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1.
Tech Innov Gastrointest Endosc ; 23(3): 234-243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients' perception regarding the risks of COVID-19 infection with gastrointestinal (GI) and the preventive measures taken in GI endoscopy units to mitigate infection risk remains unclear. We aimed to assess patients' perception regarding risks of COVID-19 with GI endoscopy and the changes in the endoscopy unit as a result of the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: Outpatients undergoing GI endoscopy at our institution were categorized into those scheduled to undergo GI endoscopy (preprocedure) and those who had recently undergone GI endoscopy during the pandemic (postprocedure). Two separate but similar survey instruments were designed. Patients were asked to respond on a 5-point Likert scale. Responses were stratified as "low," "neutral," and "high" for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 150 and 355 respondents completed the preprocedure and postprocedure surveys, with a combined response rate of 82.5%. Non-white ethnicity was associated with reporting a "high" level of concern for endoscopy related COVID-19 exposure in both the preprocedure (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.54-10.82) and postprocedure cohorts (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.04-4.29). 42% of patients in the preprocedure cohort and 11.8% in the postprocedure cohort reported their level of concern for COVID exposure as "high." Among the postprocedure cohort, 88% of the patients were likely to undergo repeat endoscopy during the pandemic if recommended. CONCLUSION: Patients are willing to undergo GI endoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Non-white and older patients, and those undergoing screening examinations were more concerned with the GI endoscopy related COVID-19 transmission risk.

2.
J Nurs Manag ; 29(7): 1893-1905, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297804

ABSTRACT

AIM: To appraise and synthesize studies examining resilience, coping behaviours and social support among health care workers during the coronavirus pandemic. BACKGROUND: A wide range of evidence has shown that health care workers, currently on the frontlines in the fight against COVID-19, are not spared from the psychological and mental health-related consequences of the pandemic. Studies synthesizing the role of coping behaviours, resilience and social support in safeguarding the mental health of health care workers during the pandemic are largely unknown. EVALUATION: This is a systematic review with a narrative synthesis. A total of 31 articles were included in the review. KEY ISSUES: Health care workers utilized both problem-centred and emotion-centred coping to manage the stress associated with the coronavirus pandemic. Coping behaviours, resilience and social support were associated with positive mental and psychological health outcomes. CONCLUSION: Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of coping behaviours, resilience and social support to preserve psychological and mental health among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: In order to safeguard the mental health of health care workers during the pandemic, hospital and nursing administrators should implement proactive measures to sustain resilience in HCWs, build coping skills and implement creative ways to foster social support in health care workers through theory-based interventions, supportive leadership and fostering a resilient work environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
3.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(7): 706-717, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274798

