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1.
Curr Res Struct Biol ; 3: 9-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587997

ABSTRACT

With the rapid growth of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic across the globe, therapeutic attention must be directed to fight the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, developing new antiviral drugs and vaccines is time-consuming, so one of the best solutions to tackle this virus at present is to repurpose ready-to-use drugs. This paper proposes the repurposing of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, purchasable, and naturally occurring drugs for preventive and therapeutic use. We propose to design a dual-inhibitor for the SARS-CoV-2 cysteine proteases-3 Chemotrypsin-like protease or main protease (3CLpro or Mpro) and Papain-like protease (PLpro) responsible for processing the translated polyprotein chain from the viral RNA yielding functional viral proteins. For virtual screening, an unbiased blind docking was performed from which the top nine dual-targeting inhibitors for 3CLpro and PLpro were selected. The nine repurposed drugs, block the catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) of 3CLpro as well as the catalytic triad (Cys111, His272, and Asp286) of PLpro. Repurposing known drugs will not only pave the way for rapid in-vitro and in-vivo studies to battle the SARS-CoV-2 but will also expedite the quest for a potent anti-coronaviral drug.

2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-9, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575633

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecules that are essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry can provide insights into viral infection and dissemination. Recently, it has been identified from several studies that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 are the main entry molecules for the SARS-CoV-2, which produced the pandemic of Covid-19. However, additional evidence showed several other viral receptors and cellular proteases that are also important in facilitating viral entry and transmission in the target cells. In this review, we summarized the types of SARS-CoV-2 entry molecules and discussed their crucial roles for virus binding, protein priming and fusion to the cellular membrane important for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
3.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(13): 4618-4632, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575345

ABSTRACT

Cinnamon has been utilized to remedy a lot of afflictions of humans. Literary works illustrate that it possesses numerous biological activities. Our research study is intended to recognize the phyto-derived antiviral substances from Cinnamon against COVID-19 main protease enzyme and to understand the in silico molecular basis of its activity. In the present study, 48 isolates compounds from Cinnamon retrieved from the PubMed database, are subjected to docking analysis. Docking study was performed using Autodock vina and PyRx software. Afterwards, admetSAR, as well as DruLiTo servers, were used to investigate drug-likeness prophecy. Our study shows that the nine phytochemicals of Cinnamon are very likely against the main protease enzyme of COVID-19. Further MD simulations could identify Tenufolin (TEN) and Pavetannin C1 (PAV) as hit compounds. Utilizing contemporary strategies, these phyto-compounds from a natural origin might establish a reliable medication or support lead identification. Identified hit compounds can be further taken for in vitro and in vivo studies to examine their effectiveness versus COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1457-1468, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493012

