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1.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Angiogenesis ; 24(3): 677-693, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549443

ABSTRACT

Endothelial barrier disruption and vascular leak importantly contribute to organ dysfunction and mortality during inflammatory conditions like sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We identified the kinase Arg/Abl2 as a mediator of endothelial barrier disruption, but the role of Arg in endothelial monolayer regulation and its relevance in vivo remain poorly understood. Here we show that depletion of Arg in endothelial cells results in the activation of both RhoA and Rac1, increased cell spreading and elongation, redistribution of integrin-dependent cell-matrix adhesions to the cell periphery, and improved adhesion to the extracellular matrix. We further show that Arg is activated in the endothelium during inflammation, both in murine lungs exposed to barrier-disruptive agents, and in pulmonary microvessels of septic patients. Importantly, Arg-depleted endothelial cells were less sensitive to barrier-disruptive agents. Despite the formation of F-actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, Arg depletion diminished adherens junction disruption and intercellular gap formation, by reducing the disassembly of cell-matrix adhesions and cell retraction. In vivo, genetic deletion of Arg diminished vascular leak in the skin and lungs, in the presence of a normal immune response. Together, our data indicate that Arg is a central and non-redundant regulator of endothelial barrier integrity, which contributes to cell retraction and gap formation by increasing the dynamics of adherens junctions and cell-matrix adhesions in a Rho GTPase-dependent fashion. Therapeutic inhibition of Arg may provide a suitable strategy for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions characterized by vascular leak.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Gap Junctions/enzymology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/enzymology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/enzymology , Animals , Cell Adhesion/genetics , Enzyme Activation , Extracellular Matrix/genetics , Gap Junctions/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/enzymology , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics
3.
J Nucl Med ; 62(11): 1631-1637, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496930

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-specific, peptide-derived 68Ga-labeled radiotracers, motivated by the hypotheses that ACE2 is an important determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility and that modulation of ACE2 in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) drives severe organ injury. Methods: A series of NOTA-conjugated peptides derived from the known ACE2 inhibitor DX600 were synthesized, with variable linker identity. Since DX600 bears 2 cystine residues, both linear and cyclic peptides were studied. An ACE2 inhibition assay was used to identify lead compounds, which were labeled with 68Ga to generate peptide radiotracers (68Ga-NOTA-PEP). The aminocaproate-derived radiotracer 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 was subsequently studied in a humanized ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic model. Results: Cyclic DX-600-derived peptides had markedly lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations than their linear counterparts. The 3 cyclic peptides with triglycine, aminocaproate, and polyethylene glycol linkers had calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations similar to or lower than the parent DX600 molecule. Peptides were readily labeled with 68Ga, and the biodistribution of 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 was determined in an hACE2 transgenic murine cohort. Pharmacologic concentrations of coadministered NOTA-PEP (blocking) showed a significant reduction of 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 signals in the heart, liver, lungs, and small intestine. Ex vivo hACE2 activity in these organs was confirmed as a correlate to in vivo results. Conclusion: NOTA-conjugated cyclic peptides derived from the known ACE2 inhibitor DX600 retain their activity when N-conjugated for 68Ga chelation. In vivo studies in a transgenic hACE2 murine model using the lead tracer, 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4, showed specific binding in the heart, liver, lungs and intestine-organs known to be affected in SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 could be used to detect organ-specific suppression of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-infected murine models and COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Gallium Radioisotopes/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic , Animals , Male , Mice , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tissue Distribution
4.
Viral Immunol ; 34(6): 416-420, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has infected millions of individuals in the world. However, the long-term effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the organs of recovered patients remains unclear. This study is to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the spleen and T lymphocytes. Seventy-six patients recovered from COVID-19, including 66 cases of moderate pneumonia and 10 cases of severe pneumonia were enrolled in the observation group. The control group consisted of 55 age-matched healthy subjects. The thickness and length of spleen were measured by using B-ultrasound and the levels of T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that the mean length of spleen in the observation group was 89.57 ± 11.49 mm, which was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (103.82 ± 11.29 mm, p < 0.001). The mean thicknesses of spleen between observation group and control group were 29.97 ± 4.04 mm and 32.45 ± 4.49 mm, respectively, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in the size of spleen between common pneumonia and severe pneumonia (p > 0.05). In addition, the decreased count of T lymphocyte was observed in part of recovered patients. The counts of T suppressor lymphocytes in patients with severe pneumonia were significantly decreased compared with those with moderate pneumonia (p = 0.005). Therefore, these data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the size of spleen and T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110396, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386308

