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1.
Exp Physiol ; 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807292

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Lactate is considered an important substrate for mitochondria in the muscles, heart and brain during exercise and is the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys. In this light, we review the (patho)physiology of lactate metabolism in sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). What advances does it highlight? Elevated blood lactate is strongly associated with mortality in septic patients. Lactate seems unrelated to tissue hypoxia but is likely to reflect mitochondrial dysfunction and high adrenergic stimulation. Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit near-normal blood lactate, indicating preserved mitochondrial function, despite a systemic hyperinflammatory state similar to sepsis. ABSTRACT: In critically ill patients, elevated plasma lactate is often interpreted as a sign of organ hypoperfusion and/or tissue hypoxia. This view on lactate is likely to have been influenced by the pioneering exercise physiologists around 1920. August Krogh identified an oxygen deficit at the onset of exercise that was later related to an oxygen 'debt' and lactate accumulation by A. V. Hill. Lactate is considered to be the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys during submaximal exercise, but hepatic elimination is attenuated by splanchnic vasoconstriction during high-intensity exercise, causing an exponential increase in blood lactate. With the development of stable isotope tracers, lactate has become established as an important energy source for muscle, brain and heart tissue, where it is used for mitochondrial respiration. Plasma lactate > 4 mM is strongly associated with mortality in septic shock, with no direct link between lactate release and tissue hypoxia. Herein, we provide evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction and adrenergic stimulation as explanations for the sepsis-induced hyperlactataemia. Despite profound hypoxaemia and intense work of breathing, patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rarely exhibit hyperlactataemia (> 2.5 mM), while presenting a systemic hyperinflammatory state much like sepsis. However, lactate dehydrogenase, which controls the formation of lactate, is markedly elevated in plasma and strongly associated with mortality in severe COVID-19. We briefly review the potential mechanisms of the lactate dehydrogenase elevation in COVID-19 and its relationship to lactate metabolism based on mechanisms established in contracting skeletal muscle and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

2.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 802-811, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented healthcare challenges, and COVID-19 has been linked to secondary infections. Candidemia, a fungal healthcare-associated infection, has been described in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. However, studies of candidemia and COVID-19 coinfection have been limited in sample size and geographic scope. We assessed differences in patients with candidemia with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-level analysis using population-based candidemia surveillance data collected through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program during April-August 2020 to compare characteristics of candidemia patients with and without a positive test for COVID-19 in the 30 days before their Candida culture using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Of the 251 candidemia patients included, 64 (25.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Liver disease, solid-organ malignancies, and prior surgeries were each >3 times more common in patients without COVID-19 coinfection, whereas intensive care unit-level care, mechanical ventilation, having a central venous catheter, and receipt of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants were each >1.3 times more common in patients with COVID-19. All-cause in-hospital fatality was 2 times higher among those with COVID-19 (62.5%) than without (32.1%). CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of candidemia patients had COVID-19. These patients were less likely to have certain underlying conditions and recent surgery commonly associated with candidemia and more likely to have acute risk factors linked to COVID-19 care, including immunosuppressive medications. Given the high mortality, it is important for clinicians to remain vigilant and take proactive measures to prevent candidemia in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Candidemia/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(11): 2419-2422, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682642

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new coronavirus SARS-COV2 that can be complicated by acute distress respiratory syndrome and multiorgan failure. In light of the high rate of mortality associated with COVID-19, pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to prevent the infection are currently being tested. Among non-pharmacological preventive measures, vaccines represent one of the main resources for public health. It has been suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine may protect individuals against infection from COVID-19 virus, and two clinical trials addressing this question are underway. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman, vaccinated with BCG when she was 1 year old, who was diagnosed with apical tuberculous pneumonia of the right lung along with COVID 19 pneumonia.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 144-148, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621566

