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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S110-S117, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are common, often seasonal, and caused by multiple pathogens. We assessed whether seasonal respiratory illness patterns changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We categorized emergency department (ED) visits reported to the National Syndromic Surveillance Program according to chief complaints and diagnosis codes, excluding visits with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infections. For each week during 1 March 2020 through 26 December 2020 ("pandemic period"), we compared the proportion of ED visits in each respiratory category with the proportion of visits in that category during the corresponding weeks of 2017-2019 ("pre-pandemic period"). We analyzed positivity of respiratory viral tests from 2 independent clinical laboratories. RESULTS: During March 2020, cough, shortness of breath, and influenza-like illness accounted for twice as many ED visits compared with the pre-pandemic period. During the last 4 months of 2020, all respiratory conditions, except shortness of breath, accounted for a smaller proportion of ED visits than during the pre-pandemic period. Percent positivity for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, and human metapneumovirus was lower in 2020 than 2019. Although test volume decreased, percent positivity was higher for rhinovirus/enterovirus during the final weeks of 2020 compared with 2019, with ED visits similar to the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: Broad reductions in respiratory test positivity and respiratory ED visits (excluding COVID-19) occurred during 2020. Interventions for mitigating spread of SARS-CoV-2 likely also reduced transmission of other pathogens. Timely surveillance is needed to understand community health threats, particularly when current trends deviate from seasonal norms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 524, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have recently attached worldwide attention as essential pathogens in respiratory infection. HCoV-229E has been described as a rare cause of lower respiratory infection in immunocompetent adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a 72-year-old man infected by HCoV-229E with rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome, in conjunction with new onset atrial fibrillation, intensive care unit acquired weakness, and recurrent hospital acquired pneumonia. Clinical and radiological data were continuously collected. The absolute number of peripheral T cells and the level of complement components diminished initially and recovered after 2 months. The patient was successfully treated under intensive support care and discharged from the hospital after 3 months and followed. CONCLUSION: HCoV-229E might an essential causative agent of pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage. Supportive treatment was essential to HCoVs infection on account of a long duration of immunological recovery in critical HCoV-229E infection.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/diagnosis , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , Common Cold/complications , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/complications , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/drug therapy , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
3.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(8): e354-e365, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microbiological characterisation of co-infections and secondary infections in patients with COVID-19 is lacking, and antimicrobial use is high. We aimed to describe microbiologically confirmed co-infections and secondary infections, and antimicrobial use, in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study recruiting inpatients from 260 hospitals in England, Scotland, and Wales, conducted by the ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium. Patients with a confirmed or clinician-defined high likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible for inclusion in the ISARIC WHO CCP-UK study. For this specific study, we excluded patients with a recorded negative SARS-CoV-2 test result and those without a recorded outcome at 28 days after admission. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic, and outcome data were collected using a prespecified case report form. Organisms considered clinically insignificant were excluded. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 48 902 patients admitted to hospital between Feb 6 and June 8, 2020. The median patient age was 74 years (IQR 59-84) and 20 786 (42·6%) of 48 765 patients were female. Microbiological investigations were recorded for 8649 (17·7%) of 48 902 patients, with clinically significant COVID-19-related respiratory or bloodstream culture results recorded for 1107 patients. 762 (70·6%) of 1080 infections were secondary, occurring more than 2 days after hospital admission. Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens causing respiratory co-infections (diagnosed ≤2 days after admission), with Enterobacteriaceae and S aureus most common in secondary respiratory infections. Bloodstream infections were most frequently caused by Escherichia coli and S aureus. Among patients with available data, 13 390 (37·0%) of 36 145 had received antimicrobials in the community for this illness episode before hospital admission and 39 258 (85·2%) of 46 061 patients with inpatient antimicrobial data received one or more antimicrobials at some point during their admission (highest for patients in critical care). We identified frequent use of broad-spectrum agents and use of carbapenems rather than carbapenem-sparing alternatives. INTERPRETATION: In patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, microbiologically confirmed bacterial infections are rare, and more likely to be secondary infections. Gram-negative organisms and S aureus are the predominant pathogens. The frequency and nature of antimicrobial use are concerning, but tractable targets for stewardship interventions exist. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, EU Platform for European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at University of Liverpool, and NIHR HPRU in Respiratory Infections at Imperial College London.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , World Health Organization
4.
J Virol Methods ; 294: 114183, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the worldwide coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, starting in late 2019. The standard diagnostic methods to detect SARS-CoV-2 are PCR-based genetic assays. Antigen-antibody-based immunochromatographic assays are alternative methods of detecting this virus. Rapid diagnosis kits to detect SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. STUDY DESIGN: Three monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein were used to develop an antigen-antibody-based immunochromatographic kit to detect SARS-CoV-2. These assays were evaluated using  nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from patients suspected of having COVID-19. RESULTS: These assays detected recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N protein at concentrations >0.2 ng/mL within 10 min after protein loading, but did not detect the N proteins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and 299E (HCoV-229E) and other pathogens causing respiratory infections. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained 1~3, 4~9, and ≥ 10 days after symptom onset from COVID-19 patients diagnosed by RT-PCR showed positivity rates of 100 %, >80 %, and <30 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Kits using this immunochromatographic assay may be a rapid and useful tool for point-of-care diagnosis of COVID-19 when samples are obtained from patients 1~9 days after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Chest Med ; 41(4): 739-751, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-896783

ABSTRACT

Occupational respiratory infections can be caused by bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Transmission in occupational settings can occur from other humans, animals, or the environment, and occur in various occupations and industries. In this article, we describe 4 occupationally acquired respiratory infections at the focus of NIOSH investigations over the last decade: tuberculosis (TB), influenza, psittacosis, and coccidioidomycosis. We highlight the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, occupational risk factors, and prevention measures.


