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1.
Bone Jt Open ; 2(4): 271-277, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833469

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Open reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is regularly performed despite screening programmes, due to failure of treatment or late presentation. A protocol for open reduction of DDH has been refined through collaboration between surgical, anaesthetic, and nursing teams to allow same day discharge. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of performing open reduction of DDH as a day case. METHODS: A prospectively collected departmental database was visited. All consecutive surgical cases of DDH between June 2015 and March 2020 were collected. Closed reductions, bilateral cases, cases requiring corrective osteotomy, and children with comorbidities were excluded. Data collected included demographics, safety outcome measures (blood loss, complications, readmission, reduction confirmation), and feasibility for discharge according to the Face Legs Activity Cry Consolidability (FLACC) pain scale. A satisfaction questionnaire was filled by the carers. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS: Out of 168 consecutive DDH cases, 16 patients fit the inclusion criteria (age range 10 to 26 months, 13 female). Intraoperative blood loss ranged from "minimal" to 120 ml, and there were no complications or readmissions. The FLACC score was 0 for all patients. The carers satisfaction questionnaire expressed high satisfaction from the experience with adequate information and support provided. CONCLUSION: Open reduction in DDH, without corrective osteotomy, is safe and feasible to be managed as a day case procedure. It requires a clear treatment pathway, analgesia, sufficient counselling, and communication with carers. It is even more important during the COVID-19 pandemic when reduced length of hospital stay is likely to be safer for both patient and their parents. Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2021;2(4):271-277.

2.
Pain Rep ; 5(6): e858, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794976

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic requires special attention on its psychological effects and the impact on patients with chronic pain. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at examining the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic-associated regulations initiated by the German government on pain intensity and characteristics, emotional well-being, and everyday life of patients with painful polyneuropathy. METHODS: Forty-three patients (well assessed with questionnaires before the pandemic and without change of their health status between baseline and current assessment) were investigated with validated, self-reported questionnaires and COVID-19-specific items 2 weeks after the regulations came into effect. RESULTS: Pain intensity remained stable or even improved like the neuropathic pain symptom inventory total score (t0: 33.54 ± 20.48 vs t1: 27.38 ± 16.16, P = 0.008). Only 11.6% reported a pandemic-associated pain worsening. Rumination scores of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale were lower during t1 compared to before the pandemic regulations (t0: 7.81 ± 4.70, t1: 6.49 ± 4.39; P = 0.030). Interestingly, pain ratings for the last 7 days were higher in patients with a changed social life compared to those without (-1.63 ± 1.60 vs 0.31 ± 1.83; P = 0.01). Quality of life was decreased and helplessness increased in those with higher pain ratings. CONCLUSION: Results suggest a shift of attention from the chronic pain condition towards the imminent threat of a global pandemic. As the impacts of the pandemic are persistent and evolving, the development of the measured parameters in the forthcoming weeks will be of great interest.

3.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S56-S57, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792225

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown in India affected all medical services including palliative care and most consultations were provided remotely through phone or video calls. During this period CanSupport also switched to tele-consultations for the safety of its patients and staff. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Some patients still needed home visits so CanSupport developed need-based criteria in order to continue providing palliative homecare to those who suffered the most. RESULTS: CanSupport's homecare teams visited 847 patients during the lockdown decided by the criteria developed. Majority of the visits were for supplying morphine and other medications followed by patients with severe pain and those requiring procedures. CONCLUSION: If guidelines and safety measures are followed, home visits are possible in the present environment.

4.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S70-S75, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792215

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the current COVID-19 crisis, striking a balance between adequate pain relief in advanced malignancy patients and avoiding hospitals due to fear of contracting the infection has been the biggest challenge for patients as well as palliative care physicians. This study explored the trends in opioid dispensing for cancer pain before and during the lockdown. METHODS: The trends were calculated based on an analysis of quantity of all opioids dispensed. March 24, 2020, was considered as a cutoff for analyzing before and during lockdown period dispensing trends. No information regarding individual patients was retrieved in the current study. RESULTS: There was a decrease in total morphine, tramadol, and fentanyl patch dispensing parallel to decrease in total number of patients visiting the outpatient department. However, there was a statistically significant increase in per capita opioid dispensing during the lockdown period. There was also an increase in the proportion of cancer pain patients that were dispensed morphine during the lockdown. CONCLUSION: Despite the lockdown, the palliative care team at Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital has continued to provide adequate pain relief to patients that could manage to reach the center. Policy-makers need to be cognizant of the pain relief needs of cancer patients in times when accessing hospitals is becoming increasingly difficult. Cancer-related pain and mortality could well be the next pandemic once the current COVID-19 begins to reduce.