ABSTRACT

We have reviewed a considerable amount of recent scientific papers relating inflammation caused by air pollution with chronic and severe medical conditions. Furthermore, there are evidences relating organ inflammation caused by not only outdoor long-term but also short-term inhaled radioisotopes contained in high polluted air or in household natural radioactive background aerosols, in addition to SARS-COV-2 attached to bioaerosols, which are related with a worst evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the interaction with environmental ionizing radiation contained in pollution is pointed out as a critical mechanism that predispose mainly to elder population, but not excluding young subjects, presenting previous chronic conditions of lung inflammation or neuroinflammation, which can lead to the most serious consequences.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Radioactive/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , Climate Change , Inflammation/etiology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Causality , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammasomes/radiation effects , Models, Biological , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Pneumonia/etiology
6.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(1): 81-91, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the lung is seen as the main target organ affected by SARS-CoV-2, other organs are also damaged. AIM: We aimed to determine the extrapulmonary findings of autopsies performed on cases with positive results with postmortem polymerase chain reaction test. METHODS: Pathological changes in extrapulmonary organs were examined with light microscopy. RESULTS: Heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, and central nervous system samples of these cases were evaluated. About 80% of the cases were men, and 20% were women. In the examination of heart, 28 of the cases had scar, 14 had acute myocardial infarction, 6 had acute and previous myocardial infarction findings, 2 had myocarditis, and 4 had interstitial mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. In the examination of the liver, portal inflammation was observed in 84 of the cases, steatosis in 54, centrilobular necrosis in 9, and capillary endotheliitis in the portal area in 7 of them. In the evaluation of the kidney, 37 cases had chronic pyelonephritis, 36 had tubular damage, 15 had tubulointerstitial necrosis, 16 had subcapsular microhemorrhage, 10 had capillary endothelitis, and 9 had a microvascular fibrin trombosis in their glomerular capillaries. In the central nervous system, 8 cases had infarction and liquefaction, 56 had perivascular petechial hemorrhage, 54 had acute hypoxic ischemic change, 3 had parenchymal microhemorrhage, and 52 had capillary endotheliitis. CONCLUSION: Autopsies play an important role in systematically examining the damage caused by the virus in all organs in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to the clinical management of infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Spleen
7.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367728

ABSTRACT

The article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors and editor of the journal Current Diabetes Reviews, due to incoherent content.Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused.The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policies-main.php. BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submit-ting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.

8.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 9(7): e1726, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a mostly autosomal recessive, genetic disease of abnormal motile cilia function, resulting in bronchiectasis, infertility, organ laterality defects, and chronic otolaryngology disease. Though motile, ependymal cilia influencing cerebrospinal fluid flow in the central nervous system share many aspects of structure and function with motile cilia in the respiratory tract, hydrocephalus is rarely associated with PCD. Recently, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 (Chr 17q25.1) were identified causing PCD associated with hydrocephalus, reduced respiratory cilia number, axonemal microtubule disorganization, and occurring in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. METHOD: Two patients with chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease and hydrocephalus underwent candidate testing of FOXJ1. Coding region and splice junctions were sequenced and analyzed under the auspices of Genetic Disorders of Mucociliary Clearance Consortium. RESULTS: Upon sequencing of the entire coding region and splice-junctions, heterozygous, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 were discovered in exon 3 of two patients: an 11-month-old female with situs inversus totalis (NM_001454.4: c.945delC (p.Phe315Leufs*18)) and a 51 year-old male, post-double lung transplantation (NM_001454.4: c.929_932delACTG (p.Asp310Glyfs*22)). FOXJ1 variants were not detected in the available parents and the siblings of these probands. CONCLUSION: FOXJ1 pathogenic variants cause PCD in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and are associated with hydrocephalus. Physicians treating patients with hydrocephalus and chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease should be aware of this PCD association and test for FOXJ1 variants.


