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1.
Neuromodulation ; 24(2): 337-342, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) telemedicine in the management of patients with movement disorders from January 2019 to March 2020, covering the main period of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained data from 40 hospitals around China that employed DBS tele-programming for their outpatients with Parkinson's disease or dystonia from January 2019 to March 2020. Data were obtained on the number and nature of patients' DBS health care service requests, reasons for their requests, the number of DBS telemedicine sessions subsequently completed, safety issues, and the patients' satisfaction with the DBS tele-programing parameter adjustments made. RESULTS: There were 909 DBS tele-programming health service requests (from 196 patients) completed during the study period. The results showed: 1) the number of DBS telemedicine sessions requested and the number of patients examined increased during the COVID-19 outbreak in February and March 2020 when compared with the monthly numbers in 2019; 2) the most common reason for the patients' health service requests was poor symptom control; 3) the most common DBS tele-programming adjustment made was voltage change; 4) overall, most (89%) DBS tele-programming adjustment sessions were experienced by the patients as satisfactory; and 5) significant adverse events and unexpected treatment interruptions caused by connection failure or other hardware- or software-related problems did not occur. CONCLUSIONS: DBS telemedicine could have a unique role to play in maintaining the delivery of DBS treatment and medical care to outpatients with movement disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Movement Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , China , Deep Brain Stimulation/adverse effects , Deep Brain Stimulation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
2.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 598-608, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545664

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically increased the use of telehealth. Prior studies of telehealth clinical swallowing evaluations provide positive evidence for telemanagement of swallowing. However, the reliability of these measures in clinical practice, as opposed to well-controlled research conditions, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the reliability of outcome measures derived from clinical swallowing tele-evaluations in real-world clinical practice (e.g., variability in devices and Internet connectivity, lack of in-person clinician assistance, or remote patient/caregiver training). Method Seven raters asynchronously judged clinical swallowing tele-evaluations of 12 movement disorders patients. Outcomes included the Timed Water Swallow Test (TWST), Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS), and common observations of oral intake. Statistical analyses were performed to examine inter- and intrarater reliability, as well as qualitative analyses exploring patient and clinician-specific factors impacting reliability. Results Forty-four trials were included for reliability analyses. All rater dyads demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability for measures of the TWST (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ .93) and observations of oral intake (≥ 77% agreement). The majority of TOMASS outcomes demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability (ICCs ≥ .84), with the exception of the number of bites (ICCs = .43-.99) and swallows (ICCs = .21-.85). Immediate and delayed intrarater reliability were "excellent" for most raters across all tasks, ranging between ICCs of .63 and 1.00. Exploratory factors potentially impacting reliability included infrequent instances of suboptimal video quality, reduced camera stability, camera distance, and obstruction of the patient's mouth during tasks. Conclusions Subjective observations of oral intake and objective measures taken from the TWST and the TOMASS can be reliably measured via telehealth in clinical practice. Our results provide support for the feasibility and reliability of telehealth for outpatient clinical swallowing evaluations during COVID-19 and beyond. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13661378.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Lewy Body Disease/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple System Atrophy/complications , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/standards
4.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(s1): S11-S18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318376

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine programs are particularly suited to evaluating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other movement disorders, primarily because much of the physical exam findings are visual. Telemedicine uses information and communication technologies to overcome geographical barriers and increase access to healthcare service. It is particularly beneficial for rural and underserved communities, groups that traditionally suffer from lack of access to healthcare. There is a growing evidence of the feasibility of telemedicine, cost and time savings, patients' and physicians' satisfaction, and its outcome and impact on patients' morbidity and quality of life. In addition, given the unusual current situation with the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has offered the opportunity to address the ongoing healthcare needs of patients with PD, to reduce in-person clinic visits, and human exposures (among healthcare workers and patients) to a range of infectious diseases including COVID-19. However, there are still several challenges to widespread implementation of telemedicine including the limited performance of parts of the neurological exam, limited technological savvy, fear of loss of a personal connection, or uneasiness about communicating sensitive information. On the other hand, while we are facing the new wave of COVID-19 pandemic, patients and clinicians are gaining increasing experience with telemedicine, facilitating equity of access to specialized multidisciplinary care for PD. This article summarizes and reviews the current state and future directions of telemedicine from a global perspective.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Telemedicine , COVID-19/complications , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Telemed J E Health ; 28(3): 295-308, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261027