5.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(9): 299-305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1790448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection which emerged in December 2019, is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Infection with this virus can lead to severe respiratory illness, however, myocarditis has also been reported. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical features of myocarditis in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to investigate characteristics of myocarditis in patients infected with COVID-19 using the search term "Coronavirus" or "COVID" and "myocarditis," "heart," or "retrospective." Case reports and retrospective studies were gathered by searching Medline/Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. 11 articles were selected for review. RESULTS: COVID-19 myocarditis affected patients over the age of 50 and incidences among both genders were equally reported. Patients presented with dyspnea, cough, fever with hypotension and chest pain. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis with increased C-reactive protein, while arterial blood gas analysis demonstrated respiratory acidosis. All cardiac markers were elevated. Radiographic imaging of the chest showed bilateral ground glass opacities or bilateral infiltrates, while cardiac magnetic resonance imaging produced late gadolinium enhancements. Electrocardiography demonstrated ST-segment elevation or inverted T waves, while echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with cardiomegaly or increased wall thickness. Management with corticosteroids was favored in most cases, followed by antiviral medication. The majority of studies reported either recovery or no further clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: Current available data on COVID-19 myocarditis is limited. Further research is needed to advance our understanding of COVID-19 myocarditis.

6.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to highlight an unusual presentation of COVID-19 that was reviewed by our institution's otolaryngology and ophthalmology team. METHODS: We present two cases of COVID-19 which presented with unilateral otalgia and ipsilateral pulsatile headaches involving the temporal area. They were referred to the otolaryngology team of assessment of otalgia and subsequently referred to the ophthalmology team for possible Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA). Both patients had no jaw claudication, scalp pain or tenderness. RESULTS: Serology testing showed raised C-Reactive Protein (CRP) but normal platelets and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Case 1 was tested for COVID-19 as part of a preoperative workup which returned positive. With a marked similarity in presentation, Case 2 was tested for COVID-19 which also returned positive. CONCLUSION: These two cases highlight another set of symptoms that COVID-19 patients may present with. In the context of a COVID-19 pandemic, if a patient presents symptoms similar to GCA but with isolated CRP, it should prompt consideration for COVID testing.