ABSTRACT

Two proteases produced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the main protease and papain-like protease, are essential for viral replication and have become the focus of drug development programs for treatment of COVID-19. We screened a highly focused library of compounds containing covalent warheads designed to target cysteine proteases to identify new lead scaffolds for both Mpro and PLpro proteases. These efforts identified a small number of hits for the Mpro protease and no viable hits for the PLpro protease. Of the Mpro hits identified as inhibitors of the purified recombinant protease, only two compounds inhibited viral infectivity in cellular infection assays. However, we observed a substantial drop in antiviral potency upon expression of TMPRSS2, a transmembrane serine protease that acts in an alternative viral entry pathway to the lysosomal cathepsins. This loss of potency is explained by the fact that our lead Mpro inhibitors are also potent inhibitors of host cell cysteine cathepsins. To determine if this is a general property of Mpro inhibitors, we evaluated several recently reported compounds and found that they are also effective inhibitors of purified human cathepsins L and B and showed similar loss in activity in cells expressing TMPRSS2. Our results highlight the challenges of targeting Mpro and PLpro proteases and demonstrate the need to carefully assess selectivity of SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitors to prevent clinical advancement of compounds that function through inhibition of a redundant viral entry pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors
5.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(32): 3476-3489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main proteases (Mpro) and Spike Proteins (SP) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) play a major role in viral infection development by producing several non-structural proteins (nsPs) and penetrating the host cells, respectively. In this study, the potential of in silico molecular docking-based drug repositioning approach was exploited for identifying the inhibitors of Mpro and SP of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A total of 196 compounds, including various US-FDA-approved drugs, vitamins, and their analogs, were docked with Mpro (PDB IDs: 6YB7 and 6Y84), and the top six ligands were further tested for ADME properties, followed by docking with SP (PDB IDs: 6LXT and 6W41). RESULTS: Out of 196 compounds, binding energy (DE) of Silybin B (6YB7: DE: -11.20 kcal/mol; 6Y84: DE: - 10.18 kcal/mol; 6LXT: DE: -10.47 kcal/mol; 6W41: DE: -10.96 kcal/mol) and Cianidanol (6YB7: DE: -8.85 kcal/mol; 6LXT: DE: -9.36 kcal/mol; 6Y84: DE: -10.02 kcal/mol; 6W41: DE: -9.52 kcal/mol) demonstrated better binding and ADME properties compared with the currently endeavored drugs like Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir. Additionally, Elliptinone, Diospyirin, SCHEMBL94263, and Fiboflavin have shown encouraging results. Fiboflavin, an immunity booster, was found to inhibit both the Mpro and spike protein of SARSCoV- 2. It was observed that amino acid residues MET6, ALA7, PHE8, PRO9, ASP295, GLY302, VAL303, and THR304 play significant roles in protein-ligand interactions through hydrogen bonds and Vander Waals forces. CONCLUSION: Silybin B and Cianidanol showed excellent binding and ADME properties compared with the currently endeavored drugs and can be exploited as therapeutic options against SARS-CoV-2 infection after experimental validation and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catechin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Silybin , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(16): 6218-6230, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409840

ABSTRACT

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as the causative agent behind the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Treatment efforts have been severely impeded due to the lack of specific effective antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-associated pathologies. In the present research endeavour the inhibitory prospects of cyanobacterial metabolites were assessed at the active binding pockets of the two vital SARS-CoV-2 proteases namely, main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) that proteolytically process viral polyproteins and facilitate viral replication, employing an in silico molecular interaction-based approach. It was evident from our analysis based on the binding energy scores that the metabolites cylindrospermopsin, deoxycylindrospermopsin, carrageenan, cryptophycin 52, eucapsitrione, tjipanazole, tolyporphin and apratoxin A exhibited promising inhibitory potential against the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The compounds cryptophycin 1, cryptophycin 52 and deoxycylindrospermopsin were observed to display encouraging binding energy scores with the PLpro of SARS-CoV-2. Subsequent estimation of physicochemical properties and potential toxicity of the metabolites followed by robust molecular dynamics simulations and analysis of MM-PBSA energy scoring function established deoxycylindrospermopsin as the most promising inhibitory candidate against both SARS-CoV-2 proteases. Present research findings bestow ample scopes to further exploit the potential of deoxycylindrospermopsin as a successful inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo and pave the foundation for the development of novel effective therapeutics against COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(15): 5668-5681, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390288

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and has been declared as pandemic disease by World Health Organization. Lack of targeted therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-2019 have triggered the scientific community to develop new vaccines or drugs against this novel virus. Many synthetic compounds and antimalarial drugs are undergoing clinical trials. The traditional medical practitioners widely use Indian medicinal plant Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) natural constituents, called withanolides for curing various diseases. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a vital role in disease propagation by processing the polyproteins which are required for its replication. Hence, it denotes a significant target for drug discovery. In the present study, we evaluate the potential of 40 natural chemical constituents of Ashwagandha to explore a possible inhibitor against main protease of SARS-CoV-2 by adopting the computational approach. The docking study revealed that four constituents of Ashwagandha; Withanoside II (-11.30 Kcal/mol), Withanoside IV (-11.02 Kcal/mol), Withanoside V (-8.96 Kcal/mol) and Sitoindoside IX (-8.37 Kcal/mol) exhibited the highest docking energy among the selected natural constituents. Further, MD simulation study of 100 ns predicts Withanoside V possess strong binding affinity and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the protein active site and indicates its stability in the active site. The binding free energy score also correlates with the highest score of -87.01 ± 5.01 Kcal/mol as compared to other selected compounds. In conclusion, our study suggests that Withanoside V in Ashwagandha may be serve as a potential inhibitor against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 to combat COVID-19 and may have an antiviral effect on nCoV.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Withania , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 601316, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389236