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telemedicine for neurological care has been researched and practiced in various ways over the past three decades, but the recent COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly expanded its use and highlighted the need for a synthesis of the existing literature. We aimed to review the methodology and outcomes of previous studies that have evaluated the use of telemedicine in movement disorders. Methods: This scoping review was performed by searching PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases from 1946 to November 2020. Studies that assessed the application of telemedicine for delivering care to patients with a movement disorder were included. We reported the aims and employed methodologies and categorized the outcomes from each study. Results: The search retrieved 228 articles, and 41 studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. The majority of telemedicine studies were case series or randomized controlled pilot trials, investigating feasibility and acceptability in Parkinson's disease. Even with heterogeneity among outcome measures, they can be categorized into themes, such as feasibility, satisfaction, and efficacy. Conclusions: Telemedicine use has grown rapidly, due to the demands of providing care during a global pandemic. This application of telemedicine has been considered a promising way to expand care in Neurology, although research evaluating the dissemination of its use is dilatory. This review highlights the number of studies that have found telemedicine to be an acceptable and feasible way to deliver care for movement disorders. Further research is needed to expand on harmonization of outcomes, reach, adoption, and long-term use of telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Movement Disorders , Neurology , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Movement Disorders/therapy , Pandemics
6.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(1): 72-84, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242081

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveNeuropsychological assessment is integral to the pre-surgical deep brain stimulation (DBS) workup for patients with movement disorders. The COVID-19 pandemic quickly affected care access and shifted healthcare delivery, and neuropsychology has adapted successfully to provide tele-neuropsychological (teleNP) DBS evaluations during this time, thus permanently changing the landscape of neuropsychological practice. Method: In this paper, we discuss the lessons learned from the pandemic and we offer care management guidelines for teleNP and in-person evaluations of pre-DBS populations, with exploration of the feasibility of the different approaches for uninterrupted care access. Results: We summarize the strengths and weaknesses of these care models and we provide future directions for the state of clinical neuropsychological practice for DBS programs, with implications for broader patient populations. Conclusions: A better understanding of these dynamics will inform and educate the DBS team and community regarding the complexities of performing DBS neuropsychological evaluations during COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Brain Stimulation , Telemedicine , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 86: 135-138, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230072

ABSTRACT

The evaluation and management of patients with movement disorders has evolved considerably due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the assessment of candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. Members of the Neuropsychology Focus Group from the Parkinson Study Group Functional Neurosurgical Working Group met virtually to discuss current practices and solutions, build consensus, and to inform the DBS team and community regarding the complexities of performing DBS neuropsychological evaluations during COVID-19. It is our viewpoint that the practice of neuropsychology has adapted successfully to provide tele-neuropsychological pre-DBS evaluations during the global pandemic, thus permanently changing the landscape of neuropsychological services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Brain Stimulation/trends , Movement Disorders/psychology , Movement Disorders/surgery , Neuropsychological Tests , Neuropsychology/trends , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Parkinson Disease/surgery , Deep Brain Stimulation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Telemedicine
8.
J Mov Disord ; 14(2): 119-125, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Telemedicine has rapidly gained momentum in movement disorder neurology during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to preserve clinical care while mitigating the risks of in-person visits. We present data from the rapid implementation of virtual visits in a large, academic, movement disorder practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We describe the strategic shift to virtual visits and retrospectively examine elements that impacted the ability to switch to telemedicine visits using historical prepandemic in-person data as a comparator, including demographics, distance driven, and diagnosis distribution, with an additional focus on patients with deep brain stimulators. RESULTS: A total of 686 telemedicine visits were performed over a five-week period (60% of those previously scheduled for in-office visits). The average age of participants was 65 years, 45% were female, and 73% were Caucasian. Men were more likely to make the transition (p = 0.02). Telemedicine patients lived farther from the clinic than those seen in person (66.47 km vs. 42.16 km, p < 0.001), age was not associated with making the switch, and patient satisfaction did not change. There was a significant shift in the distribution of movement disorder diagnoses seen by telemedicine compared to prepandemic in-person visits (p < 0.001). Patients with deep brain stimulators were more likely to use telemedicine (11.5% vs. 7%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Telemedicine is feasible, viable and relevant in the care of movement disorder patients, although health care disparities appear evident for women and minorities. Patients with deep brain stimulators preferred telemedicine in our study. Further study is warranted to explore these findings.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211489, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130417