8.
Neuromodulation ; 24(3): 441-447, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Due to the impact of COVID-19 epidemic, face-to-face follow-up treatments for patients with chronic pain and implanted spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices are forced to be delayed or stopped. This has led to more follow ups being done remotely. Meanwhile, with the development of 4G/5G networks, smartphones, and novel devices, remote programming has become possible. Here, we investigated the demand and utility of remote follow-ups including remote programming for SCS for patients with chronic pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire including questions on demographic characteristics, pain history, postimplantation life quality, standard follow-up experience, remote follow-up, and remote programming experience was sent to patients diagnosed as chronic intractable pain and treated with SCS during January 2019 to January 2020. RESULTS: A total of 64 participants completed the questionnaire. About 70% of participants expressed demands for remote follow-ups due to the inconvenience, high costs, and time consumption of traditional follow-up visits. Nearly 97% of participants have attempted remote follow-ups, and about 81% of participants have further tried remote programming. Approximately, 96% of them recognized the benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The remote programming was in high demand among participants. Most of the participants have tried remote follow-ups or even remote programming. The remote programming appeared to be more efficient, economic and were widely recognized among participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Pain/therapy , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Implantable Neurostimulators , Remote Sensing Technology/methods , Spinal Cord Stimulation/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement/methods
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26292, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain is the most prevalent chronic pain condition worldwide and access to behavioral pain treatment is limited. Virtual reality (VR) is an immersive technology that may provide effective behavioral therapeutics for chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind, parallel-arm, single-cohort, remote, randomized placebo-controlled trial for a self-administered behavioral skills-based VR program in community-based individuals with self-reported chronic low back pain during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A national online convenience sample of individuals with self-reported nonmalignant low back pain with duration of 6 months or more and with average pain intensity of 4 or more/10 was enrolled and randomized 1:1 to 1 of 2 daily (56-day) VR programs: (1) EaseVRx (immersive pain relief skills VR program); or (2) Sham VR (2D nature content delivered in a VR headset). Objective device use data and self-reported data were collected. The primary outcomes were the between-group effect of EaseVRx versus Sham VR across time points, and the between-within interaction effect representing the change in average pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, stress, mood, and sleep over time (baseline to end-of-treatment at day 56). Secondary outcomes were global impression of change and change in physical function, sleep disturbance, pain self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain medication use, and user satisfaction. Analytic methods included intention-to-treat and a mixed-model framework. RESULTS: The study sample was 179 adults (female: 76.5%, 137/179; Caucasian: 90.5%, 162/179; at least some college education: 91.1%, 163/179; mean age: 51.5 years [SD 13.1]; average pain intensity: 5/10 [SD 1.2]; back pain duration ≥5 years: 67%, 120/179). No group differences were found for any baseline variable or treatment engagement. User satisfaction ratings were higher for EaseVRx versus Sham VR (P<.001). For the between-groups factor, EaseVRx was superior to Sham VR for all primary outcomes (highest P value=.009), and between-groups Cohen d effect sizes ranged from 0.40 to 0.49, indicating superiority was moderately clinically meaningful. For EaseVRx, large pre-post effect sizes ranged from 1.17 to 1.3 and met moderate to substantial clinical importance for reduced pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, mood, and stress. Between-group comparisons for Physical Function and Sleep Disturbance showed superiority for the EaseVRx group versus the Sham VR group (P=.022 and .013, respectively). Pain catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy, pain acceptance, prescription opioid use (morphine milligram equivalent) did not reach statistical significance for either group. Use of over-the-counter analgesic use was reduced for EaseVRx (P<.01) but not for Sham VR. CONCLUSIONS: EaseVRx had high user satisfaction and superior and clinically meaningful symptom reduction for average pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, mood, and stress compared to sham VR. Additional research is needed to determine durability of treatment effects and to characterize mechanisms of treatment effects. Home-based VR may expand access to effective and on-demand nonpharmacologic treatment for chronic low back pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04415177; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04415177. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/25291.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/therapy , Health Behavior , Low Back Pain/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Virtual Reality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537606

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

11.
Pain ; 162(12): 2832-2840, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522382

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the association between COVID-related myalgia experienced by patients at hospital admission and the presence of post-COVID symptoms. A case-control study including patients hospitalised due to COVID-19 between February 20 and May 31, 2020, was conducted. Patients reporting myalgia and patients without myalgia at hospital admission were scheduled for a telephone interview 7 months after hospital discharge. Hospitalisation and clinical data were collected from medical records. A list of post-COVID symptoms with attention to musculoskeletal pain was evaluated. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, and sleep quality were likewise assessed. From a total of 1200 hospitalised patients with COVID-19, 369 with and 369 without myalgia at hospital admission were assessed 7.2 months (SD 0.6) after hospital discharge. A greater proportion (P = 0.03) of patients with myalgia at hospital admission (20%) showed ≥3 post-COVID symptoms when compared with individuals without myalgia (13%). A higher proportion of patients presenting myalgia (odds Rratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.90) exhibited musculoskeletal post-COVID pain when compared to those without myalgia. The prevalence of musculoskeletal post-COVID pain in the total sample was 38%. Fifty percent of individuals with preexisting musculoskeletal pain experienced a worsening of their symptoms after COVID-19. No differences in fatigue, dyspnoea, anxiety/depressive levels, or sleep quality were observed between myalgia and nonmyalgia groups. The presence of myalgia at hospital admission was associated with preexisting history of musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.40). In conclusion, myalgia at the acute phase was associated with musculoskeletal pain as long-term post-COVID sequelae. In addition, half of the patients with preexisting pain conditions experienced a persistent exacerbation of their previous syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Pain , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Pain Ther ; 9(2): 453-466, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499542

