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1.
Aging Dis ; 12(3): 710-717, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315005

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the People's Republic of China and the World Health Organization first reported on a cluster of pneumonia with an unknown cause. Nine months later more than 1.4 million people have died from COVID 19. In this work, the effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on five nursing homes in Austria, which cared for 889 residents in the first half of 2020, were examined. The research question was whether the measures taken were appropriate to prevent an outbreak within the individual facilities. To detect previously unrecognized infections, the present study evaluated the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in residents and employees of the nursing homes. Following the analysis of blood samples, the prospectively collected data was connected to data from screening examinations and data from contact tracing. The present study demonstrated an overall prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in nursing homes of 3.7%. Whereas the prevalence in those facilities that have never been hit by an outbreak is 0%, the prevalence in those facilities with an outbreak is up to 4.9%. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 35 persons. A retrospective analysis of all 5 included nursing homes demonstrated that upon regular clinical screening in combination with PCRs an infection with SARS-COV-2 was detected in 66 residents and 24 employees from different professional groups. In only 25 of the 35 persons with neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 an infection was proven in advance. This study suggests that specific measures can prevent transmission within a health care facility. Nevertheless, the results also show that a risk reduction to 0% cannot be achieved. In preparation for further pandemic waves there is still the need to reduce the probability of a transmission in nursing homes with specific test strategies.

2.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101373, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242880

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is relevant in older people. Attention was given to the nursing homes in which frailer people are usually admitted. In this review, we discuss the approaches for daily problems found in nursing home as geriatricians and potentially new research directions. We start with the problem of the older people affected by dementia and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia for which also the execution of a simple diagnostic test (such as nasopharyngeal swab) could be problematic. Another important problem is the management of wandering patients for which the re-organization of the spaces and vaccination could be the solutions. The relationship with families is another important problem, also from a medico-legal point of view, that can be faced using video conferencing tools. Moreover, we discussed the importance of stratifying prognosis in older nursing home residents for the best management and therapeutically approach, including palliative care, also using telemedicine and the inclusion of prognostic tools in daily clinical practice. Finally, we approached the therapeutical issues in older people that suggests the necessity of future research for finding older-friendly medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Dementia/therapy , Geriatricians , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 251, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is extensive concern about older people's care in institutions, especially recently in the past years. One of the reasons is linked to the cases of elder abuse, not only shown by academic and scientific sources, but also by social and mass media and their impact on public perception of the institutional setting. What is more, current COVID-19 pandemic consequences on older people have provoked alarm and worry especially about what is happening in institutions. METHODS: The sample for this study consists of 286 staff working in nursing homes in Spain. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Professional Good Care Scale in Nursing Homes (GCS-NH). RESULTS: Results of parallel analyses and exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) showed a four-factor model for the 32-item scale: humanization (9 items), non-infantilization (10 items), respect (7 items) and empowerment (6 items). Then, psychometric properties were tested analysing internal consistency (reliability) and convergent, divergent and criterion validity. High internal consistency (reliability) and different validity evidence were obtained for the total scores of the GCS-NH and its subscales. GCS-NH scores were also capable of detecting risk of probable institutional elder abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that this scale is an appropriate, valid, and reliable multidimensional instrument to evaluate good care in older institutionalized people by staff. Good care is an outcome of a complex construct in which a wide range of factors converge (staff, older people, and environmental characteristics). The GCS-NH has potential to be used as a multidimensional tool to assess good care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Nursing Homes , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167475

ABSTRACT

Cases of COVID-19, the coronavirus that has spread throughout the world, affect and kill the poor, racial minorities, and the elderly disproportionately. The toll to the elders of our society is extreme and does not seem to relent over time. This work examines the statistics of the cases and deaths at the early onset of the disease in nursing homes. It reveals the age disparities seen in the COVID-19 pandemic by using data from nursing homes across the states, and particularly in Maryland, as a source to illustrate the effect on the elderly living in group-like settings. It presents an overview of the disease in the early months as it ravaged across the states, indicating that the older generation was a lot more at risk than the general population. It is necessary to illustrate these disparities even as the numbers of infections and deaths are not static.