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is evidence of central nervous system impairments associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, including encephalopathy. Multimodal monitoring of patients with COVID-19 may delineate the specific features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide clinical management. Objectives: To investigate clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in association with electroencephalographic (EEG) features for patients with COVID-19, and to better refine the features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study conducted in Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, enrolled 78 hospitalized adults who received a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) and underwent EEG between March 30 and June 11, 2020. Exposures: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal specimen using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay or, in the case of associated pneumonia, on a computed tomography scan of the chest. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data on the clinical and paraclinical features of the 78 patients with COVID-19 were retrieved from electronic patient records. Results: Of 644 patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19, 78 (57 men [73%]; mean [SD] age, 61 [12] years) underwent EEG. The main indications for EEG were delirium, seizure-like events, and delayed awakening in the intensive care unit after stopping treatment with sedatives. Sixty-nine patients showed pathologic EEG findings, including metabolic-toxic encephalopathy features, frontal abnormalities, periodic discharges, and epileptic activities. Of 57 patients who underwent brain MRI, 41 showed abnormalities, including perfusion abnormalities, acute ischemic lesions, multiple microhemorrhages, and white matter-enhancing lesions. Fifty-five patients showed biological abnormalities, including dysnatremia, kidney failure, and liver dysfunction, the same day as the EEG. The results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis were negative for SARS-Cov-2 for all tested patients. Nine patients who had no identifiable cause of brain injury outside COVID-19 were further isolated; their brain injury was defined as COVID-19-related encephalopathy. They represented 1% (9 of 644) of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Six of these 9 patients had movement disorders, 7 had frontal syndrome, 4 had brainstem impairment, 4 had periodic EEG discharges, and 3 had MRI white matter-enhancing lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: The results from this cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suggest there are clinical, EEG, and MRI patterns that could delineate specific COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Electroencephalography , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
10.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(s1): S11-S18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083887

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine programs are particularly suited to evaluating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other movement disorders, primarily because much of the physical exam findings are visual. Telemedicine uses information and communication technologies to overcome geographical barriers and increase access to healthcare service. It is particularly beneficial for rural and underserved communities, groups that traditionally suffer from lack of access to healthcare. There is a growing evidence of the feasibility of telemedicine, cost and time savings, patients' and physicians' satisfaction, and its outcome and impact on patients' morbidity and quality of life. In addition, given the unusual current situation with the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has offered the opportunity to address the ongoing healthcare needs of patients with PD, to reduce in-person clinic visits, and human exposures (among healthcare workers and patients) to a range of infectious diseases including COVID-19. However, there are still several challenges to widespread implementation of telemedicine including the limited performance of parts of the neurological exam, limited technological savvy, fear of loss of a personal connection, or uneasiness about communicating sensitive information. On the other hand, while we are facing the new wave of COVID-19 pandemic, patients and clinicians are gaining increasing experience with telemedicine, facilitating equity of access to specialized multidisciplinary care for PD. This article summarizes and reviews the current state and future directions of telemedicine from a global perspective.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Telemedicine , COVID-19/complications , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Front Neurol ; 11: 616550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006082

ABSTRACT

Background: The containment measures taken by Italian government authorities during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic caused the interruption of neurological activities of outpatient clinics. Vulnerable patients, as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonic patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS), may have an increased risk of chronic stress related to social restriction measures and may show a potential worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and was based on a structured survey administered during a telephone call. The questionnaire was designed to gather motor and/or psychiatric effects of the lockdown and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiologic information in PD and dystonic patients with a functioning DBS implant. Results: One hundred four patients were included in the study, 90 affected by PD and 14 by dystonia. Forty-nine patients reported a subjective perception of worsening of global neurological symptoms (motor and/or psychiatric) related to the containment measures. In the multivariate analysis, having problems with the DBS device was the only independent predictor of motor worsening [odds ratio (OR) = 3.10 (1.22-7.91), p = 0.018]. Independent predictors of psychiatric worsening were instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score [OR = 0.78 (0.64-0.95), p = 0.012] and problems with DBS [OR = 5.69 (1.95-16.62), p = 0.001]. Only one patient underwent nasopharyngeal swabs, both negative, and no patient received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions: Lockdown restriction measures were associated with subjective worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms in PD and dystonic patients treated with DBS, and they may have exacerbated the burden of neurological disease and increased the chronic stress related to the DBS management.

12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(2): 440-447, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995828