ABSTRACT

Chronic pain management during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenging process, especially with growing evidence that COVID-19 infection is associated with myalgias, referred pain, and widespread hyperalgesia. In light of the limited data available for COVID-19-related impact on chronic pain patients, this review explores the changes in the healthcare delivery system due to social distancing and safety precautions to provide the appropriate management of chronic pain patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding both the general problems facing chronic pain patients as well as specific problems in the COVID-19 era including deconditioning, increased mental health concerns, financial burdens, and potential for medication-induced immune-suppression is vital in the appropriate management of patients. Telemedicine, the practice of caring for patients remotely when the provider and patient are not physically present with each other, is becoming increasingly used and recognized as a valuable tool to both health care providers and patients. This paper concentrates on the proper utilization of the available resources to help patients with the most severe conditions as well as the most vulnerable group. COVID-19 may be associated with a profound effect on both the health care system and patients with chronic pain. As a result, delaying, or stopping, treatment for chronic pain patients will have negative consequences, and strong pain evaluations must be administered to triage patients appropriately. Recent recommendations for the safe use of non-opioid analgesics, opioid analgesics, and interventional pain management procedures are vital to know and understand specifically during the pandemic era. Further researches are needed to identify the advance planning and rapid responses to reduce the impact of the pandemic.

13.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI13-SI24, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the change in quality of life, disease-specific indicators, health and lifestyle before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among people with musculoskeletal diagnoses and symptoms. METHODS: We undertook an additional follow-up of two existing UK registers involving people with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and participants in a trial in the UK who had regional pain and were identified at high risk of developing chronic widespread pain. Participants completed the study questionnaire between July and December 2020, throughout which time there were public health restrictions in place. RESULTS: The number of people taking part in the study was 1054 (596 axSpA, 162 PsA, 296 regional pain). In comparison with their previous (pre-pandemic) assessment, there was an age-adjusted significant, small decrease in quality of life measured by EQ-5D [-0.020 (95% CI -0.030, -0.009)] overall and across all population groups examined. This was primarily related to poorer mental health and pain. There was a small increase in fibromyalgia symptoms, but a small decrease in sleep problems. There was a small deterioration in axSpA disease activity, and disease-specific quality of life and anxiety in PsA participants. Predictors of poor quality of life were similar pre- and during the pandemic. The effect of lockdown on activity differed according to age, gender and deprivation. CONCLUSION: Important lessons include focusing on addressing anxiety and providing enhanced support for self-management in the absence of normal health care being available, and awareness that all population groups are likely to be affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Musculoskeletal Diseases/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(10): e360-e363, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are paramount in the effort to end the coronavirus disease 2019 global epidemic. BNT162b2 is approved for the vaccination of adolescents over 16 years of age. Systemic adverse events were scarce though the pretested cohort of this age group was relatively small. The aim of the current study is to raise awareness for potential adverse reactions. METHODS: This is a case series of patients diagnosed with perimyocarditis following vaccination. Patients were compiled from 3 pediatric medical centers in Israel through a network of pediatricians and data regarding those cases was collected. In addition, incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination period was compared with previous years. RESULTS: All patients were males 16-18 years old, of Jewish descent, who presented with chest pain that began 1-3 days following vaccination (mean, 2.1 days). In 6 of the 7 patients, symptoms began following the 2nd dose and in 1 patient following the 1st dose. All cases were mild and none required cardiovascular or respiratory support. The incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination period was elevated in comparison to previous years. CONCLUSIONS: This case series describes a time association between coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and perimyocarditis in adolescents. All cases were mild, although only long-term follow-up can reveal the true impact of this cardiac injury. While it seems that the incidence of perimyocarditis during the vaccination campaign period is increased, a more comprehensive data collection on a wider scale should be done. We hope this report will serve as a reminder to report events and allow for analysis of potential adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Israel , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(5): e377-e380, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474341