ABSTRACT

We are learning that the host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2) infection is complex and highly dynamic. Effective initial host defense in the lung is associated with mild symptoms and disease resolution. Viral evasion of the immune response can lead to refractory alveolar damage, ineffective lung repair mechanisms, and systemic inflammation with associated organ dysfunction. The immune response in these patients is highly variable and can include moderate to severe systemic inflammation and/or marked systemic immune suppression. There is unlikely to be a "one size fits all" approach to immunomodulation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We believe that a personalized, immunophenotype-driven approach to immunomodulation that may include anticytokine therapy in carefully selected patients and immunostimulatory therapies in others is the shortest path to success in the study and treatment of patients with critical illness due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunomodulation , Precision Medicine , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Immunity , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Allergy ; 77(1): 118-129, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can present with lymphopenia and extraordinary complex multiorgan pathologies that can trigger long-term sequela. AIMS: Given that inflammasome products, like caspase-1, play a role in the pathophysiology of a number of co-morbid conditions, we investigated caspases across the spectrum of COVID-19 disease. MATERIALS & METHODS: We assessed transcriptional states of multiple caspases and using flow cytometry, the expression of active caspase-1 in blood cells from COVID-19 patients in acute and convalescent stages of disease. Non-COVID-19 subject presenting with various comorbid conditions served as controls. RESULTS: Single-cell RNA-seq data of immune cells from COVID-19 patients showed a distinct caspase expression pattern in T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and eosinophils compared with controls. Caspase-1 was upregulated in CD4+ T-cells from hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared with unexposed controls. Post-COVID-19 patients with lingering symptoms (long-haulers) also showed upregulated caspase-1activity in CD4+ T-cells that ex vivo was attenuated with a select pan-caspase inhibitor. We observed elevated caspase-3/7levels in red blood cells from COVID-19 patients compared with controls that was reduced following caspase inhibition. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary results suggest an exuberant caspase response in COVID-19 that may facilitate immune-related pathological processes leading to severe outcomes. Further clinical correlations of caspase expression in different stages of COVID-19 will be needed. CONCLUSION: Pan-caspase inhibition could emerge as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate or prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caspase Inhibitors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1 , Caspase 3 , Caspase 7 , Caspase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Caspases/genetics , Humans
7.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(1): 7-11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581406

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that COVID-19 not only affects the lungs but beyond that the endothelial system. Recent studies showed that this can lead to microcirculatory impairments and in consequence to functional disorders of all inner organs. The combination of endothelial dysfunction with a generalized inflammatory state and complement elements may together contribute to the overall pro-coagulative state described in COVID-19 patients leading to venular as well as to arteriolar occlusions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Angiogenesis ; 24(3): 677-693, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549443

ABSTRACT

Endothelial barrier disruption and vascular leak importantly contribute to organ dysfunction and mortality during inflammatory conditions like sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We identified the kinase Arg/Abl2 as a mediator of endothelial barrier disruption, but the role of Arg in endothelial monolayer regulation and its relevance in vivo remain poorly understood. Here we show that depletion of Arg in endothelial cells results in the activation of both RhoA and Rac1, increased cell spreading and elongation, redistribution of integrin-dependent cell-matrix adhesions to the cell periphery, and improved adhesion to the extracellular matrix. We further show that Arg is activated in the endothelium during inflammation, both in murine lungs exposed to barrier-disruptive agents, and in pulmonary microvessels of septic patients. Importantly, Arg-depleted endothelial cells were less sensitive to barrier-disruptive agents. Despite the formation of F-actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, Arg depletion diminished adherens junction disruption and intercellular gap formation, by reducing the disassembly of cell-matrix adhesions and cell retraction. In vivo, genetic deletion of Arg diminished vascular leak in the skin and lungs, in the presence of a normal immune response. Together, our data indicate that Arg is a central and non-redundant regulator of endothelial barrier integrity, which contributes to cell retraction and gap formation by increasing the dynamics of adherens junctions and cell-matrix adhesions in a Rho GTPase-dependent fashion. Therapeutic inhibition of Arg may provide a suitable strategy for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions characterized by vascular leak.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Gap Junctions/enzymology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/enzymology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/enzymology , Animals , Cell Adhesion/genetics , Enzyme Activation , Extracellular Matrix/genetics , Gap Junctions/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/enzymology , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526823

