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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2283-2293, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and thromboprophylaxis should be balanced against risk of bleeding. This study examined risks of VTE and major bleeding in hospitalized and community-managed SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with control populations. METHODS: Using nationwide population-based registries, 30-day risks of VTE and major bleeding in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were compared with those of SARS-CoV-2 test-negative patients and with an external cohort of influenza patients. Medical records of all COVID-19 patients at 6 departments of infectious diseases in Denmark were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: The overall 30-day risk of VTE was 0.4% (40/9460) among SARS-CoV-2 patients (16% hospitalized), 0.3% (649/226 510) among SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects (12% hospitalized), and 1.0% (158/16 281) among influenza patients (59% hospitalized). VTE risks were higher and comparable in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive (1.5%), SARS-CoV-2 negative (1.8%), and influenza patients (1.5%). Diagnosis of major bleeding was registered in 0.5% (47/9460) of all SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals and in 2.3% of those hospitalized. Medical record review of 582 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients observed VTE in 4% (19/450) and major bleeding in 0.4% (2/450) of ward patients, of whom 31% received thromboprophylaxis. Among intensive care patients (100% received thromboprophylaxis), risks were 7% (9/132) for VTE and 11% (15/132) for major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Among people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a population-based setting, VTE risks were low to moderate and were not substantially increased compared with SARS-CoV-2 test-negative and influenza patients. Risk of severe bleeding was low for ward patients, but mirrored VTE risk in the intensive care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S7-S12, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573985

ABSTRACT

The October 2020 Global TB report reviews TB control strategies and United Nations (UN) targets set in the political declaration at the September 2018 UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB held in New York. Progress in TB care and prevention has been very slow. In 2019, TB remained the most common cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. Globally, an estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease in 2019, and there were an estimated 1.2 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 208, 000 deaths among people living with HIV. Adults accounted for 88% and children for 12% of people with TB. The WHO regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (25%), and the Western Pacific (18%) had the most people with TB. Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), Indonesia (8.5%), China (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.7%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.6%). Only 30% of the 3.5 million five-year target for children treated for TB was met. Major advances have been development of new all oral regimens for MDRTB and new regimens for preventive therapy. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic dislodged TB from the top infectious disease cause of mortality globally. Notably, global TB control efforts were not on track even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many challenges remain to improve sub-optimal TB treatment and prevention services. Tuberculosis screening and diagnostic test services need to be ramped up. The major drivers of TB remain undernutrition, poverty, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and household air pollution and these need be addressed to achieve the WHO 2035 TB care and prevention targets. National programs need to include interventions for post-tuberculosis holistic wellbeing. From first detection of COVID-19 global coordination and political will with huge financial investments have led to the development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV2 infection. The world now needs to similarly focus on development of new vaccines for TB utilizing new technological methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Miliary , Adult , Child , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388907

ABSTRACT

We report onset, course, correlations with comorbidities, and diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal swab in 539 individuals suspected to carry SARS-COV-2 admitted to the hospital of Crema, Italy. All individuals underwent clinical and laboratory exams, SARS-COV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab, and chest X-ray and/or computed tomography (CT). Data on onset, course, comorbidities, number of drugs including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists (sartans), follow-up swab, pharmacological treatments, non-invasive respiratory support, ICU admission, and deaths were recorded. Among 411 SARS-COV-2 patients (67.7% males) median age was 70.8 years (range 5-99). Chest CT was performed in 317 (77.2%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 304 (96%). Fatality rate was 17.5% (74% males), with 6.6% in 60-69 years old, 21.1% in 70-79 years old, 38.8% in 80-89 years old, and 83.3% above 90 years. No death occurred below 60 years. Non-invasive respiratory support rate was 27.2% and ICU admission 6.8%. Charlson comorbidity index and high C-reactive protein at admission were significantly associated with death. Use of ACE inhibitors or sartans was not associated with outcomes. Among 128 swab negative patients at admission (63.3% males) median age was 67.7 years (range 1-98). Chest CT was performed in 87 (68%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 76 (87.3%). Follow-up swab turned positive in 13 of 32 patients. Using chest CT at admission as gold standard on the entire study population of 539 patients, nasopharyngeal swab had 80% accuracy. Comorbidity network analysis revealed a more homogenous distribution 60-40 aged SARS-COV-2 patients across diseases and a crucial different interplay of diseases in the networks of deceased and survived patients. SARS-CoV-2 caused high mortality among patients older than 60 years and correlated with pre-existing multiorgan impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(47): 1762-1766, 2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389859

