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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0155, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Renal replacement therapy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients is complicated by increased activation of the coagulation system. This may worsen the quality of hemodialysis and contribute to a shortage of dialysis machines as well as plastic disposables during the pandemic. This study describes a simple and safe protocol of anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin in combination with bedside sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN: Monocentric observational cross-over trial investigating sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis with unfractionated heparin following sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis with low-molecular-weight heparin. SETTING: Coronavirus disease 2019-ICU in a German Tertiary Care University Hospital. PATIENTS: Three consecutive severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients receiving nine sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis therapies with unfractionated heparin followed by 18 sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis therapies with low-molecular-weight heparin. INTERVENTIONS: Switch from IV unfractionated heparin to subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin in therapeutic doses for patients receiving bedside sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nine renal replacement therapy sessions in patients anticoagulated with high doses of unfractionated heparin had to be discontinuated prematurely because of clotting of tubes or membrane and poor quality of hemodialysis. In the same patients, the switch to anticoagulation with therapeutic doses of the low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin allowed undisturbed bedside sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis for at least 12 hours. Quality of hemodialysis was excellent, no bleeding event was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic anticoagulation with subcutaneous enoxaparin provides an effective and safe renal replacement procedure in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and hypercoagulability. The protocol reduces the risk of filter clotting, blood loss, and poor dialysis quality and may also prevent systemic thromboembolism.

2.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1207-1211, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525575

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The role of anticoagulation (AC) prior to hospital admission and how different types of oral AC influences the outcome of COVID-19 is currently unknown. This observational study compares the outcome in COVID-19 patients with prior use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) or vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and without prior use of AC. We collected the baseline characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients presented to the emergency department of Bernhoven Hospital, the Netherlands. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days and analyzed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model including age, sex, symptom duration, home medication, and comorbidities. We included 497 patients, including 57 patients with DOAC (11%) and 53 patients with VKA (11%). Patients with AC had a lower body temperature and lower C-reactive protein levels. Comparing the primary outcome in patients with AC (DOAC or VKA) and no AC, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was 0.64 (95% CI 0.42-0.96, P = 0.03). Comparing DOAC and no AC, the aHR was 0.53 (95% CI 0.32-0.89, P = 0.02) and comparing VKA and no AC, the aHR was 0.77 (95% CI 0.47-1.27, P = 0.30). In a subgroup analysis of DOAC, all nine patients with prior use of dabigatran survived within 30 days. In this observational study, the prior use of AC is associated with a better survival of COVID-19. DOAC, especially dabigatran, might have additional beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Dabigatran , Survival Rate , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Netherlands , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26313, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324830