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leads to 5% to 16% hospitalization in intensive care units (ICU) and is associated with 23% to 75% of kidney impairments, including acute kidney injury (AKI). The current work aims to precisely characterize the renal impairment associated to SARS-CoV-2 in ICU patients. Forty-two patients consecutively admitted to the ICU of a French university hospital who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 25 March 2020, and 29 April 2020, were included and classified in categories according to their renal function. Complete renal profiles and evolution during ICU stay were fully characterized in 34 patients. Univariate analyses were performed to determine risk factors associated with AKI. In a second step, we conducted a logistic regression model with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analyses to assess major comorbidities as predictors of AKI. Thirty-two patients (94.1%) met diagnostic criteria for intrinsic renal injury with a mixed pattern of tubular and glomerular injuries within the first week of ICU admission, which lasted upon discharge. During their ICU stay, 24 patients (57.1%) presented AKI which was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.007), hemodynamic failure (p = 0.022), and more altered clearance at hospital discharge (p = 0.001). AKI occurrence was associated with lower pH (p = 0.024), higher PaCO2 (CO2 partial pressure in the arterial blood) (p = 0.027), PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) (p = 0.027), procalcitonin (p = 0.015), and CRP (C-reactive protein) (p = 0.045) on ICU admission. AKI was found to be independently associated with chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR (odd ratio) 5.97 (2.1-19.69), p = 0.00149). Critical SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent intrinsic renal injury and AKI, which is a risk factor of mortality. Mechanical ventilation settings seem to be a critical factor of kidney impairment.

10.
Histol Histopathol ; 36(9): 947-965, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513241

ABSTRACT

Infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to multi-organ failure associated with a cytokine storm and septic shock. The virus evades the mitochondrial production of interferons through its N protein and, from that moment on, it hijacks the functions of these organelles. The aim of this study was to show how the virus kidnaps the mitochondrial machinery for its benefit and survival, leading to alterations of serum parameters and to nitrosative stress (NSS). In a prospective cohort of 15 postmortem patients who died from COVID-19, six markers of mitochondrial function (COX II, COX IV, MnSOD, nitrotyrosine, Bcl-2 and caspase-9) were analyzed by the immune colloidal gold technique in samples from the lung, heart, and liver. Biometric laboratory results from these patients showed alterations in hemoglobin, platelets, creatinine, urea nitrogen, glucose, C-reactive protein, albumin, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrinogen, Ca²âº, K⁺, lactate and troponin. These changes were associated with alterations in the mitochondrial structure and function. The multi-organ dysfunction present in COVID-19 patients may be caused, in part, by damage to the mitochondria that results in an inflammatory state that contributes to NSS, which activates the sepsis cascade and results in increased mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , Nitrosative Stress/physiology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Nucl Med ; 62(11): 1631-1637, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496930

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-specific, peptide-derived 68Ga-labeled radiotracers, motivated by the hypotheses that ACE2 is an important determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility and that modulation of ACE2 in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) drives severe organ injury. Methods: A series of NOTA-conjugated peptides derived from the known ACE2 inhibitor DX600 were synthesized, with variable linker identity. Since DX600 bears 2 cystine residues, both linear and cyclic peptides were studied. An ACE2 inhibition assay was used to identify lead compounds, which were labeled with 68Ga to generate peptide radiotracers (68Ga-NOTA-PEP). The aminocaproate-derived radiotracer 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 was subsequently studied in a humanized ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic model. Results: Cyclic DX-600-derived peptides had markedly lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations than their linear counterparts. The 3 cyclic peptides with triglycine, aminocaproate, and polyethylene glycol linkers had calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations similar to or lower than the parent DX600 molecule. Peptides were readily labeled with 68Ga, and the biodistribution of 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 was determined in an hACE2 transgenic murine cohort. Pharmacologic concentrations of coadministered NOTA-PEP (blocking) showed a significant reduction of 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 signals in the heart, liver, lungs, and small intestine. Ex vivo hACE2 activity in these organs was confirmed as a correlate to in vivo results. Conclusion: NOTA-conjugated cyclic peptides derived from the known ACE2 inhibitor DX600 retain their activity when N-conjugated for 68Ga chelation. In vivo studies in a transgenic hACE2 murine model using the lead tracer, 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4, showed specific binding in the heart, liver, lungs and intestine-organs known to be affected in SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 could be used to detect organ-specific suppression of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-infected murine models and COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Gallium Radioisotopes/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic , Animals , Male , Mice , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tissue Distribution
12.
Viral Immunol ; 34(6): 416-420, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has infected millions of individuals in the world. However, the long-term effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the organs of recovered patients remains unclear. This study is to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the spleen and T lymphocytes. Seventy-six patients recovered from COVID-19, including 66 cases of moderate pneumonia and 10 cases of severe pneumonia were enrolled in the observation group. The control group consisted of 55 age-matched healthy subjects. The thickness and length of spleen were measured by using B-ultrasound and the levels of T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that the mean length of spleen in the observation group was 89.57 ± 11.49 mm, which was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (103.82 ± 11.29 mm, p < 0.001). The mean thicknesses of spleen between observation group and control group were 29.97 ± 4.04 mm and 32.45 ± 4.49 mm, respectively, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in the size of spleen between common pneumonia and severe pneumonia (p > 0.05). In addition, the decreased count of T lymphocyte was observed in part of recovered patients. The counts of T suppressor lymphocytes in patients with severe pneumonia were significantly decreased compared with those with moderate pneumonia (p = 0.005). Therefore, these data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the size of spleen and T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(19): 3864-3868, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402887