ABSTRACT

Most persons infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), develop virus-specific antibodies within several weeks, but antibody titers might decline over time. Understanding the timeline of antibody decline is important for interpreting SARS-CoV-2 serology results. Serum specimens were collected from a convenience sample of frontline health care personnel at 13 hospitals and tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 during April 3-June 19, 2020, and again approximately 60 days later to assess this timeline. The percentage of participants who experienced seroreversion, defined as an antibody signal-to-threshold ratio >1.0 at baseline and <1.0 at the follow-up visit, was assessed. Overall, 194 (6.0%) of 3,248 participants had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at baseline (1). Upon repeat testing approximately 60 days later (range = 50-91 days), 146 (93.6%) of 156 participants experienced a decline in antibody response indicated by a lower signal-to-threshold ratio at the follow-up visit, compared with the baseline visit, and 44 (28.2%) experienced seroreversion. Participants with higher initial antibody responses were more likely to have antibodies detected at the follow-up test than were those who had a lower initial antibody response. Whether decay in these antibodies increases risk for reinfection and disease remains unanswered. However, these results suggest that serology testing at a single time point is likely to underestimate the number of persons with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a negative serologic test result might not reliably exclude prior infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e28346, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has affected individuals with lived experience of eating disorders (EDs), with many reporting higher psychological distress, higher prevalence of ED symptoms, and compensatory behaviors. The COVID-19 pandemic and the health and safety measures taken to contain its spread also disrupted routines and reduced access to familiar coping mechanisms, social support networks, and health care services. Social media and the ED communities on social media platforms have been an important source of support for individuals with EDs in the past. So far, it is unknown how discussions in online ED communities changed as offline support networks were disrupted and people spent more time at home in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify changes in language content and style in an online ED community during the initial onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We extracted posts and their comments from the ED community on the social media website Reddit and concatenated them to comment threads. To analyze these threads, we applied top-down and bottom-up language analysis methods based on topic modeling with latent Dirichlet allocation and 13 indicators from the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program, respectively. Threads were split into prepandemic (before March 11, 2020) and midpandemic (after March 11, 2020) groups. Standardized mean differences were calculated to estimate change between pre- and midpandemic threads. RESULTS: A total of 17,715 threads (n=8772, 49.5% prepandemic threads; n=8943, 50.5% midpandemic threads) were extracted from the ED community and analyzed. The final topic model contained 21 topics. CIs excluding zero were found for standardized mean differences of 15 topics and 9 Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count categories covering themes such as ED symptoms, mental health, treatment for EDs, cognitive processing, social life, and emotions. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a reduction in discussions about ED symptoms, an increase in mental health and treatment-related topics was observed at the same time. This points to a change in the focus of the ED community from promoting potentially harmful weight loss methods to bringing attention to mental health and treatments for EDs. These results together with heightened cognitive processing, increased social references, and reduced inhibition of negative emotions detected in discussions indicate a shift in the ED community toward a pro-recovery orientation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Language , Pandemics , Social Media , Social Support , Emotions , Feeding and Eating Disorders/physiopathology , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Linguistics , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Br J Cancer ; 125(5): 658-671, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 30 million COVID-19 cases have been diagnosed worldwide from late 2019. Among frail persons, cancer patients are at high risk of death from COVID-19. METHODS: The French prospective cohort ONCOVID-19 enrolled patients with solid or haematological tumour, receiving anticancer treatment and presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 was confirmed through detectable SARS-CoV2 by RT-PCR (repeated twice if negative first) and/or specific CT-scan. The study aims to assess the 28-day mortality rate after the first COVID test. RESULTS: From March 1st to May 21st 2020, 23 French cancer centres and hospitals enrolled 1230 cancer patients with suspicion of COVID-19, including 1162 (94.5%) matching the inclusion criteria. We identified 425 (36.6%) COVID-19 positive patients including 155 (13.3%) diagnosed with CT-scan only, while 737 (63.4%) patients were COVID-19 negative. Death at day-28 occurred in 116/425 (27.8%) COVID-19 positive patients, and in 118/737 (16.3%) COVID-19 negative patients (p < 0·0001). With a median follow-up of 2.1 (1.6-2.4) months, 310 (26.7%) deaths were reported including 143 (33.6%) in the COVID-19 positive population, and 167 (22.7%) in the COVID-19 negative patients. Male gender, age, metastatic disease, immunosuppressive treatments, lymphopenia, COVID-19 diagnosis and diabetes were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSION: Patients with solid and haematological cancers presenting COVID-19 symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed or not are both at high-risk of early mortality. COVID-19 is reported as the cause of death in 50% of COVID-19 positive patients with cancer. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04363632.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are immunodeficient, it is vague if they are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than HIV negative individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 857 PLWH and 1048 HIV negative individuals were enrolled from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. We compared the total rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the rate of COVID-19, asymptomatic carriers, and unapparent infectors in the two groups. The risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH were explored. RESULTS: Fourteen out of 857 (1.63%) PLWH were infected with SARS-CoV-2, while 68 of 1048 (6.49%) HIV negative individuals were infected. In PLWH, there were 6 confirmed COVID-19 (0.70%), 4 asymptomatic carriers (0.47%) and 4 unapparent infectors (0.47%). In the HIV negative group, the cases of COVID-19, asymptomatic carrier, and unapparent infector were 5 (0.48%), 0 (0.00%), and 63 (6.01%), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, and chronic comorbidities, the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH was lower than that in HIV negative group (1.96% vs 5.74%, P=0.001). The morbidity of COVID-19 was similar between the two groups (P=0.107), but the rate of unapparent infection in PLWH was lower than that in the HIV negative group (0.54% vs 5.46%, P=0.001). Older age (aOR=4.50, 95%CI: 1.34-15.13, P=0.015) and OIs (aOR=9.59, 95%CI: 1.54-59.92, P=0.016) were risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH has different infection forms of SARS-CoV-2 compared with the general population. Older age and OIs were considered to driving causes of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.