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of 2020 the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has extensively impacted medical care in Germany and worldwide. Germany is currently facing the so-called third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is exacerbated by emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutants with increased virus transmission and severe courses of disease. Rising numbers of SARS-CoV­2 infections translate into an increasing number of severe COVID-19 cases requiring intensive care, which interacts with limited structural and personnel resources for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. Therefore, prioritization and triage for critically ill patients with allocation of intensive care capacities becomes necessary, as with all situations with higher strain on capacities. Both strategies are meaningful forms of organization and are not to be equated with a collapse of medical care. Cardiovascular comorbidities and cardiac involvement in COVID-19 are of particular importance for disease severity and the clinical course. In addition to the medical care of patients with SARS-CoV­2 infections due to the pandemic, other patients with acute sometimes life-threatening diseases must also continue to receive high-quality treatment. This article provides a current overview of proposed restructuring measures in German hospitals as well as the accompanying triage and prioritization algorithms. Moreover, it is necessary to adapt existing treatment algorithms to the pandemic situation. Due their special importance this is sketched using cardiovascular diseases as an example.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-5, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess women's perceptions of the impact of COVID-19 on their health care and well-being, access to and satisfaction with medical care due to the changes in delivery of care triggered by the pandemic. METHODS: An online survey of women having health care appointments in the outpatient facilities across all divisions of a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary care referral center in North Central Florida. Patients had outpatient appointments that were scheduled, canceled or rescheduled, in person or by telemedicine, between 11 March 2020 and 11 May 2020, a time during which a COVID-19 stay-at-home order was enacted across our state. A total of 6,697 visits were planned. Patients with multiple visits were unified, leaving 6,044 unique patients to whom the survey was emailed between 20 July 2020 and 31 July 2020. The survey was closed on 21 August 2020. Analyses were focused on simple descriptive statistics to assess frequency of responses. Analyses of variance and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare outcomes when all cells were ≥ 10, based on sub-specialty and insurance status; otherwise, frequencies were examined for the entire sample only. Missing data were excluded listwise. RESULTS: A total of 6044 patients were contacted. Completed surveys numbered 1,083 yielding a response rate of 17.9%. The most common sub-specialty visit was gynecology (56.7%) followed by obstetrics (31.5%,), pelvic floor disorders (4.8%), gynecological oncology (2.9%,), and reproductive endocrinology (0.5%). A substantial percentage of women had visits canceled (19.2%), rescheduled (32.8%) or changed (42.1%) to telemedicine. In our patient population, 32.6% were worried about visiting the clinic and 48.1% were worried about visiting the hospital. COVID-19 triggered changes were perceived to have a negative impact by 26.1% of respondents. Refusal of future telemedicine visits was by 17.2%, however, 75.2% would prefer to use both in-person and telemedicine visits. CONCLUSION: During the initial COVID-19 surge with lockdown, the majority of survey respondents were following public health precautions. However, there were significant concerns amongst women related to obstetric and gynecologic medical appointments scheduled during that period. During pandemics, natural disasters and similar extreme circumstances, digital communication and telemedicine have the potential to play a critical role in providing reassurance and care. Nevertheless, given the concerns expressed by survey respondents, communication and messaging tools are needed to increase comfort and ensure equity with the rapidly changing methods of care delivery.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 6(59)2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234280

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a family of RNA viruses that cause acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract in humans and other animals. SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged coronavirus that has led to a global pandemic causing a severe respiratory disease known as COVID-19 with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of antiviral therapeutics are urgently needed while vaccine programs roll out worldwide. Here we describe a diamidobenzimidazole compound, diABZI-4, that activates STING and is highly effective in limiting SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells and animals. diABZI-4 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells. Administration of diABZI-4 intranasally before or even after virus infection conferred complete protection from severe respiratory disease in K18-ACE2-transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Intranasal delivery of diABZI-4 induced a rapid short-lived activation of STING, leading to transient proinflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte activation in the lung associated with inhibition of viral replication. Our study supports the use of diABZI-4 as a host-directed therapy which mobilizes antiviral defenses for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Membrane Proteins/agonists , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Male , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 596855, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226982

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by an infectious novel strain of coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was earlier referred to as 2019-nCoV. The respiratory disease is the most consequential global public health crisis of the 21st century whose level of negative impact increasingly experienced globally has not been recorded since World War II. Up till now, there has been no specific globally authorized antiviral drug, vaccines, supplement or herbal remedy available for the treatment of this lethal disease except preventive measures, supportive care and non-specific treatment options adopted in different countries via divergent approaches to halt the pandemic. However, many of these interventions have been documented to show some level of success particularly the Traditional Chinese Medicine while there is paucity of well reported studies on the impact of the widely embraced Traditional African Medicines (TAM) adopted so far for the prevention, management and treatment of COVID-19. We carried out a detailed review of publicly available data, information and claims on the potentials of indigenous plants used in Sub-Saharan Africa as antiviral remedies with potentials for the prevention and management of COVID-19. In this review, we have provided a holistic report on evidence-based antiviral and promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties of African medicinal plants based on in silico evidence, in vitro assays and in vivo experiments alongside the available data on their mechanistic pharmacology. In addition, we have unveiled knowledge gaps, provided an update on the effort of African Scientific community toward demystifying the dreadful SARS-CoV-2 micro-enemy of man and have documented popular anti-COVID-19 herbal claims emanating from the continent for the management of COVID-19 while the risk potentials of herb-drug interaction of antiviral phytomedicines when used in combination with orthodox drugs have also been highlighted. This review exercise may lend enough credence to the potential value of African medicinal plants as possible leads in anti-COVID-19 drug discovery through research and development.