5.
Ethique Sante ; 18(1): 23-31, 2021 Mar.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108280

ABSTRACT

The health emergency linked to COVID-19 has been stressful for staff working in nursing home, doubly painful for residents faced with the risk of infection and the reality of family separation. We explore in this article some psychological consequences resulting from the experience of residents and caregivers in the waning health crisis, hoping that the experience gained will allow greater efficiency in the event of a resumption of the pandemic. At the same time, we proposed to combine this point of view with the more ethical one, taking seriously a fundamental tendency towards ageism in Western societies and what they reflect from the social ethics of care. It is now important to declare a refusal to "return to the abnormal", this medical and ethical prehistory, such as suffered by many of our elders and their caregivers during confinement.

6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013587, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in substantial mortality. Some specialists proposed chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for treating or preventing the disease. The efficacy and safety of these drugs have been assessed in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for 1) treating people with COVID-19 on death and time to clearance of the virus; 2) preventing infection in people at risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure; 3) preventing infection in people exposed to SARS-CoV-2. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com), and the COVID-19-specific resources www.covid-nma.com and covid-19.cochrane.org, for studies of any publication status and in any language. We performed all searches up to 15 September 2020. We contacted researchers to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in people with COVID-19, people at risk of COVID-19 exposure, and people exposed to COVID-19. Adverse events (any, serious, and QT-interval prolongation on electrocardiogram) were also extracted. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed eligibility of search results, extracted data from the included studies, and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We contacted study authors for clarification and additional data for some studies. We used risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We performed meta-analysis using a random-effects model for outcomes where pooling of effect estimates was appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: 1. Treatment of COVID-19 disease We included 12 trials involving 8569 participants, all of whom were adults. Studies were from China (4); Brazil, Egypt, Iran, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and North America (each 1 study); and a global study in 30 countries (1 study). Nine were in hospitalized patients, and three from ambulatory care. Disease severity, prevalence of comorbidities, and use of co-interventions varied substantially between trials. We found potential risks of bias across all domains for several trials. Nine trials compared HCQ with standard care (7779 participants), and one compared HCQ with placebo (491 participants); dosing schedules varied. HCQ makes little or no difference to death due to any cause (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.19; 8208 participants; 9 trials; high-certainty evidence). A sensitivity analysis using modified intention-to-treat results from three trials did not influence the pooled effect estimate.  HCQ may make little or no difference to the proportion of people having negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on respiratory samples at day 14 from enrolment (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.10; 213 participants; 3 trials; low-certainty evidence). HCQ probably results in little to no difference in progression to mechanical ventilation (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.37; 4521 participants; 3 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). HCQ probably results in an almost three-fold increased risk of adverse events (RR 2.90, 95% CI 1.49 to 5.64; 1394 participants; 6 trials; moderate-certainty evidence), but may make little or no difference to the risk of serious adverse events (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.79; 1004 participants; 6 trials; low-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain about the effect of HCQ on time to clinical improvement or risk of prolongation of QT-interval on electrocardiogram (very low-certainty evidence). One trial (22 participants) randomized patients to CQ versus lopinavir/ritonavir, a drug with unknown efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, and did not report any difference for clinical recovery or adverse events. One trial compared HCQ combined with azithromycin against standard care (444 participants). This trial did not detect a difference in death, requirement for mechanical ventilation, length of hospital admission, or serious adverse events. A higher risk of adverse events was reported in the HCQ-and-azithromycin arm; this included QT-interval prolongation, when measured. One trial compared HCQ with febuxostat, another drug with unknown efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 (60 participants). There was no difference detected in risk of hospitalization or change in computed tomography (CT) scan appearance of the lungs; no deaths were reported. 2. Preventing COVID-19 disease in people at risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Ongoing trials are yet to report results for this objective. 3. Preventing COVID-19 disease in people who have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 One trial (821 participants) compared HCQ with placebo as a prophylactic agent in the USA (around 90% of participants) and Canada. Asymptomatic adults (66% healthcare workers; mean age 40 years; 73% without comorbidity) with a history of exposure to people with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited. We are very uncertain about the effect of HCQ on the primary outcomes, for which few events were reported: 20/821 (2.4%) developed confirmed COVID-19 at 14 days from enrolment, and 2/821 (0.2%) were hospitalized due to COVID-19 (very low-certainty evidence). HCQ probably increases the risk of adverse events compared with placebo (RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.83 to 3.11; 700 participants; 1 trial; moderate-certainty evidence). HCQ may result in little or no difference in serious adverse events (no RR: no participants experienced serious adverse events; low-certainty evidence). One cluster-randomized trial (2525 participants) compared HCQ with standard care for the prevention of COVID-19 in people with a history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in Spain. Most participants were working or residing in nursing homes; mean age was 49 years. There was no difference in the risk of symptomatic confirmed COVID-19 or production of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 between the two study arms. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: HCQ for people infected with COVID-19 has little or no effect on the risk of death and probably no effect on progression to mechanical ventilation. Adverse events are tripled compared to placebo, but very few serious adverse events were found. No further trials of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for treatment should be carried out. These results make it less likely that the drug is effective in protecting people from infection, although this is not excluded entirely. It is probably sensible to complete trials examining prevention of infection, and ensure these are carried out to a high standard to provide unambiguous results.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bias , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 664-671, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000860