9.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(8): 948-960, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265359

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myalgia, increased levels of creatine kinase, and persistent muscle weakness have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To study skeletal muscle and myocardial inflammation in patients with COVID-19 who had died. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control autopsy series was conducted in a university hospital as a multidisciplinary postmortem investigation. Patients with COVID-19 or other critical illnesses who had died between March 2020 and February 2021 and on whom an autopsy was performed were included. Individuals for whom informed consent to autopsy was available and the postmortem interval was less than 6 days were randomly selected. Individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 per polymerase chain reaction test results and had clinical features suggestive of COVID-19 were compared with individuals with negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test results and an absence of clinical features suggestive of COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue was assessed by quantification of immune cell infiltrates, expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigens on the sarcolemma, and a blinded evaluation on a visual analog scale ranging from absence of pathology to the most pronounced pathology. Inflammation of cardiac muscles was assessed by quantification of immune cell infiltrates. Results: Forty-three patients with COVID-19 (median [interquartile range] age, 72 [16] years; 31 men [72%]) and 11 patients with diseases other than COVID-19 (median [interquartile range] age, 71 [5] years; 7 men [64%]) were included. Skeletal muscle samples from the patients who died with COVID-19 showed a higher overall pathology score (mean [SD], 3.4 [1.8] vs 1.5 [1.0]; 95% CI, 0-3; P < .001) and a higher inflammation score (mean [SD], 3.5 [2.1] vs 1.0 [0.6]; 95% CI, 0-4; P < .001). Relevant expression of MHC class I antigens on the sarcolemma was present in 23 of 42 specimens from patients with COVID-19 (55%) and upregulation of MHC class II antigens in 7 of 42 specimens from patients with COVID-19 (17%), but neither were found in any of the controls. Increased numbers of natural killer cells (median [interquartile range], 8 [8] vs 3 [4] cells per 10 high-power fields; 95% CI, 1-10 cells per 10 high-power fields; P < .001) were found. Skeletal muscles showed more inflammatory features than cardiac muscles, and inflammation was most pronounced in patients with COVID-19 with chronic courses. In some muscle specimens, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, but no evidence for a direct viral infection of myofibers was found by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study of patients who had died with and without COVID-19, most individuals with severe COVID-19 showed signs of myositis ranging from mild to severe. Inflammation of skeletal muscles was associated with the duration of illness and was more pronounced than cardiac inflammation. Detection of viral load was low or negative in most skeletal and cardiac muscles and probably attributable to circulating viral RNA rather than genuine infection of myocytes. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a postinfectious, immune-mediated myopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Myositis/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/metabolism , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocytes/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myositis/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcolemma/metabolism , Time Factors
10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 648112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247910