7.
Radiography (Lond) ; 27(4): 1044-1051, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The radiography profession is built upon strong educational foundations which help ensure graduate radiographers have the required knowledge, skills, and competence to practise safely and effectively. Changing clinical practices, service needs, technological developments, regulatory changes, together with our growing professional evidence-base, all contribute to the need for our curricula to responsive and continually reviewed and enhanced. This study aims to explore similarities and differences in training curricula and follows a 2012 global survey on radiography education and more recent surveys undertaken by the European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS). METHODS: An online questionnaire, based on previous EFRS education and clinical education surveys, which comprised of open and closed questions and consisted of sections designed to ascertain data on: type, level and duration of education programmes leading to an initial or pre-registration qualification in radiography/medical radiation practice, pre-clinical skill development and clinical placement within programmes. The survey was distributed via social media channels and through an international network of professional societies. Descriptive statistics are reported for most analyses while open questions were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Responses were received from 79 individuals from 28 identified countries across four continents. This represented a total of 121 different pre-registration/entry level programmes offered across these institutions. While dedicated diagnostic radiography programmes were most common (42/121), almost one-third of programmes (40/121) offered two or more areas of specialisation within the curriculum. The average of total hours for clinical placement were 1397 h for diagnostic radiography programmes; 1300 h for radiation therapy programmes; 1025 h for nuclear medicine programmes; and 1134 h for combined specialisation programmes, respectively. Institutions provided a range of physical and virtual systems to support pre-clinical skills development. CONCLUSION: Around the world, radiography programmes vary considerably in terms of their level, duration, programme type, pre-clinical and clinical training, use of simulation, and also in terms of class sizes, student/staff ratios, and graduate employment prospects. The ability of graduates to work independently in areas covered within their programmes varied considerably. While some changes around simulation use were evident, given the impact of COVID-19 it would be beneficial for future research to investigate if pre-clinical and clinical education hours or use of simulation resources has changed due to the pandemic. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The heterogeneity that exists between radiography programmes presents a significant challenge in terms of the mutual recognition of qualifications and the international movement of the radiographer workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curriculum , Humans , Internationality , Radiography , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(5): 1264-1270, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207844

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the healthcare system worldwide hindering the continuum of treatment of chronic disease patients. The objective of the study is to analyze the barriers encountered by the glaucoma patients for the follow-up visit and medication adherence during the pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included glaucoma patients who did not attend the scheduled appointment from April 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020 in a tertiary eye care center (88.21%). Eligible patients of age >18 years and advised antiglaucoma medication in Madurai Zone were interviewed with validated questionnaire through telephonic call. RESULTS: 363 patients answered the questionnaire through telephonic interview. 57.3% of the patients were found to be non-adherent to medication. The main barriers for glaucoma follow-up visit during the pandemic were lockdown restriction, transport problem, and financial difficulties. The top barriers for medication adherence were non availability of medication (54.81%), financial difficulties (30.29%), did not feel much improvement with eye drops (20.19%). On multiple regression analysis, longer distance to hospital, low socioeconomic status, more than one antiglaucoma medication use, lack of awareness of glaucoma, non-complaint before COVID-19 and stress due to the pandemic were found to be significant factors for medication non adherence. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the need for reformation in health care system for accessibility of medical care to patients in rural areas. Decentralization of health system to primary care level and utilization of teleophthalmology should be considered by health care planners in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glaucoma , Ophthalmology , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 22(4): 643-654, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200169

ABSTRACT

Chronic and/or extreme stress in childhood, often referred to as early life stress, is associated with a wide range of long-term effects on development. Given this, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to concern about how stress due to the pandemic will affect children's development and mental health. Although early life stress has been linked to altered functioning of a number of neural and biological systems, there is a wide range of variability in children's outcomes. The mechanisms that influence these individual differences are still not well understood. In the past, studies of stress in childhood focused on the type of events that children encountered in their lives. We conducted a review of the literature to formulate a new perspective on the effects of early life stress on development. This new, topological model, may increase understanding of the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's development. This model is oriented on children's perceptions of their environment and their social relationships, rather than specific events. These factors influence central and peripheral nervous system development, changing how children interpret, adapt, and respond to potentially stressful events, with implications for children's mental and physical health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
10.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(2): 194-206, 2021 Apr.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197631