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Since there is no study on burnout and job satisfaction in Slovenian nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study aims to analyse job satisfaction and burnout levels of healthcare professionals working in Slovenian nursing homes in rural areas during the COVID-19 pandemic, and make a comparison with the results of the same services in 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is based on a cross-organisational and descriptive quantitative study conducted in spring 2013 (n = 556) and spring 2020 at the peak of the pandemic in Eastern Europe (n = 781) to identify the relationships and the changes in the satisfaction and burnout levels of healthcare professionals working in Slovenian nursing homes in rural areas, and on a qualitative study conducted in 2020, to identify in-depth relationships and changes in both studies during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: An increase in burnout syndromes between 2013 - 2020 was observed. The respondents experienced intensified emotional exhaustion and lack of personal accomplishment during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, depersonalisation did not differ statistically over the years. During the pandemic crisis, healthcare workers were less satisfied with their job than in spring 2013. Their job satisfaction was related to satisfaction with the work of nursing homes and with the work of state institutions and politicians who directly affected their working conditions and recognition in society. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly exacerbated already existing burnout syndromes of nursing homes healthcare workers in Slovenian rural areas. Job satisfaction proved to be a relevant predictor of burnout syndrome. A negative correlation was observed between job satisfaction in 2020 and emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment in 2013 and 2020.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Job Satisfaction , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research
8.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(1): 199-203, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented challenge for nursing homes, where staff have faced rapidly evolving circumstances to care for a vulnerable resident population. Our objective was to document the experiences of these front-line health care professionals during the pandemic. DESIGN: Electronic survey of long-term care staff. This report summarizes qualitative data from open-ended questions for the subset of respondents working in nursing homes. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 152 nursing home staff from 32 states, including direct-care staff and administrators. METHODS: From May 11 through June 4, 2020, we used social media and professional networks to disseminate an electronic survey with closed- and open-ended questions to a convenience sample of long-term care staff. Four investigators identified themes from qualitative responses for staff working in nursing homes. RESULTS: Respondents described ongoing constraints on testing and continued reliance on crisis standards for extended use and reuse of personal protective equipment. Administrators discussed the burden of tracking and implementing sometimes confusing or contradictory guidance from numerous agencies. Direct-care staff expressed fears of infecting themselves and their families, and expressed sincere empathy and concern for their residents. They described experiencing burnout due to increased workloads, staffing shortages, and the emotional burden of caring for residents facing significant isolation, illness, and death. Respondents cited the presence or lack of organizational communication and teamwork as important factors influencing their ability to work under challenging circumstances. They also described the demoralizing impact of negative media coverage of nursing homes, contrasting this with the heroic public recognition given to hospital staff. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Nursing home staff described working under complex and stressful circumstances during the COVID-19 pandemic. These challenges have added significant burden to an already strained and vulnerable workforce and are likely to contribute to increased burnout, turnover, and staff shortages in the long term.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/nursing , Nurse's Role , Nurse-Patient Relations , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Turnover
9.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(145): 28-30, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806961

