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1.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 108(4): 452-460, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509222

ABSTRACT

Bone is not only a mineralized and apparently non-vital structure that provides support for locomotion and protection to inner organs. An increasing number of studies are unveiling new biologic functions and connections to other systems, giving the rise to new fields of research, such as osteoimmunology. The bone marrow niche, a new entity in bone physiology, seems to represent the site where a complex crosstalk between bone and immune/inflammatory responses takes place. An impressive interplay with the immune system is realized in bone marrow, with reciprocal influences between bone cells and haematopoietic cells. In this way, systemic chronic inflammatory diseases realize a crosstalk with bone, resulting in bone disease. Thus, pathogenetic links between chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders and osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and ageing are common. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a general view of the progresses in the field of bone research and their potential clinical implications, with emphasis on the links with inflammation and the connections to osteoimmunology and chemokines.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Bone Marrow , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5446-5451, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363689

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a global health issue and develops into a broad range of illnesses from asymptomatic to fatal respiratory diseases. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with oxidative stress that triggers cytokine production, inflammation, and other pathophysiological processes. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with electrophiles to protect the cell from oxidative damage and participates in the antioxidant defense mechanism in the lungs. Thus, in this study, we investigated the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism with COVID-19 susceptibility, as well as its outcome. The study included 269 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients with mild (n = 149) and severe (n = 120) conditions. All subjects were genotyped for GSTM1 and GSTT1 by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) followed by statistical analysis. The frequency of GSTM1-/- , GSTT1-/- and GSTM1-/- /GSTT1-/- was higher in severe COVID-19 patients as compared to mild patients but we did not observe a significant association. In the Cox hazard model, death was significantly 2.28-fold higher in patients with the GSTT1-/- genotype (p = 0.047). In combination, patients having GSTM1+/+ and GSTT1-/- genotypes showed a poor survival rate (p = 0.02). Our results suggested that COVID-19 patients with the GSTT1-/- genotype showed higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glutathione Transferase/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Alleles , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Expression , Gene Frequency , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress , Proportional Hazards Models , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Future Sci OA ; 6(9): FSO628, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256152

ABSTRACT

AIM: Low levels of immune-related micronutrients have been identified in ß-thalassemia samples. Moreover, the excess amount of iron, contributing to oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease, alters the immune system in ß-thalassemia, which is important during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS & METHODS: Searches of PUBMED and EMBASE were conducted to identify the level and supplementation of micronutrients in ß-thalassemia, published from 2001-May 2020. RESULTS: The review found six observational and five interventional studies supporting the importance of supplementing vitamins and minerals among patients with ß-thalassemia. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of immune-related vitamins and minerals might bring benefits to the immune system, especially in reducing oxidative stress in ß-thalassemia.

6.
J Diet Suppl ; : 1-35, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225581

ABSTRACT

Overall mental health depends in part on the blood-brain barrier, which regulates nutrient transfer in-and-out of the brain and its central nervous system. Lactoferrin, an innate metal-transport protein, synthesized in the substantia nigra, particularly in dopaminergic neurons and activated microglia is vital for brain physiology. Lactoferrin rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier via receptor-mediated transcytosis and accumulates in the brain capillary endothelial cells. Lactoferrin receptors are additionally present on glioma cells, brain micro-vessels, and neurons. As a regulator of neuro-redox, microglial lactoferrin is critical for protection/repair of neurons and healthy brain function. Iron imbalance and oxidative stress are common among patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, and multiple sclerosis. As an endogenous iron-chelator, lactoferrin prevents iron accumulation and dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease patients. Oral lactoferrin supplementation could modulate the p-Akt/PTEN pathway, reduce Aß deposition, and ameliorate cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Novel lactoferrin-based nano-therapeutics have emerged as effective drug-delivery systems for clinical management of neurodegenerative disorders. Recent emergence of the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, initially considered a respiratory illness, demonstrated a broader virulence spectrum with the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and inflict a plethora of neuropathological manifestations in the brain - the Neuro-COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are widely reported in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and multiple sclerosis patients with aggravated clinical outcomes. Lactoferrin, credited with several neuroprotective benefits in the brain could serve as a potential adjuvant in the clinical management of Neuro-COVID-19.