ABSTRACT

The "Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19)" caused by "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" is still active all over the world as a pandemia. It is reported that at least 7000 health care workers (HCW) had lost their lives due to COVID-19 from the beginning of the pandemia till September 2020 in the world. In our country between the dates, March 11, 2020 which the first case was reported, and September 1, 2020, the date which our study has been finalized, 7428 HCW were infected by SARS-CoV-2, and 52 of them were deceased. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the contact and illness of healthcare workers working outside of the pandemic clinics in our hospital and to examine the possible transmission routes and disease prognoses. Healthcare workers who were working outside the pandemic service between March 11, 2020 and September 1, 2020 and who had a definite diagnosis of COVID-19 and all hospital staff who had contacted with these people, and HCW who had contact with patients diagnosed with COVID-19 while receiving inpatient treatment in services other than the pandemic service was evaluated and classified as low, medium and high risk according to the risk scoring defined in the published "Ministry of Health COVID-19 Guidelines". Healthcare workers who were evaluated as contacted were questioned in detail regarding the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) at the time of contact, especially suitability of the masks, contact time and shape and all the data were recorded. A total of 53 index cases (40 HCW and 13 inpatients diagnosed as COVID-19) were detected during the study period. The number of HCW contacted with these index cases was 672. In our study, we examined the data of 40 index cases and 672 contacted HCW (total of 712 HCW). Only 3 of 40 index cases (7.5%) had hospital-acquired COVID-19 infection, the other 37 cases were infected by community sources. COVID-19 was not detected in 94.2% of the contacted HCW during the follow-up while 5.8% of them had positive PCR test results. Considering the possible way of contamination among the contacted HCW who developed COVID-19 during the follow-up period, it was determined that 13.1% of the cases were a result of taken care of patients, 86.9% of the cases were a result of being in hospital social environments (drinking tea, smoking, eating, chatting in the same room without personal precautions) and in the days after the contact, it was in the form of contact with healthcare personnel diagnosed with COVID-19. When the contacted HCW were questioned about using proper masks at the time of contact, we determined that 93.3% of them used masks during patient caring procedures, however, only 48.9% used masks when they were in social areas (p<0.001). Healthcare workers face an unprecedented risk of occupational disease and death due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is also observed that prolonged pandemia period caused health workers to disregard rigorous infection control precautions in social areas of hospitals which they follow inpatient care although this has shown to be the most common way of contamination. Commonly performed in-service training and causing awareness in all areas of the hospital about following infection control precautions and PPE usage and checking the process regularly are the most important ways to prevent HCW from being affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194695

ABSTRACT

To limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), many countries have introduced mandated lockdown or social distancing measures. Although these measures may be successful against COVID-19 transmission, the pandemic and attendant restrictions are a source of chronic and severe stress and anxiety which may contribute to the emergence or worsening of symptoms of eating disorders and the development of negative body image. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to: (1) classify different conditions associated with COVID-19-related stress, COVID-19-related anxiety, and weight status; and (2) analyze and compare the severity of dimensions typically related to eating disorders symptomatology and body image in individuals with different COVID-19-related stress, COVID-19-related anxiety, and weight status. Polish women (N = 671, Mage = 32.50 ± 11.38) completed measures of COVID-19-related stress and anxiety along with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptomatology subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory, and the appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, and body areas satisfaction subscales of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. The following four clusters were identified through cluster analysis: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 269), healthy body weight and low COVID-related stress (M = 3.06) and anxiety (M = 2.96); (b) Cluster 2 (N = 154), healthy body weight and high COVID-related stress (M = 5.43) and anxiety (M = 5.29); (c) Cluster 3 (N = 127), excess body weight and high COVID-related stress (M = 5.23) and anxiety (M = 5.35); (d) Cluster 4 (N = 121), excess body weight and low COVID-related stress (M = 2.69) and anxiety (M = 2.83). Our results showed that Clusters 3 and 4 had significantly greater body dissatisfaction and lower appearance evaluation and body areas satisfaction than Clusters 1 and 2. Cluster 3 also had a significantly higher level of drive for thinness, bulimia, and overweight preoccupation than Clusters 1 and 2. These preliminary findings may mean that the COVID-19 pandemic and attendant anxiety and stress caused by the pandemic are exacerbating symptoms of eating disorders and negative body image, with women with excess weight particularly at risk.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Body Image/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Bulimia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Female , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 45756-45764, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193153