ABSTRACT

Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture (VSR) represents a well-known mechanical complication of myocardial infarction, determining cardiogenic shock with high mortality rates. Surgical correction requires significant expertise to avoid cardiac rupture, uncontrollable bleeding, residual shunts, heart failure, and death. In the last year, we observed a substantial increase of VSR at our hospital, related to the delayed presentation of people with acute chest pain to the emergency departments during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We discuss our innovative triple-layer patch technique in a recent consecutive series of 8 patients. This technique proved effective in all patients, with no residual shunt or cardiac rupture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Prostheses and Implants , Ventricular Septal Rupture/surgery , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Ventricular Septal Rupture/diagnosis , Ventricular Septal Rupture/epidemiology
16.
Vet Surg ; 50(2): 410-417, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meperidine after IM and subcutaneous administration in horses. STUDY DESIGN: prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover trial. ANIMALS: Six adult horses weighing 494 ± 33 kg. METHODS: Treatments included meperidine 1 mg/kg IM with saline 6 mL subcutaneously, meperidine 1 mg/kg subcutaneously with saline 6 mL IM, and saline 6 mL subcutaneously and 6 mL IM, with a 7-day washout between treatments. Plasma meperidine concentrations and pharmacodynamic values (thermal and mechanical thresholds, physiological variables, fecal production) were collected at various time points for 24 hours. Accelerometry data were obtained for 8 hours to measure locomotor activity. Data were analyzed with a mixed effects model, and α was set at .05. RESULTS: Meperidine terminal half-life (T1/2 ), maximal plasma concentrations, and time to maximal concentration were 186 ± 59 and 164 ± 56 minutes, 265.7 ± 47.2 and 243.1 ± 80.1 ng/mL at 17 ± 6, and 24 ± 13 minutes for IM at subcutaneous administration, respectively. No effect of treatment or time was observed on thermal or mechanical thresholds, heart rate, respiratory rate, locomotor activity, frequency of defecations, or fecal weight (P > .2 for all). CONCLUSION: Maximum meperidine concentrations were achieved quickly with a short T1/2 in both treatment groups. Neither IM nor subcutaneous meperidine influenced thermal or mechanical threshold or physiological variables. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The short half-life and lack of detectable antinociceptive effect do not support IM or subcutaneous administration meperidine at 1 mg/kg for analgesia in horses.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Horses/metabolism , Meperidine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacokinetics , Animals , Female , Injections, Intramuscular/veterinary , Injections, Subcutaneous/veterinary , Male , Meperidine/pharmacokinetics
17.
Eur Spine J ; 30(9): 2531-2548, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453755

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To clarify the current state of knowledge on the association of endplate structural defects and back pain. METHODS: Five databases were searched for studies reporting on the association between endplate structural defects and back pain. Covidence and comprehensive meta-analysis software were used for article screening and selection and pooling of extracted data. Overall quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies comprised of 11,027 subjects met inclusion criteria. The presence of moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 73%; p = 0.001) prevented the pooling of estimates across all studies. However, it was possible to pool studies of specific endplate defect phenotypes, such as erosion (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.35-5.50) and sclerosis (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.50-2.58), which yielded significant associations with back pain. Schmorl's nodes were also associated with most individual back pain phenotypes (OR: 1.53-1326, I2 = 0-7.5%) and back pain overall (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.37-1.94, I2 = 26%) in general population samples. The pooling of data from all studies of specific back pain phenotypes, such as frequent back pain (OR: 2.83; 95% CI: 1.77-4.52) and back pain incidence (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.30-2.10), each yielded significant association with endplate structural defects and was supported by low heterogeneity (I2 = < 7.5.%). CONCLUSION: Overall, there is moderate quality evidence of an association between back pain and endplate structural defects, which is most evident for erosion, sclerosis and Schmorl's nodes. Going forward, research on specific endplate defect phenotypes and back pain case definitions using strong study designs will be important in clarifying the extent of associations and underlying mechanisms. The study was prospectively registered in Prospero (CRD42020170835) on 02/24/2020.