ABSTRACT

We report to use the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-Cov-2 to screen plant flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins. Twelve compounds, (-)-afzelechin (AF), (-)-epiafzelechin (EAF), (+)-catechin (CA), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (+)-catechin-3-O-gallate (CAG), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), (-)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GCG), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), procyanidin A2 (PA2), and procyanidin B2 (PB2), were selected for docking simulation. The resulting data predicted that all 12 metabolites could bind to Mpro. The affinity scores of PA2 and PB2 were predicted to be -9.2, followed by ECG, GCG, EGCG, and CAG, -8.3 to -8.7, and then six flavan-3-ol aglycones, -7.0 to -7.7. Docking characterization predicted that these compounds bound to three or four subsites (S1, S1', S2, and S4) in the binding pocket of Mpro via different spatial ways and various formation of one to four hydrogen bonds. In vitro analysis with 10 available compounds showed that CAG, ECG, GCG, EGCG, and PB2 inhibited the Mpro activity with an IC50 value, 2.98 ± 0.21, 5.21 ± 0.5, 6.38 ± 0.5, 7.51 ± 0.21, and 75.3 ± 1.29 µM, respectively, while CA, EC, EGC, GC, and PA2 did not have inhibitory activities. To further substantiate the inhibitory activities, extracts prepared from green tea (GT), two muscadine grapes (MG), cacao, and dark chocolate (DC), which are rich in CAG, ECG, GAG, EGCG, or/and PB2, were used for inhibitory assay. The resulting data showed that GT, two MG, cacao, and DC extracts inhibited the Mpro activity with an IC50 value, 2.84 ± 0.25, 29.54 ± 0.41, 29.93 ± 0.83, 153.3 ± 47.3, and 256.39 ± 66.3 µg/ml, respectively. These findings indicate that on the one hand, the structural features of flavan-3-ols are closely associated with the affinity scores; on the other hand, the galloylation and oligomeric types of flavan-3-ols are critical in creating the inhibitory activity against the Mpro activity.

9.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388458

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the primary receptor to enter host cells and initiate the infection. The critical binding region of ACE2 is an ∼30-amino-acid (aa)-long helix. Here, we report the design of four stapled peptides based on the ACE2 helix, which is expected to bind to SARS-CoV-2 and prevent the binding of the virus to the ACE2 receptor and disrupt the infection. All stapled peptides showed high helical contents (50 to 94% helicity). In contrast, the linear control peptide NYBSP-C showed no helicity (19%). We have evaluated the peptides in a pseudovirus-based single-cycle assay in HT1080/ACE2 cells and human lung cell line A549/ACE2, overexpressing ACE2. Three of the four stapled peptides showed potent antiviral activity in HT1080/ACE2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]: 1.9 to 4.1 µM) and A549/ACE2 (IC50: 2.2 to 2.8 µM) cells. The linear peptide NYBSP-C and the double-stapled peptide StRIP16, used as controls, showed no antiviral activity. Most significantly, none of the stapled peptides show any cytotoxicity at the highest dose tested. We also evaluated the antiviral activity of the peptides by infecting Vero E6 cells with the replication-competent authentic SARS-CoV-2 (US_WA-1/2020). NYBSP-1 was the most efficient, preventing the complete formation of cytopathic effects (CPEs) at an IC100 of 17.2 µM. NYBSP-2 and NYBSP-4 also prevented the formation of the virus-induced CPE with an IC100 of about 33 µM. We determined the proteolytic stability of one of the most active stapled peptides, NYBSP-4, in human plasma, which showed a half-life (T 1/2) of >289 min.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus with many unknowns. No vaccine or specific therapy is available yet to prevent and treat this deadly virus. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics. Structural studies revealed critical interactions between the binding site helix of the ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD). Therefore, targeting the entry pathway of SARS-CoV-2 is ideal for both prevention and treatment as it blocks the first step of the viral life cycle. We report the design of four double-stapled peptides, three of which showed potent antiviral activity in HT1080/ACE2 cells and human lung carcinoma cells, A549/ACE2. Most significantly, the active stapled peptides with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 showed high α-helicity (60 to 94%). The most active stapled peptide, NYBSP-4, showed substantial resistance to degradation by proteolytic enzymes in human plasma. The lead stapled peptides are expected to pave the way for further optimization of a clinical candidate.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Protein Binding , Vero Cells
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387195
11.
Biochemistry ; 59(48): 4601-4608, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387100