ABSTRACT

A more comprehensive understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on changes in pollution could serve us to better deal with the environmental challenges caused by the pandemic. Existing studies mainly focused on the linear impact of the pandemic on the pollutants without considering the impact of other factors. To fill the research gap, the nonlinear relationship between pandemic and pollutants with considering the temperature factor was explored by developing panel threshold regression approach. In the proposed approach, the number of confirmed cases was set as explanatory variable, concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were set as explained variables, temperature was used as threshold variable, and other air pollution indicators were used as control variables. The results showed that there is a threshold effect between the changes in confirmed COVID-19 cases and the concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2, confirming the impact of the pandemic on pollutions was nonlinear. The results also show that the negative impact of pandemic on pollution increased when the temperature was rising. This work had theoretical and practical significance. The nonlinear research perspective of this article provided a methodological reference for exploring the relationship between epidemic and pollutant-related variables. Furthermore, this study expanded the scope of application of the threshold panel regression model and enriched the quantitative analysis of epidemics and pollutants.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011113, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency general surgery operative volumes during governmental shutdowns secondary to the pandemic and characterize differences in disease severity, morbidity, and mortality during this time compared to previous years. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compares patients who underwent emergency general surgery operations at a tertiary hospital from March 1st to May 31st of 2020 to 2019. Average emergent cases per day were analyzed, comparing identical date ranges between 2020 (pandemic group) and 2019 (control group). Secondary analysis was performed analyzing disease severity, morbidity, and mortality. RESULTS: From March 1st to May 31st, 2020, 2.5 emergency general surgery operations were performed on average daily compared to 3.0 operations on average daily in 2019, a significant decrease (P = .03). No significant difference was found in presenting disease severity, morbidity, or mortality between the pandemic and control groups. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates a decrease of 65% in emergency general surgery operations during governmental restrictions secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic. This decrease in operations was not associated with worse disease severity, morbidity, or mortality.

14.
J Public Health Res ; 10(2)2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187083

ABSTRACT

Despite the growing interest in the treatment and management of COVID-19, communities still end up experiencing multiple stresses with mental health crisis, due to the pandemic. When this is not addressed, it causes stress in the long run, with further mental health damage in individuals and the communities. Furthermore, relevant policy related to the community mental health was identified as awareness in promoting mental issues, yet there are still failures recorded in the aspect of adequately addressing the well-being concerns. This study aims to support community mental health during the crisis, through useful information from relevant articles. It also explains some perspectives from literature reviews, case reports, with society responses from Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Proquest databases concerning recent community mental health issues, and government policy on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The inclusion criteria required articles that were peer-reviewed, by using i) English language March-September 2020; ii) Presented empirical studies related to COVID-19 (quantitative and qualitative); iii) Searched terms related to the general and community mental health, their policy, and COVID-19 pandemic. This study showed 19 articles related to community mental health issues or psychological wellbeing topics. The interventions provided to strengthen community mental health during the pandemic included emergency psychological crisis treatment, hotline assistance, online counseling service with mental care course, and outpatient consultation. Therefore, community mental health issues should be addressed with physical wellness. In addition, the community plays a key role in influencing stakeholders and governments, to increase the priority in supporting mental health.