ABSTRACT

Sepsis induced by bacteria or viruses can result in multiorgan dysfunction, which is a major cause of death in intensive care units. Current treatments are only supportive, and there are no treatments that reverse the pathophysiological effects of sepsis. Vitamin C has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and immune modulatory actions, so it is a rational treatment for sepsis. Here, we summarise data that support the use of megadose vitamin C as a treatment for sepsis and COVID-19. Megadose intravenous sodium ascorbate (150 g per 40 kg over 7 h) dramatically improved the clinical state and cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic and renal function and decreased body temperature, in a clinically relevant ovine model of Gram-negative bacteria-induced sepsis. In a critically ill COVID-19 patient, intravenous sodium ascorbate (60 g) restored arterial pressure, improved renal function and increased arterial blood oxygen levels. These findings suggest that megadose vitamin C should be trialled as a treatment for sepsis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Animals , Ascorbic Acid , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sheep
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110396, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386308

ABSTRACT

We have reviewed a considerable amount of recent scientific papers relating inflammation caused by air pollution with chronic and severe medical conditions. Furthermore, there are evidences relating organ inflammation caused by not only outdoor long-term but also short-term inhaled radioisotopes contained in high polluted air or in household natural radioactive background aerosols, in addition to SARS-COV-2 attached to bioaerosols, which are related with a worst evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the interaction with environmental ionizing radiation contained in pollution is pointed out as a critical mechanism that predispose mainly to elder population, but not excluding young subjects, presenting previous chronic conditions of lung inflammation or neuroinflammation, which can lead to the most serious consequences.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Radioactive/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , Climate Change , Inflammation/etiology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Causality , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammasomes/radiation effects , Models, Biological , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Pneumonia/etiology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389391

ABSTRACT

Endotoxin removal therapy with polymyxin B immobilized fiber column (PMX) has been clinically applied for sepsis and septic shock patients since 1994. The effectiveness and usefulness of this therapy have been demonstrated for more than a quarter of a century. However, a documented survival benefit has not yet been demonstrable in a large, multicenter, randomized and controlled trial. Following the findings derived from a large sepsis clinical trial with PMX in North America, a new trial is ongoing to determine if PMX has a long-term survival benefit when administered to septic patients. Another approach to support a survival benefit from intervention with PMX is to utilize a detailed analysis available from a large clinical data base. The endotoxin adsorption capacity of PMX columns in vitro and the effectiveness of PMX columns can be further demonstrable in animal models. The capability of PMX and details of its mechanism of action to intervene in the sepsis cascade and impede organ dysfunction in septic patients is not fully understood. The surface antigen expression in monocytes and neutrophils are improved after PMX therapy. Immunomodulatory effects as a result of endotoxin removal and/or other mechanisms of action have been suggested. These effects and other potential immune effects may explain some of the improved effects upon organ dysfunction of sepsis and septic shock patients. Endotoxemia may be involved in the pathophysiology of other diseases than sepsis. A rapid diagnostic method to detect and target endotoxemia could allow us to practice precision medicine and expand the clinical indications of endotoxin removal therapy.