Subject(s)
Ciliary Motility Disorders/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Hydrocephalus/genetics , Ciliary Motility Disorders/pathology , Female , Genes, Dominant , Humans , Hydrocephalus/pathology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phenotype
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 68-75, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and has the ability to damage multiple organs. However, information on serum SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (RNAemia) in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. METHODS: Patients who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were tested for SARS-COV-2 RNA in serum from 28 January 2020 to 9 February 2020. Demographic data, laboratory and radiological findings, comorbidities, and outcomes data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were included in the analysis. The viral load of throat swabs was significantly higher than of serum samples. The highest detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum samples was between 11 and 15 days after symptom onset. Analysis to compare patients with and without RNAemia provided evidence that computed tomography and some laboratory biomarkers (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, hypersensitive troponin I, and D-dimer) were abnormal and that the extent of these abnormalities was generally higher in patients with RNAemia than in patients without RNAemia. Organ damage (respiratory failure, cardiac damage, renal damage, and coagulopathy) was more common in patients with RNAemia than in patients without RNAemia. Patients with vs without RNAemia had shorter durations from serum testing SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The mortality rate was higher among patients with vs without RNAemia. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provide evidence to support that SARS-CoV-2 may have an important role in multiple organ damage. Our evidence suggests that RNAemia has a significant association with higher risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Cohort Studies , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
IUBMB Life ; 73(8): 1005-1015, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291220

ABSTRACT

The kidney is one of the main targets attacked by viruses in patients with a coronavirus infection. Until now, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the seventh member of the coronavirus family capable of infecting humans. In the past two decades, humankind has experienced outbreaks triggered by two other extremely infective members of the coronavirus family; the MERS-CoV and the SARS-CoV. According to several investigations, SARS-CoV causes proteinuria and renal impairment or failure. The SARS-CoV was identified in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney of infected patients. Also, renal dysfunction was observed in numerous cases of MERS-CoV infection. And recently, during the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it was found that the novel coronavirus not only induces acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but also can induce damages in various organs including the liver, heart, and kidney. The kidney tissue and its cells are targeted massively by the coronaviruses due to the abundant presence of ACE2 and Dpp4 receptors on kidney cells. These receptors are characterized as the main route of coronavirus entry to the victim cells. Renal failure due to massive viral invasion can lead to undesirable complications and enhanced mortality rate, thus more attention should be paid to the pathology of coronaviruses in the kidney. Here, we have provided the most recent knowledge on the coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, and COVID19) pathology and the mechanisms of their impact on the kidney tissue and functions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Viral Tropism/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis
11.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 836-846, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275907

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is frequently accompanied by dysfunction of the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. However, the organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and the port of virus entry for systemic dissemination remain largely unknown. We profiled 26 COVID-19 autopsy cases from four cohorts in Wuhan, China, and determined the systemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the lungs and multiple extrapulmonary organs of critically ill COVID-19 patients up to 67 days after symptom onset. Based on organotropism and pathological features of the patients, COVID-19 was divided into viral intrapulmonary and systemic subtypes. In patients with systemic viral distribution, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at blood-air barrier, blood-testis barrier, and filtration barrier. Critically ill patients with long disease duration showed decreased pulmonary cell proliferation, reduced viral RNA, and marked fibrosis in the lungs. Permanent SARS-CoV-2 presence and tissue injuries in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs suggest direct viral invasion as a mechanism of pathogenicity in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2 may hijack monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at physiological barriers as the ports of entry for systemic dissemination. Our study thus delineates systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which sheds light on the development of novel COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
12.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 273-298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262578

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 sepsis is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a consequence of pulmonary tropism of the virus and endothelial heterogeneity of the host. ARDS is a phenotype among patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to disseminated vascular microthrombotic disease (VMTD). In response to the viral septicemia, the host activates the complement system which produces terminal complement complex C5b-9 to neutralize pathogen. C5b-9 causes pore formation on the membrane of host endothelial cells (ECs) if CD59 is underexpressed. Also, viral S protein attraction to endothelial ACE2 receptor damages ECs. Both affect ECs and provoke endotheliopathy. Disseminated endotheliopathy activates two molecular pathways: inflammatory and microthrombotic. The former releases inflammatory cytokines from ECs, which lead to inflammation. The latter initiates endothelial exocytosis of unusually large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers and FVIII from Weibel-Palade bodies. If ADAMTS13 is insufficient, ULVWF multimers activate intravascular hemostasis of ULVWF path. In activated ULVWF path, ULVWF multimers anchored to damaged endothelial cells recruit circulating platelets and trigger microthrombogenesis. This process produces "microthrombi strings" composed of platelet-ULVWF complexes, leading to endotheliopathy-associated VMTD (EA-VMTD). In COVID-19, microthrombosis initially affects the lungs per tropism causing ARDS, but EA-VMTD may orchestrate more complex clinical phenotypes, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-like syndrome, hepatic coagulopathy, MODS and combined micro-macrothrombotic syndrome. In this pandemic, ARDS and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) have often coexisted. The analysis based on two hemostatic theories supports ARDS caused by activated ULVWF path is EA-VMTD and PTE caused by activated ULVWF and TF paths is macrothrombosis. The thrombotic disorder of COVID-19 sepsis is consistent with the notion that ARDS is virus-induced disseminated EA-VMTD and PTE is in-hospital vascular injury-related macrothrombosis which is not directly  related to viral pathogenesis. The pathogenesis-based therapeutic approach is discussed for the treatment of EA-VMTD with antimicrothrombotic regimen and the potential need of anticoagulation therapy for coinciding macrothrombosis in comprehensive COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hemostasis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Phenotype , Sepsis/metabolism , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/metabolism
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25865, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262271