ABSTRACT

The development of reliable ways of predicting the binding free energies of covalent inhibitors is a challenge for computer-aided drug design. Such development is important, for example, in the fight against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, in which covalent inhibitors can provide a promising tool for blocking Mpro, the main protease of the virus. This work develops a reliable and practical protocol for evaluating the binding free energy of covalent inhibitors. Our protocol presents a major advance over other approaches that do not consider the chemical contribution of the binding free energy. Our strategy combines the empirical valence bond method for evaluating the reaction energy profile and the PDLD/S-LRA/ß method for evaluating the noncovalent part of the binding process. This protocol has been used in the calculations of the binding free energy of an α-ketoamide inhibitor of Mpro. Encouragingly, our approach reproduces the observed binding free energy. Our study of covalent inhibitors of cysteine proteases indicates that in the choice of an effective warhead it is crucial to focus on the exothermicity of the point on the free energy surface of a peptide cleavage that connects the acylation and deacylation steps. Overall, we believe that our approach should provide a powerful and effective method for in silico design of covalent drugs.


Subject(s)
Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Amides/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thermodynamics
12.
ACS Omega ; 6(10): 7181-7185, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387156

ABSTRACT

Serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE), protease 3 (PR3), cathepsin G (CatG), and neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4) are released by activated neutrophils swarming around the place of pathogen invasion to provoke an immune response. However, uncontrolled proteolytic activity of proteases results in various human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, thrombosis, and autoimmunity. In addition, proteases can be hijacked by several viruses to prime virus-derived surface proteins and evade immune detection by entering into the host cell. Indeed, porcine elastase increases the suitability of host cells to be infected by SARS-CoV-1. We compared the cleavage sites of human NE, PR3, and CatG as well as porcine-derived trypsin within the amino acid sequence of the proteolytic sensitive activation loop at the interface of S1/S2 of the spike protein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-1 as well as SARS-CoV-2. As a result, NE and PR3, but not CatG, hydrolyze the scissile peptide bond adjacent to the polybasic amino acid sequence of the S1/S2 interface of SARS-CoV-2, which is distinctive from SARS-CoV-1. These findings suggest that neutrophil-derived NE and PR3 participate in priming of the S1/S2 interface during an immune response.

13.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 16(2): 162-176, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Over the years, Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, and Moringa oleifera have been shown to possess some antiviral characteristics. This study applies molecular docking techniques to assess inhibitory effects of some bioactive compounds from the plants mentioned above against the main protease (Mpro), a key protein involved in SARS-CoV-2 replication. Furthermore, adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles for screened compounds were predicted in silico. METHODS: The crystal structure of Mpro was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank, while the plant bioactive compounds were retrieved from Pubchem. Drug-likeness of the selected compounds and a control drug (hydroxychloroquine) were assessed, and the compounds that satisfied the drug-likeness rule were docked against Mpro. The docked complexes were analyzed using LigPlot and the protein-ligand profiler server. The top five compound hits were subjected to ADMET screening using the ADMETSar server. RESULTS: A total of 17 out of 22 screened compounds passed Lipinski's assessment. Additionally, the most active compounds from the investigated plants exhibited relative inhibitory potentials against Mpro compared with hydroxychloroquine, which alludes to their possible involvement in inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease replication process. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, most of the active phytocomponents of the investigated plants exhibited relative inhibitory potentials against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and preferred pharmacological features when compared with hydroxychloroquine. These findings indicate these compounds are potentially antiviral candidates against SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Inorganica Chim Acta ; 519: 120287, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385648