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to optimal conventional management, we should consider the indication for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). Growing evidence indicates that COVID-19 frequently causes coagulopathy, presenting as hypercoagulation and incidental thrombosis. For these reasons, a multifactorial approach with several anticoagulant markers should be considered in the management of anticoagulation using heparin in COVID-19 patients on V-V ECMO. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 48-year-old man was infected with COVID-19 with a worsening condition manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome. DIAGNOSES: He was refractory to conventional therapy, thus we decided to introduce V-V ECMO. We used heparin as an anticoagulant therapy for V-V ECMO and adjusted the doses of heparin by careful monitoring of the activated clotting time (ACT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) to avoid both hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. We controlled the doses of heparin in the therapeutic ranges of ACT and APTT, but clinical hemorrhaging and profound elevation of coagulant marker became apparent. INTERVENTIONS: Using thromboelastography (TEG; Haemonetics) in addition to ACT and APTT, we were able to clearly detect not only sufficient coagulability of COVID19 on V-V ECMO (citrated rapid thromboelastography-R 0.5 min, angle 75.5°, MA 64.0 mm, citrated functional fibrinogen-MA 20.7 mm) but also an excessive effect of heparin (citrated kaolin -R 42.7 min, citrated kaolin with heparinase 11.7 min). OUTCOMES: Given the TEG findings indicating an excessive heparin effect, the early withdrawal of ECMO was considered. After an evaluation of the patient's respiratory capacity, withdrawal from V-V ECMO was achieved and then anticoagulation was stopped. The hemorrhagic complications and elevated thrombotic marker levels dramatically decreased. LESSONS: TEG monitoring might be a useful option for managing anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients on V-V ECMO frequently showing a hypercoagulative state and requiring massive doses of heparin, to reduce both hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heparin/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Thrombelastography , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
5.
Am Heart J ; 238: 1-11, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested a higher risk of thrombotic events in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, elevated D-dimer levels have been identified as an important prognostic marker in COVID-19 directly associated with disease severity and progression. Prophylactic anticoagulation for hospitalized COVID-19 patients might not be enough to prevent thrombotic events; therefore, therapeutic anticoagulation regimens deserve clinical investigation. DESIGN: ACTION is an academic-led, pragmatic, multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase IV clinical trial that aims to enroll around 600 patients at 40 sites participating in the Coalition COVID-19 Brazil initiative. Eligible patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 with symptoms up to 14 days and elevated D-dimer levels will be randomized to a strategy of full-dose anticoagulation for 30 days with rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (or full-dose heparin if oral administration is not feasible) vs standard of care with any approved venous thromboembolism prophylaxis regimen during hospitalization. A confirmation of COVID-19 was mandatory for study entry, based on specific tests used in clinical practice (RT-PCR, antigen test, IgM test) collected before randomization, regardless of in the outpatient setting or not. Randomization will be stratified by clinical stability at presentation. The primary outcome is a hierarchical analysis of mortality, length of hospital stay, or duration of oxygen therapy at the end of 30 days. Secondary outcomes include the World Health Organization's 8-point ordinal scale at 30 days and the following efficacy outcomes: incidence of venous thromboembolism , acute myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic embolism, major adverse limb events, duration of oxygen therapy, disease progression, and biomarkers. The primary safety outcomes are major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. SUMMARY: The ACTION trial will evaluate whether in-hospital therapeutic anticoagulation with rivaroxaban for stable patients, or enoxaparin for unstable patients, followed by rivaroxaban through 30 days compared with standard prophylactic anticoagulation improves clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Administration Schedule , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/etiology , Time Factors
7.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(1): 55-71, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270698

ABSTRACT

The term "lupus anticoagulant (LA)" identifies a form of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) causing prolongation of clotting tests in a phospholipid concentration-dependent manner. LA is one of the laboratory criteria identified in patients with antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS). The presence of LA in patients with APS represents a significant risk factor for both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. There have been several reports of similarities between some of the pathophysiological features of COVID-19 and APS, in particular the most severe form, catastrophic APS. There have also been many reports identifying various aPLs, including LA, in COVID-19 patients. Accordingly, a very pertinent question arises: "Is LA a feature of COVID-19 pathology?" In this review, we critically appraise the literature to help answer this question. We conclude that LA positivity is a feature of COVID-19, at least in some patients, and potentially those who are the sickest or have the most severe infection. However, many publications have failed to appropriately consider the many confounders to LA identification, being assessed using clot-based assays such as the dilute Russell viper venom time, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and the silica clotting time. First, most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are placed on anticoagulant therapy, and those with prior histories of thrombosis would possibly present to hospital already on anticoagulant therapy. All anticoagulants, including vitamin K antagonists, heparin (both unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin), and direct oral anticoagulants affect these clot-based assays. Second, C-reactive protein (CRP) is highly elevated in COVID-19 patients, and also associated with severity. CRP can also lead to false-positive LA, particularly with the aPTT assay. Third, persistence of aPL positivity (including LA) is required to identify APS. Fourth, those at greatest risk of thrombosis due to aPL are those with highest titers or multiple positivity. Most publications either did not identify anticoagulation and/or CRP in their COVID-19 cohorts or did not seem to account for these as possible confounders for LA detection. Most publications did not assess for aPL persistence, and where persistence was checked, LA appeared to represent transient aPL. Finally, high titer aPL or multiple aPL positivity were in the minority of COVID-19 presentations. Thus, at least some of the reported LAs associated with COVID-19 are likely to be false positives, and the relationship between the detected aPL/LA and COVID-19-associated coagulopathy remains to be resolved using larger and better studies.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Female , Heparin , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111788, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265353