Subject(s)
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Back Pain/epidemiology , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/complications , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/epidemiology
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD008077, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heparin is an anticoagulant medication that is usually injected subcutaneously. Subcutaneous administration of heparin may result in complications such as bruising, haematoma, and pain at the injection site. One of the factors that may affect pain, haematoma, and bruising is injection speed. Several studies have been carried out to determine if speed of injection affects the amount of pain and bruising where the injection is given; however, the results of these studies have differed, and study authors have not reached a clear final conclusion. This is the second update of a review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of duration (speed) of subcutaneous heparin injection on pain and bruising at the injection site in people admitted to hospitals or clinics who require treatment with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). We also looked at haematoma at the injection site. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 22 June 2020. We undertook reference checking of included studies to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of different durations of subcutaneous injection of heparin on pain, bruising, and haematoma at the injection site. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For this update, two review authors independently selected studies and extracted data via Covidence software and assessed methodological quality using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. The primary outcomes of interest were pain intensity at injection site and size and incidence of bruising. The secondary outcomes of interest were size and incidence of haematoma at injection site. We calculated the odds ratio (OR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one new study for this update, resulting in a total of five included studies with 503 participants who received subcutaneous injections of LMWH into the abdomen. Given the nature of the intervention, it was not possible to blind participants and caregivers (personnel) in any of the included studies. Two studies described blinding of outcome assessors. Overall, the methodological quality of included studies was moderate. The duration of the fast injection was 10 seconds, and the duration of the slow injection was 30 seconds in all included studies. Four studies reported site pain intensity after each injection at different time points. Two studies assessed site pain intensity immediately after each injection; meta-analysis showed no evidence of a difference in site pain intensity immediately after slow injection when compared to fast injection (MD -1.52, 95% CI -3.56 to 0.53; 140 participants; low-certainty evidence). Meta-analysis of three studies indicated that site pain intensity may be slightly reduced 48 hours after the slow heparin injection compared to fast injection (MD -1.60, 95% CI -2.69 to -0.51; 103 participants; low-certainty evidence). Five studies assessed bruise size at 48 hours, and two studies assessed bruise size at 60 hours. Meta-analysis showed there may be a reduction in bruise size 48 hours (SMD -0.54, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.02; 503 participants; 5 studies; very low-certainty evidence) and 60 hours (SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.93 to -0.06; 84 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence) after slow injection compared to fast injection. There was no evidence of a difference in bruise size 72 hours after slow injection compared to fast injection (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -0.61 to 0.06; 140 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence). Three studies evaluated incidence of bruising and showed there may be a reduction in bruise incidence 48 hours (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.60; 444 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 60 hours (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.65; 84 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence) after slow injection compared to fast injection. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence due to risk of bias concerns, imprecision, and inconsistency. None of the included studies measured size or incidence of haematoma. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Administering medication safely and enhancing patient comfort are the main aims of clinical nurses. In this review, we identified five RCTs that evaluated the effect of subcutaneous heparin injection duration on pain intensity, bruise size and incidence. We found that pain may be slightly reduced 48 hours after slow injection. Similarly, there may be a reduction in bruise size and incidence after slow injection compared to fast injection 48 and 60 hours postinjection. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes to low or very low due to risk of bias concerns, imprecision, and inconsistency. Accordingly, new trials with a more robust design, more participants, and a focus on different injection speeds will be useful in strengthening the certainty of the available evidence.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Contusions/prevention & control , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Injections, Subcutaneous/methods , Pain, Procedural/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Bias , Contusions/chemically induced , Contusions/pathology , Hematoma/chemically induced , Hematoma/pathology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain, Procedural/etiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Time Factors
19.
Med J Aust ; 213 Suppl 11: S3-S32.e1, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456469