ABSTRACT

In silico techniques helped explore the binding capacities of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) for a series of metalloorganic compounds. Along with small size vanadium complexes a vanadium-containing derivative of the peptide-like inhibitor N3 (N-[(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)carbonyl]alanyl-l-valyl-N1-((1R,2Z)-4-(benzyloxy)-4-oxo-1-{[(3R)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl] methyl }but-2-enyl)-l-leucinamide) was designed from the crystal structure with PDB entry code 6LU7. On theoretical grounds our consensus docking studies evaluated the binding affinities at the hitherto known binding site of Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 for existing and designed vanadium complexes. This main virus protease (Mpro) has a Cys-His dyad at the catalytic site that is characteristic of metal-dependent or metal-inhibited hydrolases. Mpro was compared to the human protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (hPTP1B) with a comparable catalytic dyad. HPTP1B is a key regulator at an early stage in the signalling cascade of the insulin hormone for glucose uptake into cells. The vanadium-ligand binding site of hPTP1B is located in a larger groove on the surface of Mpro. Vanadium constitutes a well-known phosphate analogue. Hence, its study offers possibilities to design promising vanadium-containing binders to SARS-CoV-2. Given the favourable physicochemical properties of vanadium nuclei, such organic vanadium complexes could become drugs not only for pharmacotherapy but also diagnostic tools for early infection detection in patients. This work presents the in silico design of a potential lead vanadium compound. It was tested along with 20 other vanadium-containing complexes from the literature in a virtual screening test by docking to inhibit Mpro of SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(4): 1179-1226, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384375

ABSTRACT

Here, we addressed the pharmacology and toxicology of synthetic organoselenium compounds and some naturally occurring organoselenium amino acids. The use of selenium as a tool in organic synthesis and as a pharmacological agent goes back to the middle of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. The rediscovery of ebselen and its investigation in clinical trials have motivated the search for new organoselenium molecules with pharmacological properties. Although ebselen and diselenides have some overlapping pharmacological properties, their molecular targets are not identical. However, they have similar anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, possibly, via activation of transcription factors, regulating the expression of antioxidant genes. In short, our knowledge about the pharmacological properties of simple organoselenium compounds is still elusive. However, contrary to our early expectations that they could imitate selenoproteins, organoselenium compounds seem to have non-specific modulatory activation of antioxidant pathways and specific inhibitory effects in some thiol-containing proteins. The thiol-oxidizing properties of organoselenium compounds are considered the molecular basis of their chronic toxicity; however, the acute use of organoselenium compounds as inhibitors of specific thiol-containing enzymes can be of therapeutic significance. In summary, the outcomes of the clinical trials of ebselen as a mimetic of lithium or as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 proteases will be important to the field of organoselenium synthesis. The development of computational techniques that could predict rational modifications in the structure of organoselenium compounds to increase their specificity is required to construct a library of thiol-modifying agents with selectivity toward specific target proteins.


Subject(s)
Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Organoselenium Compounds/toxicity , Amino Acids/chemistry , Animals , Azoles , Humans , Isoindoles , Molecular Structure , Selenium/chemistry , Selenium/physiology , Selenoproteins/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3061, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387342

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has triggered global efforts to develop therapeutics. The main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro), critical for viral replication, is a key target for therapeutic development. An organoselenium drug called ebselen has been demonstrated to have potent Mpro inhibition and antiviral activity. We have examined the binding modes of ebselen and its derivative in Mpro via high resolution co-crystallography and investigated their chemical reactivity via mass spectrometry. Stronger Mpro inhibition than ebselen and potent ability to rescue infected cells were observed for a number of derivatives. A free selenium atom bound with cysteine of catalytic dyad has been revealed in crystallographic structures of Mpro with ebselen and MR6-31-2 suggesting hydrolysis of the enzyme bound organoselenium covalent adduct and formation of a phenolic by-product, confirmed by mass spectrometry. The target engagement with selenation mechanism of inhibition suggests wider therapeutic applications of these compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonotic beta-corona viruses.