ABSTRACT

The health emergency linked to Covid-19 has been stressful for staff working in nursing home, and doubly painful for residents faced with the risk of infection and the reality of family separation. We explore in this article some psychological consequences resulting from their experience in the waning health crisis, hoping that the experience gained will allow greater efficiency in the event of a resumption of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Emergencies/psychology , Family Relations , Humans
10.
Farm Hosp ; 44(7): 43-48, 2020 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599564

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is having a devastating effect on the nursing homes for dependent older people. The difficulty of management of this crisis is aggravated by the frailty of the people served and by the specific characteristics of the care  area, mainly the fact of not being integrated into the health system. The  objective of this work is to describe the pharmaceutical care developed by a  hospital pharmacy service established in a nursing home and, from a more  global perspective, analyze the strengths and weaknesses found from the  various experiences of hospital pharmacy in all spanish autonomous  communities to deal with this pandemic. Specialized pharmaceutical care has  provided rigor in the validation and treatments review processes from a  comprehensive perspective, maximizing safety and collaborating in the  establishment of the therapeutic intensity degree most appropriate to the  individual situation, has ensured the availability of all necessary medications,  has collaborated in the acquisition and management of personal protective equipment, has been able to adapt the dispensation processes to the internal  nursing homes sectorization and has facilitated the coordination between the  nursing home and the health system. It is clear that the crisis casued by COVID- 19 has put relevance of the need to integrate the social-health level into the  health system. And also, the contribution of specialized pharmaceutical care in  improving healthcare coverage and coordination with health services has  highlighted the urgency of developing the current legislation, prioritizing the  establishment of pharmacy services able to provid specialized and specific care  for this area, so that it meets healthcare needs and is integrated into the health  system.


La pandemia COVID-19 está teniendo un efecto devastador en las residencias de personas mayores dependientes. La dificultad de la gestión de la crisis se ve  agravada por la fragilidad de las personas atendidas y por las propias  características del ámbito asistencial, principalmente el hecho de no estar  integrado en el sistema de salud. El objetivo del presente trabajo es describir la  atención farmacéutica especializada desarrollada por un servicio de farmacia  hospitalario establecido en un centro sociosanitario y, desde una perspectiva  más global, analizar las fortalezas y debilidades encontradas desde las diversas experiencias de la farmacia hospitalaria en el conjunto de comunidades autónomas para hacer frente a esta pandemia. La atención  farmacéutica especializada ha aportado rigor en los procesos de validación y  revisión de los tratamientos desde una perspectiva integral, maximizando la  seguridad y colaborando en el establecimiento del grado de intensidad  terapéutica más adecuado a la situación individual de la persona afectada, ha  asegurado la disponibilidad de todos los medicamentos necesarios, ha  colaborado en la adquisición y gestión de los equipos de protección individual, ha  sido capaz de adaptar los procesos de dispensación a la sectorización interna de las residencias y ha facilitado la coordinación entre la residencia y el sistema  de salud. Resulta evidente que la crisis provocada por la COVID-19 ha puesto de relevancia la necesidad de integrar el ámbito sociosanitario en el sistema de  salud. Y asimismo, la contribución de la atención farmacéutica especializada en  la mejora de la cobertura asistencial y de la coordinación con los servicios  sanitarios ha puesto de manifiesto la urgencia de desarrollar la legislación  vigente, priorizando el establecimiento de servicios de farmacia capaces de  proporcionar una atención especializada y específica para este ámbito  asistencial, de forma que cubra las necesidades asistenciales y quede integrada  en la estructura sanitaria.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Interactions , Female , Frail Elderly , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Medication Systems, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Polypharmacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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