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on mental health; people around the world are experiencing high levels of stress and deteriorated wellbeing. The past research shows that positive emotions can help people cultivate a resilient mindset; however, the reality created by the global crisis itself limits the opportunities for experiencing positive emotions. Thus, it is unclear to what extent their effect is strong enough to counter the psychological impact of the current pandemic. Here, the author reports the findings of a survey conducted across two large representative samples in the United Kingdom and the United States (N total = 2000) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (in Spring 2020). A linear regression model revealed that the presence of positive emotions is strongly linked with resilience, in particular for individuals experiencing more negative emotions. These results show that positive emotions are particularly important to mental health in the context of high stress, reflected by increased levels of negative emotional experiences. These results are also consistent with the existential positive psychology perspective, which posits that even negative emotions can contribute to wellbeing once they are transformed. The author discusses the potential of positive emotions to transform suffering and thereby ameliorate the negative impact of the present collective crisis.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227038

ABSTRACT

Background Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) offer new opportunities for the quick and laboratory-independent identification of infected individuals for control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Despite the potential benefits, nasopharyngeal sample collection is frequently perceived as uncomfortable by patients and requires trained healthcare personnel with protective equipment. Therefore, anterior nasal self-sampling is increasingly recognized as a valuable alternative. Methods We performed a prospective, single-center, point of care validation of an Ag-RDT using a polypropylene absorbent collector for standardized self-collected anterior nasal swabs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from combined oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swabs served as a comparator. Primary endpoint was sensitivity of the standardized Ag-RDT in symptomatic patients with medium or high viral concentration (≥1 million RNA copies on RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2). Results Between 12 February and 22 March 2021, 388 participants were enrolled. After exclusion of 9 patients for which no PCR result could be obtained, the novel Ag-RDT was evaluated based on 379 participants, of whom 273 were symptomatic and 106 asymptomatic. In 61 samples from symptomatic patients with medium or high viral load (≥1 million RNA copies), the sensitivity of the standardized Ag-RDT was 96.7% (59/61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 88.7-99.6%) for the primary endpoint. In total, 62 positive Ag-RDT results were detected out of 70 RT-PCR positive individuals, yielding an overall sensitivity of 88.6% (95% CI: 78.7-94.9%). Specificity was 99.7% (95% CI: 98.2-100%) in 309 RT-PCR negative individuals. Conclusions Here, we present a validation of a novel Ag-RDT with a standardized sampling process for anterior nasal self-collection, which meets World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria of ≥80% sensitivity and ≥97% specificity. Although less sensitive than RT-PCR, this assay could be beneficial due to its rapid results, ease of use, and suitability for standardized self-testing.