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to rapid changes in the delivery of medical care worldwide. The main objective of this survey was to investigate the initial experiences of neurologists with the use of telemedicine for different neurological conditions during the first phase of the COVID-19. METHODS: All hospital-based neurologists in Norway (n = 400) were invited to a questionnaire survey by e-mail in April 2020. The study focused on telemedicine and all questions were answered with regard to the first weeks of the pandemic lockdown in Norway. RESULTS: One-hundred and thirty-five neurologists responded. Overall, 87% reported a shift toward more telemedicine, with significantly more use of telephone than video consultations for both new referrals (54% vs. 30%, P < 0.001) and follow-ups (99% vs. 50%, P < 0.001). Respondents deemed it much more professionally satisfactory to conduct follow-up consultations by telephone, than to carry out consultations with new patients by telephone (85% vs. 13%, P < 0.001). Teleconsultations were better suited for headache and epilepsy patients as compared to multiple sclerosis and movement disorder patients. There was no significant difference between residents and senior consultants regarding how they experienced teleconsultations. Female neurologists found telemedicine better and more effective than male neurologists. INTERPRETATION: Telemedicine was rapidly implemented in Norwegian neurological departments during the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teleconsultations were better suited for follow-ups than for new referrals, and better for headache and epilepsy patients as compared to multiple sclerosis and movement disorder patients.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Neurologists , Telemedicine , Telephone , Videoconferencing , Adult , Aftercare , Epilepsy/therapy , Female , Headache/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Movement Disorders/therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Neurology , Norway , Personal Satisfaction , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Neuromodulation ; 24(2): 331-336, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for the management of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. Patients implanted with DBS require life-long management of the medical device as well as medications. Patients are often challenged to frequently visit the specialized DBS centers and such challenges are aggravated depending on geography, socioeconomic factors, and support systems. We discuss the need for digital health solutions to overcome these barriers to better and safely take care of patients, especially in the current COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted for technology and logistics necessary in forming a digital health program. RESULTS: Digital health encounters can take place in both a synchronous and asynchronous manner. Factors involving patients include cognitive capacity, physical safety, physical capacity, connectivity, and technological security. Physician factors include examining the patient, system diagnostics, and adjusting stimulation or medications. Technology is focused on bridging the gap between patient and physician through integrating the DBS lead, implantable pulse generator (IPG), programmer, novel devices/applications to grade motor function, and teleconference modalities. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with Parkinson's disease, digital health has the potential to drastically change the landscape after DBS surgery. Furthermore, technology is fundamental in connectivity, diagnostic evaluation, and security in order to create stable and useful patient-focused care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Telemedicine , Humans
14.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 5(3)2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789344

ABSTRACT

It is not established whether SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients with movement disorders, are at greater risk for more serious outcomes than the larger COVID-19 population beyond the susceptibility associated with greater age. We reviewed electronic health records and conducted telephone interviews to collect the demographics and clinical outcomes of patients seen at our Movement Disorders Center who tested positive for COVID-19 from 8 March 2020 through 6 June 2020. Thirty-six patients were identified, 23 men and 13 women, median age of 74.5 years. They primarily carried diagnoses of idiopathic Parkinson disease (n = 22; 61%) and atypical parkinsonism (n = 7; 19%) with the balance having other diagnoses. Twenty-seven patients (75%) exhibited alteration in mental status and fifteen (42%) had abnormalities of movement as common manifestations of COVID-19; in 61% and 31%, respectively, these were the presenting symptoms of the disease. Sixty-seven percent of patients in our cohort required hospitalization, and the mortality rate was 36%. These data demonstrate that in patients with movement disorders, the likelihood of hospitalization and death after contracting COVID-19 was greater than in the general population. Patients with movement disorders frequently presented with altered mental status, generalized weakness, or worsening mobility but not anosmia.

15.
Mov Disord ; 35(10): 1701-1711, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic restricted usual healthcare management for movement-disorders patients, with a consequent upsurge in telemedicine to bridge the gap. OBJECTIVE: To assess global telemedicine usage in the context of the pandemic. METHODS: The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Telemedicine Study Group surveyed telemedicine experts from 40 countries across all continents in March-April 2020. Four domains of telemedicine were assessed: legal regulations, reimbursement, clinical use, and barriers; comparing emerging responses to the pandemic versus the baseline scenario. RESULTS: All forms of telemedicine for movement disorders increased globally, irrespective of country income categorization, as an immediate response to the pandemic. This was aided by widespread availability of technology and updated government regulations. However, privacy concerns, lack of reimbursement, limited access, and lack of telemedicine training were barriers highlighted worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: Questions remain about the longevity and extent of changes in regulations and reimbursement regarding telemedicine in the aftermath of the pandemic. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/economics , Movement Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Reimbursement Mechanisms , Telemedicine , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/economics
16.
Mov Disord Clin Pract ; 7(4): 361-372, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-259913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting a relatively small proportion of the global population, its effects have already reached everyone. The pandemic has the potential to differentially disadvantage chronically ill patients, including those with Parkinson's disease (PD). The first health care reaction has been to limit access to clinics and neurology wards to preserve fragile patients with PD from being infected. In some regions, the shortage of medical staff has also forced movement disorders neurologists to provide care for patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To share the experience of various movement disorder neurologists operating in different world regions and provide a common approach to patients with PD, with a focus on those already on advanced therapies, which may serve as guidance in the current pandemic and for emergency situations that we may face in the future. CONCLUSION: Most of us were unprepared to deal with this condition given that in many health care systems, telemedicine has been only marginally available or only limited to email or telephone contacts. In addition, to ensure sufficient access to intensive care unit beds, most elective procedures (including deep brain stimulation or the initiation of infusion therapies) have been postponed. We all hope there will soon be a time when we will return to more regular hospital schedules. However, we should consider this crisis as an opportunity to change our approach and encourage our hospitals and health care systems to facilitate the remote management of chronic neurological patients, including those with advanced PD.

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