ABSTRACT

Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of COVID-19. It is not well understood how hospitals have managed VTE prevention and the effect of prevention strategies on mortality. Objective: To characterize frequency, variation across hospitals, and change over time in VTE prophylaxis and treatment-dose anticoagulation in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, as well as the association of anticoagulation strategies with in-hospital and 60-day mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 used a pseudorandom sample from 30 US hospitals in the state of Michigan participating in a collaborative quality initiative. Data analyzed were from patients hospitalized between March 7, 2020, and June 17, 2020. Data were analyzed through March 2021. Exposures: Nonadherence to VTE prophylaxis (defined as missing ≥2 days of VTE prophylaxis) and receipt of treatment-dose or prophylactic-dose anticoagulants vs no anticoagulation during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The effect of nonadherence and anticoagulation strategies on in-hospital and 60-day mortality was assessed using multinomial logit models with inverse probability of treatment weighting. Results: Of a total 1351 patients with COVID-19 included (median [IQR] age, 64 [52-75] years; 47.7% women, 48.9% Black patients), only 18 (1.3%) had a confirmed VTE, and 219 (16.2%) received treatment-dose anticoagulation. Use of treatment-dose anticoagulation without imaging ranged from 0% to 29% across hospitals and increased over time (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.31-1.61 per week). Of 1127 patients who ever received anticoagulation, 392 (34.8%) missed 2 or more days of prophylaxis. Missed prophylaxis varied from 11% to 61% across hospitals and decreased markedly over time (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97 per week). VTE nonadherence was associated with higher 60-day (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67) but not in-hospital mortality (aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.03). Receiving any dose of anticoagulation (vs no anticoagulation) was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (only prophylactic dose: aHR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26-0.52; any treatment dose: aHR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-0.58). However, only the prophylactic dose of anticoagulation remained associated with lower mortality at 60 days (prophylactic dose: aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90; treatment dose: aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.63-1.35). Conclusions and Relevance: This large, multicenter cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, found evidence of rapid dissemination and implementation of anticoagulation strategies, including use of treatment-dose anticoagulation. As only prophylactic-dose anticoagulation was associated with lower 60-day mortality, prophylactic dosing strategies may be optimal for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266369

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old obese man who had recently tested positive for COVID-19 presented to the emergency department following an unwitnessed collapse, with a brief period of unresponsiveness. CT pulmonary angiography confirmed the presence of extensive bilateral pulmonary embolism despite the patient reporting full compliance with long-term dabigatran. The patient was initially anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin and was treated with non-invasive ventilation and dexamethasone for COVID-19 pneumonia. He made a full recovery and was discharged on oral rivaroxaban. His case highlighted some of the common problems encountered when selecting an anticoagulation strategy for obese patients, as well as the lack of definitive evidence to guide treatment decisions. These challenges were further complicated by our incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 coagulopathy, with limited data available regarding the optimal management of thromboembolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
12.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): 507-514, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an increased risk of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. Hemodialysis patients are already at an increased risk for thromboembolic events such as stroke and pulmonary embolism. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of late thrombotic complications (deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, new-onset vascular access thrombosis) in maintenance hemodialysis patients after recovery from COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 200 prevalent hemodialysis patients in our center at the start of the pandemic. We excluded incident patients after the cohort entry date and those who required hemodialysis for acute kidney injury, and excluded patients with less than 1 month follow-up due to kidney transplantation or death from non-thrombotic causes. FINDINGS: One-hundred and eighty five prevalent hemodialysis patients finally met the inclusion criteria; 37 patients (17.6%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection, out of which 10 (27%) died during the acute phase of disease without evidence of thrombotic events. There was an increased risk of thrombotic events in COVID-19 survivors compared to the non-infected cohort (18.5% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.002) after a median follow-up of 7 months. Multivariate regression analysis showed that COVID-19 infection increased risk for late thrombotic events adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, antithrombotic treatment, and previous thrombotic events (Odds Ratio (OR) 26.4, 95% confidence interval 2.5-280.6, p = 0.01). Clinical and laboratory markers did not predict thrombotic events. CONCLUSIONS: There is an increased risk of late thrombotic complications in hemodialysis patients after infection with COVID-19. Further studies should evaluate the benefit of prolonged prophylactic anticoagulation in hemodialysis patients after recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1207-1211, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248745