15.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(4): 596-602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explored stress and coping among pregnant Black women prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, cohort study. SAMPLE: Thirty-three women enrolled in the Biosocial Impact on Black Births study prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and who were still pregnant during the pandemic. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires included the Perceived Stress Scale, Prenatal Coping Inventory, and questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, worry about COVID-19, and coping strategies used during the pandemic. RESULTS: Women reported very much being worried about my child getting COVID-19 (46%) and my family member getting COVID-19 (46%). Women reported specific active coping strategies very much reduced their feelings of discomfort during COVID-19: God, religion, or spirituality (24%), social media (24%), and following government advice (24%). Higher use of avoidance coping prior to the pandemic was associated with higher levels of stress both prior to (r = 0.60, p < .001) and during (r = 0.47, p < .01) the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Women reported worries about COVID-19 and used various strategies to cope with feelings of discomfort due to the pandemic. Nurses should assess the stress level of pregnant Black women and recommend active coping strategies during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/ethnology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/nursing , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Eur J Dev Res ; 34(2): 828-842, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174742

ABSTRACT

This paper assesses the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of exporting companies in Benin. It also identifies factors that explain the perceived effect of COVID-19 on the companies' performance. To do this, we used a survey data covering 122 micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and micro, small, and medium industry (MSMIs) in four communes in Benin. Firstly, we computed the annual rate change in quarterly turnover to capture the effect of the COVID-19. Secondly, a multiple regression was estimated to identify factors explaining the perceived effect of the COVID-19 on the exporting companies. We found that the exporting companies experience on average a 53.308% drop in quarterly turnover in 2020 probably due to the COVID-19 crisis. Based on the forecasts, the results also revealed a very slow recovery in activities but the rate of change will remain negative until 2021 if nothing is done to support the MSMEs/MSMIs. Finally, we found that the perceived effect of the COVID-19 depends on the level of education of head of the companies, on the experience in exportation, and on the organization of the work because of the pandemic. Our findings suggest the necessity for public policy support toward the MSMEs/MSMIs to contain the effect of the pandemic in Benin.


Cet article évalue l'effet de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur la performance des entreprises exportatrices au Bénin. Il identifie également les facteurs qui expliquent l'effet perçu de la COVID-19 sur les performances des entreprises. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilisé des données d'enquête couvrant 122 micro, petites et moyennes entreprises (MPME) et micro, petites et moyennes industries (MPMI) dans quatre communes du Bénin. Premièrement, nous avons calculé la variation annuelle des taux du chiffre d'affaires trimestriel pour capturer l'effet du COVID-19. Deuxièmement, une régression multiple a été estimée pour identifier les facteurs expliquant l'effet perçu du COVID-19 sur les entreprises exportatrices. Nous avons constaté que les entreprises exportatrices ont enregistré en moyenne une baisse de 53,308% du chiffre d'affaires trimestriel en 2020 probablement en raison de la crise de la COVID-19. Sur la base des prévisions, les résultats ont également révélé une reprise très lente des activités mais le taux de changement restera négatif jusqu'en 2021 si rien n'est fait pour soutenir les MPME / MSMI. Enfin, nous avons constaté que l'effet perçu du COVID-19 dépend du niveau d'éducation du chef d'entreprise, de l'expérience à l'exportation et de l'organisation du travail en raison de la pandémie. Nos résultats suggèrent la nécessité d'un soutien des politiques publiques envers les MPME / MSMI pour contenir l'effet de la pandémie et relancer les activités économiques.

17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 629872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167383