Subject(s)
Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Humans
6.
Mil Med ; 186(3-4): e310-e318, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections (RTI), such as those caused by influenza viruses and, more recently, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, pose a significant burden to military health care systems and force readiness. The gut microbiota influences immune function, is malleable, and may provide a target for interventions aiming to reduce RTI burden. This narrative review summarizes existing evidence regarding the effectiveness of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, all of which are gut microbiota-targeted interventions, for reducing the burden of RTI in military-relevant populations (i.e., healthy non-elderly adults). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search strategy was used to identify recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials conducted in healthy non-elderly adults which examined effects of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics on the incidence, duration, and/or severity of RTI, or on immune responses to vaccinations against viruses that cause RTI. Relevant randomized controlled clinical trials not included in those reports were also identified. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that certain probiotic strains may reduce the incidence, duration, and/or severity of RTI and improve immune responses to vaccination against RTI-causing pathogens in various populations including healthy non-elderly adults. Fewer randomized controlled trials have examined the effects of prebiotics or synbiotics on RTI-related outcomes in healthy non-elderly adults. Nevertheless, some studies conducted within that population and other populations have observed that certain prebiotics and synbiotics reduce the incidence, duration, and/or severity of RTI or improve immune responses to vaccinations against RTI-causing viruses. However, across all product classes, not all product formulations have shown benefit, and most have not been tested in multiple randomized controlled trials in military-relevant populations. CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with certain gut microbiota-targeted interventions, and certain probiotics in particular, may provide viable strategies for reducing RTI-related illness in military personnel. Research in military populations is warranted to fully understand the magnitude of any military health and cost benefits, and to establish definitive recommendations for use.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Probiotics , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Military Personnel , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
Front Public Health ; 8: 155, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854038

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the current 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, now named SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a worldwide health threat. Currently, more information is needed so as to further understand the transmission and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV infection and the infection control procedures required. Recently, the role of the eye in transmitting 2019-nCoV has been intensively discussed. Previous investigations of other highly infectious human CoVs, that is, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), may provide useful information. In this review, we describe the genomics and morphology of human CoVs, the epidemiology, systemic and ophthalmic manifestations, and mechanisms of human CoV infection, and recommendations for infection control procedures. The role of the eye in the transmission of 2019-nCoV is discussed in detail. Although the conjunctiva is directly exposed to extraocular pathogens, and the mucosa of the ocular surface and upper respiratory tract are connected by the nasolacrimal duct and share the same entry receptors for some respiratory viruses, the eye is rarely involved in human CoV infection, conjunctivitis is quite rare in patients with 2019-nCoV infection, and the CoV RNA positive rate by RT-PCR test in tears and conjunctival secretions from patients with 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV infection is also extremely low. This suggests that the eye is neither a preferred organ of human CoV infection nor a preferred gateway of entry for human CoVs for infecting the respiratory tract. However, pathogens that the ocular surface is exposed to might be transported to nasal and nasopharyngeal mucosa by constant tear rinsing through the lacrimal duct system and then cause respiratory tract infection. Considering that close doctor-patient contact is quite common in ophthalmic practice and is apt to transmit human CoVs by droplets and fomites, strict hand hygiene and proper personal protection are highly recommended for health care workers to avoid hospital-related viral transmission during ophthalmic practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Eye/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tears/virology , China , Conjunctiva/virology , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 90: 102109, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842480

ABSTRACT

Treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has shown efficacy against a variety of cancer types. The use of anti PD-1, anti PD-L1, and anti CTLA-4 antibodies is rapidly expanding. The side effects of ICIs are very different from conventional cytocidal anticancer and molecular target drugs, and may extend to the digestive organs, respiratory organs, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, skin, and others. Although the details of these adverse events are becoming increasingly apparent, much is unknown regarding the effects and adverse events related to infections. This review focuses specifically on the impact of ICIs on respiratory infections. The impact of ICIs on pathogens varies depending on the significance of the role of T-cell immunity in the immune response to the specific pathogen, as well as the different modes of infection (i.e., acute or chronic), although the impact of ICIs on the clinical outcome of infections in humans has not yet been well studied. Enhanced clearance of many pathogens has been shown because immune checkpoint inhibition activates T cells. In contrast, reactivation of tuberculosis associated with ICI use has been reported, and therefore caution is warranted. In COVID-19 pneumonia, ICI administration may lead to exacerbation; however, it is also possible that ICI may be used for the treatment of COVID-19. It has also been shown that ICI has potential in the treatment of intractable filamentous fungal infections. Therefore, expanded clinical applications are expected.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/chemically induced , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/immunology , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , CTLA-4 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology
9.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the world in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been reported as pathogens that cause severe symptoms in respiratory tract infections. Recently, a new emerged HCoV isolated from the respiratory epithelium of unexplained pneumonia patients in the Wuhan seafood market caused a major disease outbreak and has been named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and of SARS-CoV caused widespread fear and concern and has threatened global health security. There are some similarities and differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between these two viruses and diseases that are caused by these viruses. The goal of this work is to systematically review and compare between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in the context of their virus incubation, originations, diagnosis and treatment methods, genomic and proteomic sequences, and pathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs , Disease Susceptibility , Eutheria/virology , Genome, Viral , Global Health , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proteome , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Proteins
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