12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): 1373-1382, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals admitted to hospital for COVID-19 might have persisting symptoms (so-called long COVID) and delayed complications after discharge. However, little is known regarding the risk for those not admitted to hospital. We therefore examined prescription drug and health-care use after SARS-CoV-2 infection not requiring hospital admission. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study using the Danish prescription, patient, and health insurance registries. All individuals with a positive or negative RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 in Denmark between Feb 27 and May 31, 2020, were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes of interest were delayed acute complications, chronic disease, hospital visits due to persisting symptoms, and prescription drug use. We used data from non-hospitalised SARS-CoV-2-positive and matched SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals from 2 weeks to 6 months after a SARS-CoV-2 test to obtain propensity score-weighted risk differences (RDs) and risk ratios (RRs) for initiation of 14 drug groups and 27 hospital diagnoses indicative of potential post-acute effects. We also calculated prior event rate ratio-adjusted rate ratios of overall health-care use. This study is registered in the EU Electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies (EUPAS37658). FINDINGS: 10 498 eligible individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Denmark from Feb 27 to May 31, 2020, of whom 8983 (85·6%) were alive and not admitted to hospital 2 weeks after their positive test. The matched SARS-CoV-2-negative reference population not admitted to hospital consisted of 80 894 individuals. Compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals, SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were not at an increased risk of initiating new drugs (RD <0·1%) except bronchodilating agents, specifically short-acting ß2-agonists (117 [1·7%] of 6935 positive individuals vs 743 [1·3%] of 57 206 negative individuals; RD +0·4% [95% CI 0·1-0·7]; RR 1·32 [1·09-1·60]) and triptans (33 [0·4%] of 8292 vs 198 [0·3%] of 72 828; RD +0·1% [0·0-0·3]; RR 1·55 [1·07-2·25]). There was an increased risk of receiving hospital diagnoses of dyspnoea (103 [1·2%] of 8676 vs 499 [0·7%] of 76 728; RD +0·6% [0·4-0·8]; RR 2·00 [1·62-2·48]) and venous thromboembolism (20 [0·2%] of 8785 vs 110 [0·1%] of 78 872; RD +0·1% [0·0-0·2]; RR 1·77 [1·09-2·86]) for SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals compared with negative individuals, but no increased risk of other diagnoses. Prior event rate ratio-adjusted rate ratios of overall general practitioner visits (1·18 [95% CI 1·15-1·22]) and outpatient hospital visits (1·10 [1·05-1·16]), but not hospital admission, showed increases among SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals. INTERPRETATION: The absolute risk of severe post-acute complications after SARS-CoV-2 infection not requiring hospital admission is low. However, increases in visits to general practitioners and outpatient hospital visits could indicate COVID-19 sequelae. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217119

ABSTRACT

It is unclear whether universal PCR screening for SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic individuals prior to admission is useful. From April to December 2020, the positive rate of universal pre-admission screening was 0.005% (4/76,521) in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. The positive rates were not different between the periods (period 1 (daily new patients of <1 per million inhabitants) vs. period 2 (1-8.3 per million inhabitants) vs. period 3 (10.3 to 20 per million inhabitants); P = 0.45). Universal pre-admission screening for SARS-CoV-2 had a lower positive rate than that of symptom-based screening (0.005% vs. 0.049% (53/109,257), p < 0.001). In addition, seven patients with negative pre-admission test results had subsequent positive PCR during hospitalization, and four patients had secondary transmission. Universal pre-admission PCR screening may not be practical in settings of low prevalence of COVID-19, and negative PCR results at admission should not serve as a basis for underestimating the risk of nosocomial spread from asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Carrier State , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(4): 263-267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study assesses whether individuals with substance use disorder are at greater risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than people in the general population. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted including 3,780 individuals, diagnosed with alcohol or other drug dependence and cared for by the addiction service (AS) in the province of Reggio Emilia. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and relative 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of being tested and of being SARS-CoV-2 positive in the population of interest compared with those in the general population of Reggio Emilia were calculated. RESULTS: Both individuals with alcohol and those with other drug use disorders had a lower risk of being SARS-CoV-2 positive (SIR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.32-1.30, SIR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.24-1.10, respectively), despite higher rates of being tested than the general population (SIR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.14-1.89, SIR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.20-1.86, respectively). Among HIV-negative persons, 12.5% were positive to SARS-CoV-2, while none was positive among HIV-positive persons. HCV-infected AS clients had a higher risk of both being tested for SARS-CoV-2 (SIR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.26-2.98) and of resulting positive (SIR = 1.53; 95% CI 0.50-3.58). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with alcohol and/or other drug use disorders are at higher risk of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection but at lower risk of resulting positive than the general population. Further research is warranted in order to support our findings and to address plausible factors underpinning such associations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Registries , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 166, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204087