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. It involves multiple organs of infected individuals and encompasses diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of acute optic neuritis (ON) associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody possibly induced by COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old man presented to our clinic with left eye pain and vision loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed the bilateral high intensity of the optic nerve sheaths. He tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the day of admission but he had no signs of respiratory illness. Laboratory testing revealed that MOG immunoglobulin G (MOG IgG) was positive, but other antibodies including aquaporin-4 were negative. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive acute ON possibly induced by COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Steroid pulse therapy consisting of methylprednisolone 1 g/day for a total of 3 days, followed by an oral prednisolone taper was performed. OUTCOMES: His left eye pain was immediately relieved, and his decimal vision improved from 0.03 to 0.1 on the day of discharge. Outpatient follow-up 2 weeks later revealed left a decimal vision of 1.2, and a complete resolution of the left eye pain. LESSONS: Our case indicated that COVID-19 might trigger an autoimmune response that leads to MOG antibody-associated ON, similar to other pathogens that were reported in the past. The treatment response to steroid pulse therapy was preferable following a typical course of MOG antibody-positive ON.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Optic Neuritis/immunology , Autoantibodies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 42, 2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261993

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) involves a multitude of host responses, yet how they unfold during the course of disease progression remains unclear. Here, through integrative analysis of clinical laboratory tests, targeted proteomes, and transcriptomes of 963 patients in Shanghai, we delineate the dynamics of multiple circulatory factors within the first 30 days post-illness onset and during convalescence. We show that hypercortisolemia represents one of the probable causes of acute lymphocytopenia at the onset of severe/critical conditions. Comparison of the transcriptomes of the bronchoalveolar microenvironment and peripheral blood indicates alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, and monocytes in lungs as the potential main sources of elevated cytokines mediating systemic immune responses and organ damages. In addition, the transcriptomes of patient blood cells are characterized by distinct gene regulatory networks and alternative splicing events. Our study provides a panorama of the host responses in COVID-19, which may serve as the basis for developing further diagnostics and therapy.

15.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 14: 621-629, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256179

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), a metabolic cascade regulating pressure and circulating blood volume, has been considered the main system involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung injury and organs decline in COVID-19 patients. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE1), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), angiotensinogen (AGT) and receptors angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) are key factors for SARS-CoV-2 entering in the cells, sodium and water retention with an increase blood pressure, promotion of fibrotic and inflammatory phenomena resulting in a cytokine storm. METHODS: In this pilot study, the frequencies of six polymorphisms in the ACE1, ACE2, AGT and AGTR1 genes were analysed in symptomatic patients affected by COVID-19 and compared with the results obtained from asymptomatic subjects. RESULTS: Thus, we have identified that rs2074192 (ACE2), rs1799752 (ACE1) and rs699 (AGT) SNPs could potentially be a valuable tool for predicting the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. A genetic predisposition may be prospected for severe internal organ damages and poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19 disease, as observed in symptomatic vs asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that analysis of RAAS polymorphisms could be considered the key point in understanding and predicting the SARS-CoV-2 course infection.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8864, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242039

ABSTRACT

Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) is found in the endothelial glycocalyx and shed into the blood during systemic inflammatory conditions. We investigated organ dysfunction associated with changing serum SDC-1 levels for early detection of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. To evaluate the effect of SDC-1 on laboratory parameters measured the day after SDC-1 measurement with consideration for repeated measures, linear mixed effects models were constructed with each parameter as an outcome variable. A total of 94 patients were enrolled, and 831 samples were obtained. Analysis using mixed effects models for repeated measures with adjustment for age and sex showed that serum SDC-1 levels measured the day before significantly affected several outcomes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), antithrombin III, fibrin degradation products, and D-dimer. Moreover, serum SDC-1 levels of the prior day significantly modified the effect between time and several outcomes, including AST, ALT, CRE, and BUN. Additionally, increasing serum SDC-1 level was a significant risk factor for mortality. Serum SDC-1 may be a useful biomarker for daily monitoring to detect early signs of kidney, liver and coagulation system dysfunction, and may be an important risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Syndecan-1/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241270