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The role of anticoagulation (AC) prior to hospital admission and how different types of oral AC influences the outcome of COVID-19 is currently unknown. This observational study compares the outcome in COVID-19 patients with prior use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) or vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and without prior use of AC. We collected the baseline characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients presented to the emergency department of Bernhoven Hospital, the Netherlands. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days and analyzed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model including age, sex, symptom duration, home medication, and comorbidities. We included 497 patients, including 57 patients with DOAC (11%) and 53 patients with VKA (11%). Patients with AC had a lower body temperature and lower C-reactive protein levels. Comparing the primary outcome in patients with AC (DOAC or VKA) and no AC, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was 0.64 (95% CI 0.42-0.96, P = 0.03). Comparing DOAC and no AC, the aHR was 0.53 (95% CI 0.32-0.89, P = 0.02) and comparing VKA and no AC, the aHR was 0.77 (95% CI 0.47-1.27, P = 0.30). In a subgroup analysis of DOAC, all nine patients with prior use of dabigatran survived within 30 days. In this observational study, the prior use of AC is associated with a better survival of COVID-19. DOAC, especially dabigatran, might have additional beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Dabigatran , Survival Rate , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Netherlands , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(1): 231-234, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The management of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients continues to be challenging. Critically ill COVID patients are at increased risk of serious thrombotic events and hence increased mortality. On the other side, COVID-19 patients are also showing major life-threatening bleeds, especially when systemic anticoagulation is used. Pro-coagulant propensity in critically ill COVID-19 patients have been published, but very few have described the incidence of major bleeding and its characteristics. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively observed the incidence of major bleed in 25 critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Six cases were identified and described together with their outcome. RESULTS: Major bleeding occurred in six of the 25 studied patients. Four patients were on therapeutic anticoagulation at the onset of the bleed, two required embolization for bleeding control and one died from hemorrhagic shock. Half of the described cases had unusual sites of bleeding including gluteal and abdominal wall muscles. CONCLUSIONS: A high rate of major bleeding was witnessed in our sample of critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection, with the majority being on therapeutic anticoagulation. This rate may be higher than previously reported, necessitating additional attention from the treating physician when considering empiric therapeutic anticoagulation. Moreover, the uncommon sites of bleeding shed the light on the need for additional studies in our population to identify the predisposing risk factors and mechanisms behind it.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Hemorrhage , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/virology
15.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(8): 937-949, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242919

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a significant risk of venous thromboembolism. While information are mainly available for deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb and pulmonary embolism, scarce data exist regarding acute splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) in this setting. PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar English-language articles published up to 30 January 2021 on SVT in COVID-19 were searched. Overall, 21 articles reporting equal number of patients were identified. 15 subjects presented with portal vein thrombosis, 11 with mesenteric vein thrombosis, four with splenic vein thrombosis, and two with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Male sex was prevalent (15 patients), and median age was 43 years (range 26-79 years). Three patients had a history of liver disease, while no subject had known myeloproliferative syndrome. Clinical presentation included mainly gastrointestinal symptoms. Anticoagulation was started in 16 patients. Three patients underwent bowel resection. Ten subjects developed gastric or bowel ischemia, seven of whom underwent bowel resection, and four died after SVT diagnosis. Although rare, SVT should be seen as a complication of COVID-19. Patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms should be screened for SVT, as rapid recognition and correct management are essential to improve the outcome of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Splanchnic Circulation , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnosis , Mesenteric Ischemia/etiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
16.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 34(2): 8-12, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240793

ABSTRACT

This literature review discusses the current evidence on acute limb ischemia (ALI) in patients with COVID-19. Throughout the pandemic, these patients have been at increased risk of arterial thrombotic events and subsequent mortality as a result of a hypercoagulable state. The exact mechanism of thrombosis is unknown; however arterial thrombosis may be due to invasion of endothelial cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, endothelial injury from inflammation, or even free-floating aortic thrombus. Multiple studies have been performed evaluating the medical and surgical management of these patients; the decision to proceed with operative intervention is dependent on the patient's clinical status as it relates to COVID-19 and morbidity of that disease. The interventions afforded typically include anticoagulation in patients undergoing palliation; alternatively, thrombectomy (endovascular and open) is utilized in other patients. There is a high risk of rethrombosis, despite anticoagulation, given persistent endothelial injury from the virus. Postoperative mortality can be high in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/therapy , Ischemia/virology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Thrombosis/therapy , Thrombosis/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnosis
17.
Cureus ; 13(5): e14833, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239154