ABSTRACT

Background: A non-pharmaceutical treatment offered as psychological support is bibliotherapy, which can be described as the process of reading, reflecting, and discussing literature to further a cognitive shift. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demands a response to prevent a peak in the prevalence of mental health problems and to avoid the collapse of mental health services, which are scarce and inaccessible due to the pandemic. Thus, this study aimed to review articles on the effectiveness of bibliotherapy on different mental health problems. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to examine relevant studies that assess the effectiveness of bibliotherapy in different clinical settings as a treatment capable of enhancing a sense of purpose and its surrounding values. To achieve this, a systematic review, including a bioethical meta-analysis, was performed. A variant of the PICO (Participants, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome) model was used for the search strategy, and the systematic review was conducted in three databases: PubMed, Bireme, and OVID. Inclusion criteria were relevant studies that included the keywords, excluding documents with irrelevant topics, studies on subjects 15 years or younger, and in languages besides Spanish or English. Starting with 707 studies, after three rounds of different quality criteria, 13 articles were selected for analysis, including a hermeneutic analysis, which was followed by a fourth and final recovery round assessing bibliotherapy articles concerning healthcare workers. Results: Our findings showed that through bibliotherapy, patients developed several capacities, including the re-signification of their own activities through a new outlook of their moral horizon. There are no research road maps serving as guides to conduct research on the use of bibliotherapy to enhance mental health. Additionally, values such as autonomy and justice were closely linked with positive results in bibliotherapy. This implies that bibliotherapy has the potential to have a positive impact in different settings. Conclusions: Our contribution is to offer a road map that presents state-of-the-art bibliotherapy research, which will assist institutions and healthcare professionals to plan clinical and specific interventions with positive outcomes.


Subject(s)
Bibliotherapy , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Hermeneutics , Humans , Mental Health Services
18.
Appetite ; 161: 105130, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163359

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 triggered widespread disruption in the lives of university students across the United States. We conducted 9 online focus groups with 30 students from a large public university to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the food choices of those displaced from their typical residences due to the pandemic. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative research to examine the changes in food choice for US university students due to COVID-19 and offer insight into why these changes occurred. Students in this study reported significant, and often negative, changes in food choices during the pandemic compared to when on campus. Many students described changes in the foods they ate, the amount consumed, and increased snacking behaviors. We found food availability and household roles to be powerful factors influencing food choices. Most students had returned to family homes with many students taking a passive role in activities that shape food choices. Parents usually purchased groceries and prepared meals with students eating foods made available to them. Increased free time contributed to boredom and snacking for some students, while for a few students with increased skills and/or agency, additional free time was used to plan and prepare meals. About a third of the students attributed eating different foods at home to food availability issues related to the pandemic such as groceries being out of stock, purchasing non-perishable foods, or the inability to get to a store. This information may be helpful to researchers and health promotion professionals interested in the effects of COVID-19 on student nutrition and related food behaviors, including those interested in the relationship between context and food choice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choice Behavior , Food Preferences , Pandemics , Students , Adolescent , Consumer Behavior , Family Characteristics , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Male , Snacks , United States , Universities , Young Adult
19.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 121(3): 633-642, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163200

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by the novel betacoronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic threat. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is reported to originate in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spreading rapidly around world. SARS-CoV-2 is structurally similar to the other coronaviruses, causing the severe respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and the middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), both binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter human cells. ACE 2 is widely expressed in several cells including, neural tissue. COVID-19 presents with fever and respiratory symptoms, possibly leading to acute respiratory distress (ARDS) but there are several published reports of acute cerebrovascular diseases, seizures, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, isolated involvement of cranial nerves, myositis/rabdhomyolisis as well myasthenic crisis (MC) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The ARDS described during COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with respiratory muscle failure occurring in myasthenia gravis (MG), may result in a life-threatening condition, challenging for intensivists, pulmonologists and neurologists. Infections are recognized trigger of exacerbations and crisis in MG and patients with MG probably exhibit a mortality higher than the general population during this COVID-19 pandemic. We review the current state of knowledge on MG during the COVID-19 pandemic to focus the immunological and respiratory interplay between these two conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 20503121211002996, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158190

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has emerged as a new viral pandemic, causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leading to a wide array of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory failure. However, coagulation disorders have been found in some patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, leading to either a clotting disorder or hemorrhage. Several mechanisms attempt to explain the mechanism behind the pro-coagulant state seen with COVID-19 patients, including different receptor binding, cytokine storm, and direct viral endothelial damage. SARS-CoV-2 has also been recently found to bind to CLEC4M receptor, a receptor that participates in the clearance of von Willebrand Factor and Factor VIII. The competitive binding of SARS-CoV-2 to CLEC4M could lead to decreased clearance, and therefore a promotion of a pro-coagulative state; however, an experimental study needs to be done to prove such an association.

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