ABSTRACT

Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is an unusual, but potentially harmful, manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis (SA), a chronic disease characterized by organ involvement from noncaseating and nonnecrotizing granulomas. Lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes are usually the sites that are most frequently affected, but no organ is spared and CS can affect a variable portion of SA patients, up to 25% from post-mortem studies. The cardiovascular involvement is usually associated with a bad prognosis and is responsible for the major cause of death and complications, particularly in African American patients. Furthermore, the diagnosis is often complicated by the occurrence of non-specific clinical manifestations, which can mimic the effect of more common heart disorders, and imaging and biopsies are the most valid approach to avoid misdiagnosis. This narrative review summarizes the main clinical features of CS and imaging findings, particularly of CMR and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG PET) that can give the best cost/benefit ratio in terms of the diagnostic approach. Imaging can be very useful in replacing the endomyocardial biopsy in selected cases, to avoid unnecessary, and potentially dangerous, invasive maneuvers.

19.
Crit Care Med ; 49(4): 661-670, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we hypothesized that coronavirus disease 2019 patients exhibit sublingual microcirculatory alterations caused by inflammation, coagulopathy, and hypoxemia. DESIGN: Multicenter case-controlled study. SETTING: Two ICUs in The Netherlands and one in Switzerland. PATIENTS: Thirty-four critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients were compared with 33 healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The microcirculatory parameters quantified included total vessel density (mm × mm-2), functional capillary density (mm × mm-2), proportion of perfused vessels (%), capillary hematocrit (%), the ratio of capillary hematocrit to systemic hematocrit, and capillary RBC velocity (µm × s-1). The number of leukocytes in capillary-postcapillary venule units per 4-second image sequence (4 s-1) and capillary RBC microaggregates (4 s-1) was measured. In comparison with healthy volunteers, the microcirculation of coronavirus disease 2019 patients showed increases in total vessel density (22.8 ± sd 5.1 vs 19.9 ± 3.3; p < 0.0001) and functional capillary density (22.2 ± 4.8 vs 18.8 ± 3.1; p < 0.002), proportion of perfused vessel (97.6 ± 2.1 vs 94.6 ± 6.5; p < 0.01), RBC velocity (362 ± 48 vs 306 ± 53; p < 0.0001), capillary hematocrit (5.3 ± 1.3 vs 4.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.01), and capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio (0.18 ± 0.0 vs 0.11 ± 0.0; p < 0.0001). These effects were present in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores less than 10 but not in patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores greater than or equal to 10. The numbers of leukocytes (17.6 ± 6.7 vs 5.2 ± 2.3; p < 0.0001) and RBC microaggregates (0.90 ± 1.12 vs 0.06 ± 0.24; p < 0.0001) was higher in the microcirculation of the coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis of the microcirculatory parameters identified the number of microcirculatory leukocytes and the capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio as the most sensitive parameters distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 patients from healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: The response of the microcirculation to coronavirus disease 2019-induced hypoxemia seems to be to increase its oxygen-extraction capacity by increasing RBC availability. Inflammation and hypercoagulation are apparent in the microcirculation by increased numbers of leukocytes and RBC microaggregates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Capillaries , Hypoxia/etiology , Leukocytes , Microcirculation/physiology , Erythrocytes , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(5): 4667-4675, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237535

ABSTRACT

The transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is a membrane anchored protease that primarily expressed by epithelial cells of respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and has been linked to multiple pathological processes in humans including tumor growth, metastasis and viral infections. Recent studies have shown that TMPRSS2 expressed on cell surface of host cells could play a crucial role in activation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein which facilitates the rapid early entry of the virus into host cells. In addition, direct suppression of TMPRSS2 using small drug inhibitors has been demonstrated to be effective in decreasing SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, which presents TMPRSS2 protease as a potential therapeutic strategy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to be capable of infecting gastrointestinal enterocytes and to provoke gastrointestinal disorders in patients with COVID-19 disease, which is considered as a new transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we highlight the biochemical properties of TMPRSS2 protease and discuss the potential targeting of TMPRSS2 by inhibitors to prevent the SARS-CoV-2 spreading through gastro-intestinal tract system as well as the hurdles that need to be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Enterocytes/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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