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1: RETAIL INITIATIVES TO IMPROVE THE HEALTHINESS OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTS IN RURAL, REGIONAL AND REMOTE COMMUNITIES: Objective: To synthesise the evidence for effectiveness of initiatives aimed at improving food retail environments and consumer dietary behaviour in rural, regional and remote populations in Australia and comparable countries, and to discuss the implications for future food environment initiatives for rural, regional and remote areas of Australia. STUDY DESIGN: Rapid review of articles published between January 2000 and May 2020. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE (EBSCOhost), Health and Society Database (Informit) and Rural and Remote Health Database (Informit), and included studies undertaken in rural food environment settings in Australia and other countries. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria, including five conducted in Australia. Four of the Australian studies were conducted in very remote populations and in grocery stores, and one was conducted in regional Australia. All of the overseas studies were conducted in rural North America. All of them revealed a positive influence on food environment or consumer behaviour, and all were conducted in disadvantaged, rural communities. Positive outcomes were consistently revealed by studies of initiatives that focused on promotion and awareness of healthy foods and included co-design to generate community ownership and branding. CONCLUSION: Initiatives aimed at improving rural food retail environments were effective and, when implemented in different rural settings, may encourage improvements in population diets. The paucity of studies over the past 20 years in Australia shows a need for more research into effective food retail environment initiatives, modelled on examples from overseas, with studies needed across all levels of remoteness in Australia. Several retail initiatives that were undertaken in rural North America could be replicated in rural Australia and could underpin future research. CHAPTER 2: WHICH INTERVENTIONS BEST SUPPORT THE HEALTH AND WELLBEING NEEDS OF RURAL POPULATIONS EXPERIENCING NATURAL DISASTERS?: Objective: To explore and evaluate health and social care interventions delivered to rural and remote communities experiencing natural disasters in Australia and other high income countries. STUDY DESIGN: We used systematic rapid review methods. First we identified a test set of citations and generated a frequency table of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to index articles. Then we used combinations of MeSH terms and keywords to search the MEDLINE (Ovid) database, and screened the titles and abstracts of the retrieved references. DATA SOURCES: We identified 1438 articles via database searches, and a further 62 articles via hand searching of key journals and reference lists. We also found four relevant grey literature resources. After removing duplicates and undertaking two stages of screening, we included 28 studies in a synthesis of qualitative evidence. DATA SYNTHESIS: Four of us read and assessed the full text articles. We then conducted a thematic analysis using the three phases of the natural disaster response cycle. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of robust evaluation of programs and interventions supporting the health and wellbeing of people in rural communities affected by natural disasters. To address the cumulative and long term impacts, evidence suggests that continuous support of people's health and wellbeing is needed. By using a lens of rural adversity, the complexity of the lived experience of natural disasters by rural residents can be better understood and can inform development of new models of community-based and integrated care services. CHAPTER 3: THE IMPACT OF BUSHFIRE ON THE WELLBEING OF CHILDREN LIVING IN RURAL AND REMOTE AUSTRALIA: Objective: To investigate the impact of bushfire events on the wellbeing of children living in rural and remote Australia. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review completed using rapid realist review methods, and taking into consideration the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement for systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: We sourced data from six databases: EBSCOhost (Education), EBSCOhost (Health), EBSCOhost (Psychology), Informit, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We developed search terms to identify articles that could address the research question based on the inclusion criteria of peer reviewed full text journal articles published in English between 1983 and 2020. We initially identified 60 studies and, following closer review, extracted data from eight studies that met the inclusion criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS: Children exposed to bushfires may be at increased risk of poorer wellbeing outcomes. Findings suggest that the impact of bushfire exposure may not be apparent in the short term but may become more pronounced later in life. Children particularly at risk are those from more vulnerable backgrounds who may have compounding factors that limit their ability to overcome bushfire trauma. CONCLUSION: We identified the short, medium and long term impacts of bushfire exposure on the wellbeing of children in Australia. We did not identify any evidence-based interventions for supporting outcomes for this population. Given the likely increase in bushfire events in Australia, research into effective interventions should be a priority. CHAPTER 4: THE ROLE OF NATIONAL POLICIES TO ADDRESS RURAL ALLIED HEALTH, NURSING AND DENTISTRY WORKFORCE MALDISTRIBUTION: Objective: Maldistribution of the health workforce between rural, remote and metropolitan communities contributes to longstanding health inequalities. Many developed countries have implemented policies to encourage health care professionals to work in rural and remote communities. This scoping review is an international synthesis of those policies, examining their effectiveness at recruiting and retaining nursing, dental and allied health professionals in rural communities. STUDY DESIGN: Using scoping review methods, we included primary research - published between 1 September 2009 and 30 June 2020 - that reported an evaluation of existing policy initiatives to address workforce maldistribution in high income countries with a land mass greater than 100 000 km2 . DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Emcare, Informit, Scopus, and Web of Science. We screened 5169 articles for inclusion by title and abstract, of which we included 297 for full text screening. We then extracted data on 51 studies that had been conducted in Australia, the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Norway. DATA SYNTHESIS: We grouped the studies based on World