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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013333, 2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Demodex blepharitis is a chronic condition commonly associated with recalcitrant dry eye symptoms though many people with Demodex mites are asymptomatic. The primary cause of this condition in humans is two types of Demodex mites: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. There are varying reports of the prevalence of Demodex blepharitis among adults, and it affects both men and women equally. While Demodex mites are commonly treated with tea tree oil, the effectiveness of tea tree oil for treating Demodex blepharitis is not well documented. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of tea tree oil on ocular Demodex infestation in people with Demodex blepharitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2019, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the databases on 18 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment with tea tree oil (or its components) versus another treatment or no treatment for people with Demodex blepharitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts and then full text of records to determine their eligibility. The review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using Covidence. A third review author resolved any conflicts at all stages. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (1124 eyes of 562 participants; 17 to 281 participants per study) from the US, Korea, China, Australia, Ireland, and Turkey. The RCTs compared some formulation of tea tree oil to another treatment or no treatment. Included participants were both men and women, ranging from 39 to 55 years of age. All RCTs were assessed at unclear or high risk of bias in one or more domains. We also identified two RCTs that are ongoing or awaiting publications. Data from three RCTs that reported a short-term mean change in the number of Demodex mites per eight eyelashes contributed to a meta-analysis. We are uncertain about the mean reduction for the groups that received the tea tree oil intervention (mean difference [MD] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24 to 1.16) at four to six weeks as compared to other interventions. Only one RCT reported data for long-term changes, which found that the group that received intense pulse light as the treatment had complete eradication of Demodex mites at three months. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. Three RCTs reported no evidence of a difference for participant reported symptoms measured on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) between the tea tree oil group and the group receiving other forms of intervention. Mean differences in these studies ranged from -10.54 (95% CI - 24.19, 3.11) to 3.40 (95% CI -0.70 7.50). We did not conduct a meta-analysis for this outcome given substantial statistical heterogeneity and graded the certainty of the evidence as low. One RCT provided information concerning visual acuity but did not provide sufficient data for between-group comparisons. The authors noted that mean habitual LogMAR visual acuity for all study participants improved post-treatment (mean LogMAR 1.16, standard deviation 0.26 at 4 weeks). We graded the certainty of evidence for this outcome as low. No RCTs provided data on mean change in number of cylindrical dandruff or the proportion of participants experiencing conjunctival injection or experiencing meibomian gland dysfunction. Three RCTs provided information on adverse events. One reported no adverse events. The other two described a total of six participants randomized to treatment with tea tree oil who experienced ocular irritation or discomfort that resolved with re-educating the patient on application techniques and continuing use of the tea tree oil. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current review suggests that there is uncertainty related to the effectiveness of 5% to 50% tea tree oil for the short-term treatment of Demodex blepharitis; however, if used, lower concentrations may be preferable in the eye care arena to avoid induced ocular irritation. Future studies should be better controlled, assess outcomes at long term (e.g. 10 to 12 weeks or beyond), account for patient compliance, and study the effects of different tea tree oil concentrations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Blepharitis/drug therapy , Mite Infestations/drug therapy , Tea Tree Oil/therapeutic use , Adult , Blepharitis/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mite Infestations/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Adv Integr Med ; 7(4): 218-221, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-896774

ABSTRACT

Oral doses of certain essential oils may reduce symptoms of acute respiratory infections of viral origin. It is likely that the commercially available essential oil capsules Myrtol® (a mixture of essential oils of eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus, sweet orange Citrus sinensis, myrtle Myrtus communis and lemon Citrus limonum) and Tavipec® (spike lavender Lavandula latifolia) could also provide mild to moderate symptom relief in patients with viral respiratory diseases. Myrtol® may also improve the course (duration and severity) of acute bronchitis of viral origin, in humans. Both products were well tolerated, with most of the mild to moderate side-effects affecting the gastrointestinal tract. This review found no research evidence describing the clinical effect of inhalation of essential oils for acute respiratory viral infections.


Clinical evidence from published clinical trials identified in this rapid review suggests that oral administration of blends of certain essential oils (EO) can reduce symptoms of acute respiratory infections of viral origin in humans, namely acute sinusitis and acute bronchitis.There is clinical evidence for orally administered Lavandula latifolia essential oil (Tavipec®) (n = 2) and a blend of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus sinensis, Myrtus communis and lemon Citrus limonum (Myrtol® and its successors GeloMyrtol® and GeloMyrtol®Forte) (n = 3) to reduce symptoms of acute sinusitis and acute bronchitis of viral origin(s) [[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]]. All five clinical trials relied mostly on (subjective) symptom scores to determine the treatment effect. Differences between treatment and placebo symptom scores in these clinical trials were statistically significant, although the differences in absolute numbers were small. Furthermore, clinical evidence suggests that Myrtol® is also able to improve the course (duration and severity) of acute bronchitis of viral origin, in humans [3,5].No clinical evidence was found on whether EO can also improve symptoms and/or course of other acute respiratory infections, like influenza or acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by viruses of the coronavirus class. Further clinical trials with these and other EO (or blends of EO), and other administration forms, like steam inhalation or personal inhalers, are warranted to further elucidate the potential of commonly available EOs in treating acute respiratory infections of viral origin, especially influenza and COVID-19.