Subject(s)
Azoles/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azoles/chemistry , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine/chemistry , Hydrolysis , Isoindoles , Models, Molecular , Organoselenium Compounds/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Salicylanilides/chemistry , Salicylanilides/pharmacology , Selenium/metabolism
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 668, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387328

ABSTRACT

Except remdesivir, no specific antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently available. Here, we characterize two small-molecule-compounds, named GRL-1720 and 5h, containing an indoline and indole moiety, respectively, which target the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). We use VeroE6 cell-based assays with RNA-qPCR, cytopathic assays, and immunocytochemistry and show both compounds to block the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values of 15 ± 4 and 4.2 ± 0.7 µM for GRL-1720 and 5h, respectively. Remdesivir permitted viral breakthrough at high concentrations; however, compound 5h completely blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro without viral breakthrough or detectable cytotoxicity. Combination of 5h and remdesivir exhibits synergism against SARS-CoV-2. Additional X-ray structural analysis show that 5h forms a covalent bond with Mpro and makes polar interactions with multiple active site amino acid residues. The present data suggest that 5h might serve as a lead Mpro inhibitor for the development of therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteases/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteases/metabolism
18.
Curr Med Chem ; 28(22): 4484-4498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acute respiratory syndrome has recently emerged and continued to spread rapidly with high mortality and morbidity rates. Currently, no efficacious therapy is available to relieve coronavirus infections. As new drug design and development takes time, there is a possibility offindingan effective treatment from existing antiviral agents. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to find out the relationship between thepossible drug targets and themechanism of action of antiviral drugs. This review discusses the efforts indevelopingdrug from known or new molecules. METHODS: Viruses usually have two structural integrities, proteins and nucleic acids, both of which can be possible drug targets. Herein, we systemically discuss the structural-functional relationships of the spike, 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain like protease (PLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as these are prominent structural features of thecoronavirus. Certain antiviral drugs such as Remdesivir are RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitorswiththe ability to terminate RNA replication by inhibiting ATP. RESULTS: It is reported that ATP is involved in synthesis of coronavirus non-structural proteins from 3CLpro and PLpro. Similarly, mechanisms of action of many other antiviral agents havebeen discussed in this review. It will provide new insights into the mechanism of inhibition, and let us develop new therapeutic antiviral approaches against novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this review summarizes recent progress in developing protease inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Design , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases
19.
J Nat Med ; 75(4): 1080-1085, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375679

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains a cleavage motif R-X-X-R for furin-like enzymes at the boundary of the S1/S2 subunits. The cleavage of the site by cellular proteases is essential for S protein activation and virus entry. We screened the inhibitory effects of crude drugs on in vitro furin-like enzymatic activities using a fluorogenic substrate with whole-cell lysates. Of the 124 crude drugs listed in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, aqueous ethanolic extract of Cnidii Monnieris Fructus, which is the dried fruit of Cnidium monnieri Cussion, significantly inhibited the furin-like enzymatic activities. We further fractionated the plant extract and isolated the two active compounds with the inhibitory activity, namely, imperatorin and osthole, whose IC50 values were 1.45 mM and 9.45 µM, respectively. Our results indicated that Cnidii Monnieris Fructus might exert inhibitory effects on furin-like enzymatic activities, and that imperatorin and osthole of the crude drug could be potential inhibitors of the motif cleavage.


Subject(s)
Cnidium/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Assays , Furin/antagonists & inhibitors , Furin/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , A549 Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5260-5276, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363669

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, which has emerged as a global pandemic causing serious concerns. Lack of specific and effective therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 is a major concern and the development of vaccines is another important aspect in managing the infection effectively. The first step in the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis is the viral entry and it is mediated by its densely glycosylated spike protein (S-protein). Similar to the SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also engages angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the host cell entry receptor. In addition to ACE2, several recent studies have implicated the crucial role of cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) as a necessary assisting cofactor for ACE2-mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 was also identified to use both endosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L (CatB/L) and the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) for the pivotal role of S-protein priming mediating viral entry. As the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells is mandatory for viral infection, it becomes an extremely attractive therapeutic intervention point. In this regard, this review will focus on the therapeutic targeting of the crucial steps of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry like S-protein/ACE2 interaction and S-protein priming by host cell proteases. In addition, this review will also give insights to the readers on several therapeutic opportunities, pharmacological targeting of the viral-entry facilitators like S-Protein, ACE2, cell surface HS, TMPRSS2, and CatB/L and evidence for those drugs currently ongoing clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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