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D status in patients with COVID-19 is an on-going controversial issue. This study aims to determine differences in the serum 25(OH)D concentrations of Arab Gulf adult residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with risk of COVID-19 infection together with other comorbidities. METHODS: In this multi-center, case-control study, a total of 220 male and female adults presenting with none to mild symptoms were screened for COVID-19 (n = 138 RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive and 82 negative controls). Medical history was noted. Anthropometrics were measured and non-fasting blood samples were collected for the assessment of glucose, lipids, inflammatory markers and serum 25(OH)D concentrations. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group compared to the negative group after adjustment for age and BMI (52.8 nmol/l ± 11.0 versus 64.5 nmol/l ± 11.1; p = 0.009). Being elderly (> 60 years) [Odds ratio 6 (95% Confidence Interval, CI 2-18; p = 0.001) as well as having type 2 diabetes (T2D) [OR 6 (95% CI 3-14); p < 0.001)] and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) [OR 6 (95% CI 3-14); p < 0.001)] were significant risk factors for COVID-19 infection independent of age, sex and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Among Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2, serum 25(OH) D levels were observed to be lower in those who tested positive than negative individuals, but it was the presence of old age, diabetes mellitus and low-HDL-c that were significantly associated with risk of COVID-19 infection. Large population-based randomized controlled trials should be conducted to assess the protective effects of vitamin D supplementation against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Aged , Arabs , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
16.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous pandemics around the world have shown that negative emotions are intensified in individuals when restrictions are imposed on human daily life activities. This study aims to draw attention to the pandemic-specific factors that might be associated with the severity of depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 phobia of high school students. METHODS: A total of 1,431 high school students aged 14 to 18 years were invited to participate in thisstudy using online survey forms. They were asked to fill out a questionnaire about themselves and the changes in their lives during the pandemic. They completed the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S) and the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS). RESULTS: Findings showed that being a girl is an increased risk factor for anxiety, depression, and COVID-19 phobia. In addition, following the official daily COVID-19 data and having a healthcare professional in the building of residence are significant risk factors for COVID-19 phobia. Having a psychiatric disorder, having a chronic disease, losing anyone due to COVID-19 infection, undergoing a COVID-19 diagnostic test, and meeting friends in person are increased risk factors for anxiety or depression during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in adolescents' lives caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are negatively affecting their mental health. Studies are needed to maintain the mental well-being of adolescents under the conditions of this pandemic.

17.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1145-1149, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196426

ABSTRACT

Information about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in HIV-infected individuals is scarce. In this prospective study, we included HIV (human immunodefeciency virus)-infected individuals (people living with HIV [PLWHIV]) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared them with PLWHIV negative for SARS-CoV-2. We compared 55 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with 69 asymptomatic PLWHIV negative for SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and/or serology. There was no significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative patients for age distribution, gender, time with HIV infection, nadir CD4-cell counts, type and number of co-morbidities, current CD4 and CD8 counts and type of anti-HIV therapy. Positive patients presented with a median of three symptoms (interquartile range, 1-3). Most common symptoms were fever (76%), dyspnea (35%), anosmia (29%) non-productive cough (27%), fatigue 22%), and ageusia (20%). Ten patients (18%) were completely asymptomatic. Four (7.2%) subjects died of coronavirus disease 2019. Factors significantly (P < .05) associated with death included age and number of co-morbidities, while time from HIV infection and lower current CD4 counts were significant only in univariate analysis. HIV-infected individuals are not protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection or have a lower risk of severe disease. Indeed, those with low CD4 cell counts might have worse outcomes. Infection is asymptomatic in a large proportion of subjects and this is relevant for epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Age Distribution , CD4 Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194659