7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223916

ABSTRACT

Recent reports have demonstrated the association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and increased morbidity and mortality rates during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection, setting a priority of these patients for vaccination. Impaired innate and adaptive immunity observed in T1DM seem to play a major role. Severe, life-threatening COVID-19 disease is characterized by the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, known as a "cytokine storm". Patients with T1DM present elevated levels of cytokines including interleukin-1a (IL), IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), suggesting the pre-existence of chronic inflammation, which, in turn, has been considered the major risk factor of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in many cohorts. Even more importantly, oxidative stress is a key player in COVID-19 pathogenesis and determines disease severity. It is well-known that extreme glucose excursions, the prominent feature of T1DM, are a potent mediator of oxidative stress through several pathways including the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the increased production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Additionally, chronic endothelial dysfunction and the hypercoagulant state observed in T1DM, in combination with the direct damage of endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may result in endothelial and microcirculation impairment, which contribute to the pathogenesis of acute respiratory syndrome and multi-organ failure. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in pancreatic b-cells permits the direct destruction of b-cells, which contributes to the development of new-onset diabetes and the induction of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients with T1DM. Large clinical studies are required to clarify the exact pathways through which T1DM results in worse COVID-19 outcomes.

8.
Carbohydr Res ; 505: 108326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213065

ABSTRACT

The viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has increased the mortality rate and engaged several adverse effects on the affected individuals. Currently available antiviral drugs have found to be unsuccessful in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The demand for efficient antiviral drugs has created a huge burden on physicians and health workers. Plasma therapy seems to be less accomplishable due to insufficient donors to donate plasma and low recovery rate from viral infection. Repurposing of antivirals has been evolved as a suitable strategy in the current treatment and preventive measures. The concept of drug repurposing represents new experimental approaches for effective therapeutic benefits. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits several complications such as lung damage, blood clot formation, respiratory illness and organ failures in most of the patients. Based on the accumulation of data, sulfated marine polysaccharides have exerted successful inhibition of virus entry, attachment and replication with known or unknown possible mechanisms against deadly animal and human viruses so far. Since the virus entry into the host cells is the key process, the prevention of such entry mechanism makes any antiviral strategy effective. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to polyanions than non-enveloped viruses. Besides, the viral infection caused by RNA virus types embarks severe oxidative stress in the human body that leads to malfunction of tissues and organs. In this context, polysaccharides play a very significant role in providing shielding effect against the virus due to their polyanionic rich features and a molecular weight that hinders their reactive surface glycoproteins. Significantly the functional groups especially sulfate, sulfate pattern and addition, uronic acids, monosaccharides, glycosidic linkage and high molecular weight have greater influence in the antiviral activity. Moreover, they are very good antioxidants that can reduce the free radical generation and provokes intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, polysaccharides enable a host-virus immune response, activate phagocytosis and stimulate interferon systems. Therefore, polysaccharides can be used as candidate drugs, adjuvants in vaccines or combination with other antivirals, antioxidants and immune-activating nutritional supplements and antiviral materials in healthcare products to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfuric Acid Esters/chemistry , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196033

ABSTRACT

Amyloidoses are a group of diseases associated with the formation of pathological protein fibrils with cross-ß structures. Approximately 5-10% of the cases of these diseases are determined by amyloidogenic mutations, as well as by transmission of infectious amyloids (prions) between organisms. The most common group of so-called sporadic amyloidoses is associated with abnormal aggregation of wild-type proteins. Some sporadic amyloidoses are known to be induced only against the background of certain pathologies, but in some cases the cause of amyloidosis is unclear. It is assumed that these diseases often occur by accident. Here we present facts and hypotheses about the association of sporadic amyloidoses with vascular pathologies, trauma, oxidative stress, cancer, metabolic diseases, chronic infections and COVID-19. Generalization of current data shows that all sporadic amyloidoses can be regarded as a secondary event occurring against the background of diseases provoking a cellular stress response. Various factors causing the stress response provoke protein overproduction, a local increase in the concentration or modifications, which contributes to amyloidogenesis. Progress in the treatment of vascular, metabolic and infectious diseases, as well as cancers, should lead to a significant reduction in the risk of sporadic amyloidoses.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis/etiology , Stress, Physiological , Brain Injuries/complications , Communicable Diseases/complications , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Oxidative Stress , Vascular Diseases/complications
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160962