3.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 59(9): 832-839, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082493

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on French Poison Control Centre (PCC) call characteristics. METHODS: Reported cases of xenobiotic exposures from 1 March to 30 April in 2018, 2019, and 2020 were extracted from the French National Database of Poisonings. The collected data included call, patient, and exposure characteristics for both general calls and for calls involving sentinel xenobiotic categories related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 2020 exposures were compared to 2018-2019 exposures by using simple logistic models in order to provide effect size with odds ratios. RESULTS: From March to April 2020, 32,182 exposures were reported to French PCCs with an overall increase of 5.6% compared to exposures in the same time frame in 2018-2019. A similar increase in calls was observed in non-epidemic and epidemic COVID-19 areas with an increase in calls from the public (+13.6%) while calls from health-professionals decreased (-7.5%). Despite the increase in exposures, the incidence of symptomatic exposures remained stable (-0.4%) with a decrease in severity (moderate/severe -17.2%). A significant increase in exposures to home cleaning products containing biocides, essential oils, and alcohol-based hand sanitizers (odds ratio >1.3, p < .0001) was observed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic altered calls to French PCCs with a small increase in calls during the study period and changes in the pattern of exposure. These changes possibly reflected the indirect consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic i.e., limited access to primary care, fear of contracting COVID-19 and anxiety related to home isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Poisoning/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 8(6): 437-451, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus has become a life-threatening disease and it is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This new strain of coronavirus is not completely understood and to date, there is no treatment for coronavirus. Traditional ayurvedic medicines, mainly essential oils and Chinese herbs, have always played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of several epidemics and pandemics. In the meantime, guidelines of the ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, yoga, unani, siddha and homoepathy) include a traditional medicinal treatment for flu and fever and also recommended to boost immunity to prevent the spread of coronavirus. It is not possible to find which essential oil will offer the best level of protection. However, it is likely to assume that some essential oils are likely to offer a measurable level of defense in the same way they do with many other known viruses. METHODS: Literature relevant to various essential oils having antiviral activity has been collected and compiled. Various nanocarriers of essential oils have also been stated. The database was collected using various search engines such as J-Gate, Google Scholar, Sci-Hub, PubMed, ScienceDirect, etc. Results: Essential oils contain active constituents such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, etc., which are responsible for their biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and many more. However, the use of essential oils has always been limited due to poor solubility, solvent toxicity, volatility and low solubility. Many nanotechnology based carriers especially, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion and microemulsion, etc. have been evidenced to overcome limitations associated with essential oils. CONCLUSION: Several essential oils possess potent antiviral activity and are characterized by fewer side effects and are safe for human use. The nanocarrier systems of these oils have proved the potential to treat viral and bacterial infections. Lay Summary: Current COVID-19 era demands traditional treatment for immunity boost up as support therapy. Traditional ayurvedic medicines, mainly essential oils and Chinese herbs, have always played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of several epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, authors have summarized various essential oils having antiviral activity in current manuscript. Various nanocarriers of essential oils have been reported. Essential oils contain active constituents such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, etc., which are responsible for their biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity. However, the use of essential oils has always been limited due to poor solubility, solvent toxicity, volatility and low solubility. Many nanotechnology based carriers especially, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion and microemulsion, etc. have been evidenced to overcome limitations associated with essential oils. The nanocarrier systems of these oils have proved the potential to treat viral and bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Nanocapsules/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Compounding , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Terpenes/chemistry
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(20)2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006216

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and the imposition of strict but necessary measures to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus have been, and still are, major stress factors for adults, children, and adolescents. Stress harms human health as it creates free radicals in the human body. According to various recent studies, volatile oils from various aromatic plants have a high content of antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. An external supply of antioxidants is required to destroy these free radicals. The main purpose of this paper is to create a yoghurt with high antioxidant capacity, using only raw materials from Romania; (2) Methods: The bioactive components used to enrich the cow milk yoghurt were extracted as volatile oils out of four aromatic plants: basil, mint, lavender and fennel. Initially, the compounds were extracted to determine the antioxidant capacity, and subsequently, the antioxidant activity of the yoghurt was determined. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhy-drazyl (DPPH) method was used to determine the antioxidant activity; (3) Results: The results show that cow milk yoghurt enhanced with volatile oils of basil, lavender, mint and fennel, encapsulated in sodium alginate has an antioxidant and antimicrobial effect as a staple food with multiple effects in increasing the body's immunity. The antioxidant activity proved to be considerably higher than the control sample. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained on the first day of the analysis, decreasing onwards to measurements taken on days 10 and 20. The cow milk yoghurt enriched with volatile basil oil obtained the best results; (4) Conclusions: The paper shows that yoghurts with a high antioxidant capacity were obtained, using only raw materials from Romania. A healthy diet, compliance with safety conditions and finding appropriate and safe methods to increase the body's immunity is a good alternative to a major transition through harder times, such as pandemics. The creation of food products that include natural antioxidant compounds combines both the current great possibility of developing food production in Romania and the prevention and reduction of the effects caused by pandemic stress in the human body.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Immune System , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Yogurt , Alginates , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Romania , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/immunology
6.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735

ABSTRACT

This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification
7.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609035

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a pandemic disease that has been declared as modern history's gravest health emergency worldwide. Until now, no precise treatment modality has been developed. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, a host cell receptor, has been found to play a crucial role in virus cell entry; therefore, ACE2 blockers can be a potential target for anti-viral intervention. In this study, we evaluated the ACE2 inhibitory effects of 10 essential oils. Among them, geranium and lemon oils displayed significant ACE2 inhibitory effects in epithelial cells. In addition, immunoblotting and qPCR analysis also confirmed that geranium and lemon oils possess potent ACE2 inhibitory effects. Furthermore, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis displayed 22 compounds in geranium oil and 9 compounds in lemon oil. Citronellol, geraniol, and neryl acetate were the major compounds of geranium oil and limonene that represented major compound of lemon oil. Next, we found that treatment with citronellol and limonene significantly downregulated ACE2 expression in epithelial cells. The results suggest that geranium and lemon essential oils and their derivative compounds are valuable natural anti-viral agents that may contribute to the prevention of the invasion of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 into the human body.

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