against COVID-19 has been investigated, which are under various stages of clinical trials. The drugs effective against SARS, and Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), have been proposed to have a high potential for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, we selected plant-based materials implicated in the prevention and therapy of COVID-19. The plant produces secondary metabolites in response to viral infection. Different classes of secondary metabolites have different mechanisms to counter virus attacks. Many nanomaterials produced by carbohydrates and lipids have been exploited for their in-vitro and in-vivo delivery of antiviral therapeutics. The vaccine has shown impressive results in producing antibodies against SARS-CoV2 and has been evaluated for safety, tolerance, and preliminary immunogenicity. Similarly, DNA/RNA-based therapy has shown high clinical significance. Various forms of vitamins, minerals, herbs, and phytonutrients help to enhance immunity and be implicated in the control of COVID-19. However, such measures should not replace social distancing, quarantine and special care.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2