ABSTRACT

Fatigue is common not only in cancer patients but also after viral and other infections. Effective treatment options are still very rare. Therefore, the present knowledge on the pathophysiology of fatigue and the potential positive impact of treatment with vitamin C is illustrated. Additionally, the effectiveness of high-dose IV vitamin C in fatigue resulting from various diseases was assessed by a systematic literature review in order to assess the feasibility of vitamin C in post-viral, especially in long COVID, fatigue. Nine clinical studies with 720 participants were identified. Three of the four controlled trials observed a significant decrease in fatigue scores in the vitamin C group compared to the control group. Four of the five observational or before-and-after studies observed a significant reduction in pre-post levels of fatigue. Attendant symptoms of fatigue such as sleep disturbances, lack of concentration, depression, and pain were also frequently alleviated. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and circulatory disorders, which are important contributors to fatigue, are also discussed in long COVID fatigue. Thus, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, endothelial-restoring, and immunomodulatory effects of high-dose IV vitamin C might be a suitable treatment option.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Injections, Intravenous
11.
Diseases ; 9(1)2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100095

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel coronavirus in December 2019 in China marked the beginning of a pandemic that impacted healthcare systems and economic life all over the world. The virus primarily targets the respiratory system causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in some patients, and therefore received the name of SARS-CoV-2. The pathogen stands out among other coronaviruses by its rapid transmission from human to human, with the majority of infected individuals being asymptomatic or presenting with only minor illness, therefore facilitating the pathogen spread. At the same time, people from the risk groups, such as the elderly, patients suffering from chronic diseases, or obese individuals, have increased chances of developing a severe or even fatal disease. The search for risk factors explaining this phenomenon continues. In this review, we focus on the known mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection affecting the functioning of the immune system and discuss potential risk factors responsible for the severe disease course. Oxidative stress is one of such factors, which plays a prominent role in innate immunity activity, and recent research has revealed its tight involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We discuss these recent findings and the development of excessive inflammation and cytokine storm observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we consider potential use of antioxidant drugs for alleviating the severe symptoms in affected patients.

12.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 28, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069574

ABSTRACT

Improving early diagnosis along with timely and effective treatment of COVID-19 are urgently needed. However, at present, the mechanisms underlying disease spread and development, defined prognosis, and immune status of patients with COVID-19 remain to be determined. Patients with severe disease state exhibit a hyperinflammatory response associated with cytokine storm syndrome, hypercoagulability, and depressed cell-mediated immunity. These clinical manifestations, sharing similar pathogenesis, have been well-studied in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The present review suggests treatment approaches for COVID-19 based on strategies used against ovarian cancer, which shares similar immunopathology and associated coagulation disorders.The chronicization of the hyperinflammatory cytokine storm in patients with severe COVID-19 highlights a defective resistance phase that leads to aspecific chronic inflammation, associated with oxidative stress, which impairs specific T-cell response, induces tissue and endothelial damage, and thrombosis associated with systemic effects that lead to severe multi-organ failure and death. These events are similar to those observed in advanced ovarian cancer which share similar pathogenesis mediated primarily by Interleukin-6, which is, as well demonstrated in ovarian cancer, the key cytokine driving the immunopathology, related systemic symptoms, and patient prognosis.Consistent with findings in other disease models with similar immunopathology, such as advanced ovarian cancer, treatment of severe COVID-19 infection should target inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation disorders, and immunodepression to improve patient outcome. Correctly identifying disease stages, based on available laboratory data, and developing a specific protocol for each phase is essential for effective treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Necrosis , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/immunology , Oxidative Stress
13.
iScience ; 23(10): 101645, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065234