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome with increased morbidity and mortality due to multiorgan involvement. COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ranging from asymptomatic to potentially fatal presentations. Predictors of VTE in COVID-19 are not fully defined, and the role of anticoagulation in these patients is debatable. Here we discuss two cases of COVID-19, who initially presented with mild COVID-19 symptoms and later with potentially fatal VTE within 30 days of initial presentation. The first case is of a 42-year-old gentleman with a history of sarcoidosis and a recent diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia who was in isolation at home and presented with syncope and worsening shortness of breath. He was hemodynamically unstable and resuscitated with fluid management in the emergency department. The chest angiogram imaging studies showed massive pulmonary embolism with right heart strain, which was confirmed with bedside point-of-care ultrasound. The patient deteriorated clinically and received an intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in the emergency. He was discharged home under stable condition on oral anticoagulation. The second patient is a 63-year-old gentleman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, sleep apnea, and a recent diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, which was complicated with an ischemic stroke, who presented with worsening complaints of shortness of breath and palpitation. The chest angiogram imaging showed bilateral pulmonary embolism. An echocardiogram showed mild right heart strain. The lower extremity duplex ultrasound showed bilateral deep vein thrombosis. The patient underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis and discharged on oral anticoagulation. There is a need to develop stronger predictors to provide thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 pneumonia to prevent life-threatening VTE.

18.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227866

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The clinical course of COVID-19 may be complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and thromboembolic events, which are associated with high risk of mortality. Although previous studies reported a lower rate of death in patients treated with heparin, the potential benefit of chronic oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between OAT with the risk of ARDS and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective Italian study including consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 22, 2020, at six Italian hospitals. Patients were divided into two groups according to the chronic assumption of oral anticoagulants. RESULTS: Overall, 427 patients were included; 87 patients (19%) were in the OAT group. Of them, 54 patients (13%) were on treatment with non-vitamin k oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and 33 (8%) with vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs). OAT patients were older and had a higher rate of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease compared to No-OAT group. The rate of ARDS at admission (26% vs 28%, P=0.834), or developed during the hospitalization (9% vs 10%, P=0.915), was similar between study groups; in-hospital mortality (22% vs 26%, P=0.395) was also comparable. After balancing for potential confounders by using the propensity score matching technique, no differences were found in term of clinical outcome between OAT and No-OAT patients CONCLUSION: Oral anticoagulation therapy, either NOACs or VKAs, did not influence the risk of ARDS or death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

19.
J Pharm Pract ; : 8971900211015055, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest that coagulopathy, cytokine storm, and acute respiratory distress syndrome are associated with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The prevalence of hypercoagulable state in these patients is unknown, but appears to be higher compared to those with other critically ill patients. Elevated D-dimer, large blood vessels clots, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation have been reported in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 either on admission or during hospitalization and may be predictors of poor outcomes. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature review using the search terms of COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, coagulopathy, thrombosis and anticoagulation in PubMed, Ovid, google scholar, Medline and EMBASE databases from December 2019 to May 30, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 64 relevant studies were reviewed; of which, 4 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. The majority of the studies were retrospective involving 525 critically ill COVID-19 patients. The most commonly studied anticoagulant administered was low molecular weight heparins. Anticoagulation dosing varied throughout the studies and may be classified as standard venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, intermediate dosing, or full dose anticoagulation. The most studied objective was improvement in coagulopathy. Significant reduction in D-dimer, improvement in coagulopathy markers such as Interlukin-6, fibrinogen degradation product level, as well as lymphocyte count were reported. CONCLUSION: Despite the limited quality of studies analyzed, prophylaxis and higher intensity dosed anticoagulation is associated with improved pulmonary oxygenation, decreased coagulopathy markers and decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients.

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