Health Organization recommendations on recruitment and retention of health care workers: education strategies (n = 27), regulatory change (n = 11), financial incentives (n = 6), personal and professional support (n = 4), and approaches with multiple components (n = 3). CONCLUSION: Considerable work has occurred to address workforce maldistribution at a local level, underpinned by good practice guidelines, but rarely at scale or with explicit links to coherent overarching policy. To achieve policy aspirations, multiple synergistic evidence-based initiatives are needed, and implementation must be accompanied by well designed longitudinal evaluations that assess the effectiveness of policy objectives. CHAPTER 5: AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLICLY AVAILABLE HEALTH WORKFORCE DATA SOURCES IN AUSTRALIA: Objective: Many data sources are used in Australia to inform health workforce planning, but their characteristics in terms of relevance, accessibility and accuracy are uncertain. We aimed to identify and appraise publicly available data sources used to describe the Australian health workforce. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a scoping review in which we searched bibliographic databases, websites and grey literature. Two reviewers independently undertook title and abstract screening and full text screening using Covidence software. We then assessed the relevance, accessibility and accuracy of data sources using a customised appraisal tool. DATA SOURCES: We searched for potential workforce data sources in nine databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid Emcare, Scopus, Web of Science, Informit, the JBI Evidence-based Practice Database, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library) and the grey literature, and examined several pre-defined websites. DATA SYNTHESIS: During the screening process we identified 6955 abstracts and examined 48 websites, from which we identified 12 publicly available data sources - eight primary and four secondary data sources. The primary data sources were generally of modest quality, with low scores in terms of reference period, accessibility and missing data. No single primary data source scored well across all domains of the appraisal tool. CONCLUSION: We identified several limitations of data sources used to describe the Australian health workforce. Establishment of a high quality, longitudinal, linked database that can inform all aspects of health workforce development is urgently needed, particularly for rural health workforce and services planning. CHAPTER 6: RAPID REALIST REVIEW OF OPIOID TAPERING IN THE CONTEXT OF LONG TERM OPIOID USE FOR NON-CANCER PAIN IN RURAL AREAS: Objective: To describe interventions, barriers and enablers associated with opioid tapering for patients with chronic non-cancer pain in rural primary care settings. STUDY DESIGN: Rapid realist review registered on the international register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) and conducted in accordance with RAMESES standards. DATA SOURCES: English language, peer-reviewed articles reporting qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies, published between January 2016 and July 2020, and accessed via MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO, Informit or the Cochrane Library during June and July 2020. Grey literature relating to prescribing,deprescribing or tapering of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain, published between January 2016 and July 2020, was identified by searching national and international government, health service and peek organisation websites using Google Scholar. DATA SYNTHESIS: Our analysis of reported approaches to tapering conducted across rural and non-rural contexts showed that tapering opioids is complex and challenging, and identified several barriers and enablers. Successful outcomes in rural areas appear likely through therapeutic relationships, coordination and support, by using modalities and models of care that are appropriate in rural settings and by paying attention to harm minimisation. CONCLUSION: Rural primary care providers do not have access to resources available in metropolitan centres for dealing with patients who have chronic non-cancer pain and are taking opioid medications. They often operate alone or in small group practices, without peer support and access to multidisciplinary and specialist teams. Opioid tapering approaches described in the literature include regulation, multimodal and multidisciplinary approaches, primary care provider support, guidelines, and patient-centred strategies. There is little research to inform tapering in rural contexts. Our review provides a synthesis of the current evidence in the form of a conceptual model. This preliminary model could inform the development of a model of care for use in implementation research, which could test a variety of mechanisms for supporting decision making, reducing primary care providers' concerns about potential harms arising from opioid tapering, and improving patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Health Services Research , Regional Medical Programs , Rural Health Services , Allied Health Personnel/supply & distribution , Australia , Dentists/supply & distribution , Diet, Healthy , Disaster Medicine , Food Supply , Humans , Natural Disasters , Nurses/supply & distribution
20.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 284, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456307

ABSTRACT

The nociceptive blockade of locoregional anesthesia prior to surgical stimulation can decrease anesthetic agent requirement and thereby potential dose-dependent side effects. The use of an ipsilateral second and third cervical spinal nerve locoregional anesthetic block for prosthetic laryngoplasty in the anesthetized horses has yet to be described. Anesthetic records of 20 horses receiving locoregional anesthesia prior to laryngoplasty were reviewed and compared to 20 horses of a similar patient cohort not receiving locoregional anesthesia. Non-blocked horses were 11 times more likely to require adjunct anesthetic treatment during surgical stimulation (P = 0.03) and were 7.4 times more likely to receive partial intravenous anesthesia in addition to inhalant anesthesia (P = 0.01). No horse in the blocked group received additional sedation/analgesia compared to the majority of non-blocked horses (75%) based on the anesthetist's perception of anesthetic quality and early recovery movement. No difference in recovery quality was observed between groups (P > 0.99). Cervical spinal nerve locoregional anesthesia appears well-tolerated and useful in reducing cumulative anesthetic agent requirement and may decrease the need for additional sedation/analgesia in horses undergoing anesthetized prosthetic laryngoplasty.

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