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a systemic infection that exerts significant impact on the metabolism. Yet, there is little information on how SARS-CoV-2 affects metabolism. Using NMR spectroscopy, we measured the metabolomic and lipidomic serum profile from 263 (training cohort) + 135 (validation cohort) symptomatic patients hospitalized after positive PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also established the profiles of 280 persons collected before the coronavirus pandemic started. Principal-component analysis discriminated both cohorts, highlighting the impact that the infection has on overall metabolism. The lipidomic analysis unraveled a pathogenic redistribution of the lipoprotein particle size and composition to increase the atherosclerotic risk. In turn, metabolomic analysis reveals abnormally high levels of ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) and 2-hydroxybutyric acid, a readout of hepatic glutathione synthesis and marker of oxidative stress. Our results are consistent with a model in which SARS-CoV-2 infection induces liver damage associated with dyslipidemia and oxidative stress.

14.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 26: 100938, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062241

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is currently an international pandemic causing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Viral entry requires ACE2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) for membrane fusion or through endosomal pathway. This Study aims to assess transcriptomic changes and differentially expressed genes (DFGs) in COVID-19. METHODS: Transcriptomic data of the publicly available dataset (GSE147507) was quantile normalized and analysed for DFGs, network analysis and pathway analysis. RESULTS: DFG sets showed that 8 genes (SAE1, AEBP2, ATP1A1, DKK3, MAFF, NUDC, TRAP1, and VAV1) were significantly dysregulated in all studied groups. Functional analysis revealed that negative regulation of glucocorticoid biosynthesis, protein SUMOylation (SAE1), blood coagulation (VAV1) and cellular response to stress were affected by SARS CoV-2 infection. Cell line transduction with ACE2 vector didn't show significant changes in the dysregulated pathways. Also, no significant change was observed in expression levels of ACE2 or TMPRSS2 in response to SARS CoV-2 infection. Further analysis showed dysregulation of several genes in the SUMOylation pathway and blood coagulation process in human and cell lines transcriptome. Also, several Cathepsins proteases were significantly dysregulated in case of SARS CoV-2 infection. Genes related to cellular response to stress such as TRAP-1 and NOX were dysregulated in cases of SARS CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Dysregulation in genes of protein SUMOylation, blood coagulation and response to oxidative stress pathways in SARS CoV-2 infection could be critical for disease progression. Drugs acting on SUMO pathway, VAV1, NOX genes could be studied for potential benefit to COVID-19 patients.

15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 165: 184-190, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056615

ABSTRACT

Several recent reviews have suggested a role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, but its interplay with disease severity has not been revealed yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between the severity of COVID-19 and oxidative stress parameters. Clinical data of 77 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the hospital were analyzed and divided into moderate (n = 44) and severe (n = 33) groups based on their clinical condition. Production of oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) and defense antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione s-transferase), and oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, carbonyl, and sulfhydryl) were assessed using the serum samples. The results revealed that severe patients who presented high serum leukocyte count and CRP level stayed for a longer period in the hospital. However, there was no correlation observed between the oxidative stress parameters and degree of COVID-19 severity in the present study. In conclusion, these results indicate that the disease severity may not be a detrimental factor contributing to the changes in the redox profile of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
16.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 85(12): 1543-1553, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035276

ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19 is the subject of active research around the world. COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 is a complex disease in which interaction of the virus with target cells, action of the immune system and the body's systemic response to these events are closely intertwined. Many respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19, cause death of the infected cells, activation of innate immune response, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. All these processes are associated with the development of oxidative stress, which makes an important contribution to pathogenesis of the viral infections. This review analyzes information on the oxidative stress associated with the infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. The review also focuses on involvement of the vascular endothelium in the COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium/cytology , Endothelium/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(11): 786-788, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034641

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for death of aged people from Covid-19 became one of the major concerns of these days. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enhances the normal senescence and accelerates the precocious removal of chronologically young, yet biologically aged cells. Thus, its deficiency is associated with an increase in the cellular oxidative stress. Accumulating evidence showed that oxidative stress has a fundamental role in several age-related diseases. Nowadays, Covid-19 is considered a serious health problem worldwide. The host cellular environment is the key determinant of pathogen Infectivity. Most respiratory viral infections have a strong association with Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Unfortunately, this enzyme deficiency markedly decreases with aging what is involved in increasing of the morbidity rate. The aim of this mini review was to shed more light on the role of G6PD deficiency in aged people infected with Covid-19 (Ref. 20). Keywords: GSPD, Covid-19, elderly people.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Adv Nutr ; 12(3): 670-681, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030271