Subject(s)
Cotton Fiber , Endotoxins/blood , Endotoxins/isolation & purification , Hemoperfusion/methods , Immobilization/methods , Polymyxin B/chemistry , Sepsis/therapy , Shock, Septic/therapy , Adsorption , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Endotoxemia/blood , Endotoxemia/therapy , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Immobilization/instrumentation , Sepsis/blood , Shock, Septic/blood
17.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(1): 81-91, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the lung is seen as the main target organ affected by SARS-CoV-2, other organs are also damaged. AIM: We aimed to determine the extrapulmonary findings of autopsies performed on cases with positive results with postmortem polymerase chain reaction test. METHODS: Pathological changes in extrapulmonary organs were examined with light microscopy. RESULTS: Heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, and central nervous system samples of these cases were evaluated. About 80% of the cases were men, and 20% were women. In the examination of heart, 28 of the cases had scar, 14 had acute myocardial infarction, 6 had acute and previous myocardial infarction findings, 2 had myocarditis, and 4 had interstitial mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. In the examination of the liver, portal inflammation was observed in 84 of the cases, steatosis in 54, centrilobular necrosis in 9, and capillary endotheliitis in the portal area in 7 of them. In the evaluation of the kidney, 37 cases had chronic pyelonephritis, 36 had tubular damage, 15 had tubulointerstitial necrosis, 16 had subcapsular microhemorrhage, 10 had capillary endothelitis, and 9 had a microvascular fibrin trombosis in their glomerular capillaries. In the central nervous system, 8 cases had infarction and liquefaction, 56 had perivascular petechial hemorrhage, 54 had acute hypoxic ischemic change, 3 had parenchymal microhemorrhage, and 52 had capillary endotheliitis. CONCLUSION: Autopsies play an important role in systematically examining the damage caused by the virus in all organs in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to the clinical management of infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Spleen
18.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(5): 667-678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369589

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is the main cause of death in critically ill patients with no effective treatment. Sepsis is lifethreatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. As a novel medical gas, molecular hydrogen (H2) has a therapeutic effect on many diseases, such as sepsis. H2 treatment exerts multiple biological effects, which can effectively improve multiple organ injuries caused by sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hydrogen involved in the treatment of sepsis remain elusive, which are likely related to anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, regulation of autophagy and multiple signaling pathways. This review can help better understand the progress of hydrogen in the treatment of sepsis, and provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of hydrogen therapy in sepsis in the future.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagy , Cell Death , Humans , Hydrogen/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy
19.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367728

ABSTRACT

The article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors and editor of the journal Current Diabetes Reviews, due to incoherent content.Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused.The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policies-main.php. BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submit-ting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.

20.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 9(7): e1726, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a mostly autosomal recessive, genetic disease of abnormal motile cilia function, resulting in bronchiectasis, infertility, organ laterality defects, and chronic otolaryngology disease. Though motile, ependymal cilia influencing cerebrospinal fluid flow in the central nervous system share many aspects of structure and function with motile cilia in the respiratory tract, hydrocephalus is rarely associated with PCD. Recently, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 (Chr 17q25.1) were identified causing PCD associated with hydrocephalus, reduced respiratory cilia number, axonemal microtubule disorganization, and occurring in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. METHOD: Two patients with chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease and hydrocephalus underwent candidate testing of FOXJ1. Coding region and splice junctions were sequenced and analyzed under the auspices of Genetic Disorders of Mucociliary Clearance Consortium. RESULTS: Upon sequencing of the entire coding region and splice-junctions, heterozygous, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 were discovered in exon 3 of two patients: an 11-month-old female with situs inversus totalis (NM_001454.4: c.945delC (p.Phe315Leufs*18)) and a 51 year-old male, post-double lung transplantation (NM_001454.4: c.929_932delACTG (p.Asp310Glyfs*22)). FOXJ1 variants were not detected in the available parents and the siblings of these probands. CONCLUSION: FOXJ1 pathogenic variants cause PCD in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and are associated with hydrocephalus. Physicians treating patients with hydrocephalus and chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease should be aware of this PCD association and test for FOXJ1 variants.


Subject(s)
Ciliary Motility Disorders/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Hydrocephalus/genetics , Ciliary Motility Disorders/pathology , Female , Genes, Dominant , Humans , Hydrocephalus/pathology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phenotype
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