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Detection of asymptomatic or subclinical human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) is crucial for understanding the overall prevalence of the new coronavirus and its infection potential in public (non-infectious) healthcare units with emergency wards. (2) Methods: We evaluated the host serologic responses, measured with semi-quantitative ELISA tests (IgA, IgG, IgM abs) in sera of 90 individuals in Hospital no. 4 in Bytom, 84 HCWs in the University Hospital in Opole and 25 in a Miasteczko Slaskie local surgery. All volunteers had negative RT-PCR test results or had not had the RT-PCR test performed within 30 days before sampling. The ELISA test was made at two different time points (July/August 2020) with a 2-weeks gap between blood collections to avoid the "serological window" period. (3) Results: The IgG seropositivity of asymptomatic HCWs varied between 1.2% to 10% (Opole vs. Bytom, p < 0.05; all without any symptoms). IgA seropositivity in HCWs was 8.8% in Opole and 7.14% in Bytom. IgM positive levels in HCWs in Opole and Bytom was 1.11% vs. 2.38%, respectively. Individuals with IgA and IgM seropositivity results were observed only in Opole (1.19%). More studies are needed to determine whether these results are generalizable to other populations and geographic as well as socio-demographic locations. (4) Conclusions: 100% of IgG(+) volunteers were free from any symptoms of infection in the 30 days before first or second blood collection and they had no awareness of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Asymptomatic HCWs could spread SARS-CoV-2 infection to other employees and patients. Only regular HCWs RT-PCR testing can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spreading in a hospital environment. The benefit of combining the detection of specific IgA with that of combined specific IgM/IgG is still uncertain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250465, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194503

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pandemic and currently becomes a serious cause of death worldwide. It is caused by a SARS-CoV-2 belonging to a family known as corona virus. The aim of this study is to assess the community knowledge, attitude and practice strategy implementation on SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A cross-sectional survey study was done from July to October, 2020 in Woldia town, Northeast Ethiopia. Interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 404 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with a 95% confidence interval to know the association of socio-demographic characteristics with the knowledge, attitude and practices towards COVID-19. From a total of 404 responses collected (64.1%, n = 259/404), (50.7%, n = 205/404) and (39.6%, n = 160/404) of the respondents were between ages 18-39 years, males and were diploma and above, respectively. The majority of the respondents had good knowledge about the transmission mode and symptoms of COVID-19 and they obtained information mainly through mass media. The knowledge of the respondents about the transmission mode of COVID-I9 through coughing and sneezing, direct contact with infected person and touching contaminated materials was statistically associated with education and occupation (p <0.001). Among the total respondents (53.7%, n = 217/404) had a negative attitude that COVID-19 pandemic will not be controlled. The attitude of the respondents towards successfully controlling of COVID-I9 was statistically associated in terms of age, marital status, education and occupation (p < 0.001). Most of the respondents (63.1%, n = 255/404), (58.9%, n = 238/404), (66.8%, n = 270/404) and (63.9%, n = 258/404) did not wash hands with soap, avoidance of touching the nose and mouth, practicing social distancing and wearing of face masks in public or crowded places, respectively. The practices of the respondents towards COVID-19 were statistically associated with sex, marital status, education and occupation (p < 0.01). COVID-19 is currently the cause of death and it has a great impact on the economy, politics and social interactions in the study area. The government should strength the health system by increasing surveillance activities in detecting cases. Our findings suggest that the community should practice the WHO and EMoH recommendations to minimize the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Education , Humans , Infection Control , Knowledge , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(4)2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177521

ABSTRACT

Many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serology tests have proven to be less accurate than expected and do not assess antibody function as neutralizing, correlating with protection from reinfection. A new assay technology measuring the interaction of the purified SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with the extracellular domain of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor detects these important antibodies. The cPass surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT), compared directly with eight SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology and two live-cell neutralization tests, gives similar or improved accuracy for qualitative delineation between positive and negative individuals in a fast, scalable, and high-throughput assay. The combined data support the cPass sVNT as a tool for highly accurate SARS-CoV-2 immunity surveillance of infected/recovered and/or vaccinated individuals as well as drug and convalescent-phase donor screening. The data also preview a novel application for the cPass sVNT in calibrating the stringency of live-cell neutralization tests and its use in longitudinal testing of recovered and/or vaccinated patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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