ABSTRACT

The importance of balanced dietary habits, which include appropriate amounts of antioxidants to maintain the immune system, has become increasingly relevant during the current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, because viral infections are characterized by high oxidative stress. Furthermore, the measures taken by governments to control the pandemic have led to increased anxiety, stress, and depression, which affect physical and mental health, all of which are influenced by nutritional status, diet, and lifestyle. The Mediterranean diet (MD), Atlantic diet (AD), and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans all provide the essential vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds needed to activate enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses. However, viral pandemics such as the current COVID-19 crisis entail high oxidative damage caused by both the infection and the resultant social stresses within populations, which increases the probability and severity of infection. Balanced dietary patterns such as the MD and the AD are characterized by the consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, and whole grains with low intakes of processed foods and red meat. For a healthy lifestyle in young adults, the MD in particular provides the required amount of antioxidants per day for vitamins D (0.3-3.8 µg), E (17.0 mg), C (137.2-269.8 mg), A (1273.3 µg), B-12 (1.5-2.0 µg), and folate (455.1-561.3 µg), the minerals Se (120.0 µg), Zn (11.0 mg), Fe (15.0-18.8 mg), and Mn (5.2-12.5 mg), and polyphenols (1171.00 mg) needed to maintain an active immune response. However, all of these diets are deficient in the recommended amount of vitamin D (20 µg/d). Therefore, vulnerable populations such as elders and obese individuals could benefit from antioxidant supplementation to improve their antioxidant response. Although evidence remains scarce, there is some indication that a healthy diet, along with supplemental antioxidant intake, is beneficial to COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Antioxidants , Diet , Diet, Western , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Reprod Sci ; 28(10): 2735-2742, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014275

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which resulted from the pandemic outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causes a massive inflammatory cytokine storm leading to multi-organ damage including that of the brain and testes. While the lungs, heart, and brain are identified as the main targets of SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenesis, reports on its testicular infections have been a subject of debate. The brain and testes are physiologically synchronized by the action of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Though the evidence for the presence of the viral particles in the testicular biopsies and semen samples from COVID-19 patients are highly limited, the occurrence of testicular pathology due to abrupt inflammatory responses and hyperthermia has incresingly been evident. The reduced level of testosterone production in COVID-19 is associated with altered secretion of gonadotropins. Moreover, hypothalamic pathology which results from SARS-CoV-2 infection of the brain is also evident in COVID-19 cases. This article revisits and supports the key reports on testicular abnormalities and pathological signatures in the hypothalamus of COVID-19 patients and emphasizes that testicular pathology resulting from inflammation and oxidative stress might lead to infertility in a significant portion of COVID-19 survivors. Further investigations are required to monitor the reproductive health parameters and HPG axis abnormalities related to secondary pathological complications in COVID-19 patients and survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fertility , Hypothalamus/pathology , Infertility, Male/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Testis/pathology , Animals , Atrophy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Gonadotropins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/pathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/virology , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Hypothalamus/physiopathology , Hypothalamus/virology , Incidence , Infertility, Male/pathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/virology , Male , Testis/metabolism , Testis/physiopathology , Testis/virology , Testosterone/metabolism
20.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(1)2021 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011411

ABSTRACT

Viral infections may cause neurological disorders by directly inducing oxidative stress and interrupting immune system function, both of which contribute to neuronal death. Several reports have described the neurological manifestations in Covid-19 patients where, in severe cases of the infection, brain inflammation and encephalitis are common. Recently, extensive research-based studies have revealed and acknowledged the clinical and preventive roles of melatonin in some viral diseases. Melatonin has been shown to have antiviral properties against several viral infections which are accompanied by neurological symptoms. The beneficial properties of melatonin relate to its properties as a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory molecule and its neuroprotective effects. In this review, what is known about the therapeutic role of melatonin in virus-induced neuropathogenesis is summarized and discussed.

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