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1.
Ann Surg ; 274(2): 234-239, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Tracheostomy has an essential role in managing COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, limited data are available on how tracheostomy affects COVID-19 outcomes, and uncertainty surrounding risk of infectious transmission has led to divergent recommendations and practices. METHODS: It is a multicenter, retrospective study; data were collected on all tracheostomies performed in COVID-19 patients at 7 hospitals in 5 tertiary academic medical systems from February 1, 2020 to September 4, 2020. RESULT: Tracheotomy was performed in 118 patients with median time from intubation to tracheostomy of 22 days (Q1-Q3: 18-25). All tracheostomies were performed employing measures to minimize aerosol generation, 78.0% by percutaneous technique, and 95.8% at bedside in negative pressure rooms. Seventy-eight (66.1%) patients were weaned from the ventilator and 18 (15.3%) patients died from causes unrelated to tracheostomy. No major procedural complications occurred. Early tracheostomy (≤14 days) was associated with decreased ventilator days; median ventilator days (Q1-Q3) among patients weaned from the ventilator in the early, middle and late groups were 21 (21-31), 34 (26.5-42), and 37 (32-41) days, respectively with P = 0.030. Compared to surgical tracheostomy, percutaneous technique was associated with faster weaning for patients weaned off the ventilator [median (Q1-Q3): 34 (29-39) vs 39 (34-51) days, P = 0.038]; decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.7% vs 80.8%, P = 0.039); and among patients who were discharged, shorter intensive care unit duration [median (Q1-Q3): 33 (27-42) vs 47 (33-64) days, P = 0.009]; and shorter hospital length of stay [median (Q1-Q3): 46 (33-59) vs 59.5 (48-80) days, P = 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Early, percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with improved outcomes compared to surgical tracheostomy in a multi-institutional series of ventilated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/methods , United States
2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103090, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242863

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently we are faced with countless patients with prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the consequent increase in the need for tracheostomies and the risks that this includes for both patients and staff. OBJECTIVE: It is necessary to establish a safety protocol for the performance of percutaneous tracheostomies in order to reduce the associated infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 77 patients underwent tracheostomies between March 2020 and March 2021, evaluating the safety of the protocol and the rate of contagion among the staff. RESULTS: Percutaneous tracheostomy was performed according to the protocol in 72 patients, 5 were excluded due to unfavorable anatomy or other reasons. There were no cases of SARS COVID-19 contagion among health personnel attributable to the procedure during the three-week follow-up period. There were no surgical complications in this series. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend implementing security protocols such as the one discussed in this work, given its low contagion rate and ease of implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Risk , Safety , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/methods
3.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14663, 2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236944

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a burden on critical care facilities worldwide. Patients who remain critically unwell with COVID-19 require prolonged periods of ventilation, and the burden of both the resources during a pandemic and the slow respiratory wean must be managed. Percutaneous tracheostomies are commonplace in long-term intensive care patients, yet little is known about their role in COVID-19, particularly how operator safety is maintained during the procedure. Here, we describe an approach designed to minimize cross-infection of the operators undertaking percutaneous tracheostomies within this subset of patients. Focus should be on non-technical skills, prolonged periods of pre-oxygenation, and minimal ventilation during the procedure to minimize the risk of aerosolization generated from an open breathing system. Our modified technique demonstrates successful early experiences with no operators testing positive for COVID-19 or developing symptoms following any performed procedure.

4.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233166

ABSTRACT

AIM: An early tracheostomy is often considered for patients with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). However, there is no consensus on the timing of a tracheostomy in patients on VV-ECMO for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present report described the optimal timing of tracheostomy for these patients. METHOD: The present study was a single-center case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of nine consecutive patients who underwent tracheostomy either during or after VV-ECMO treatment in our center between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020. RESULTS: All the patients received a percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, which was performed during VV-ECMO in four patients. Three of these patients experienced hemorrhagic complications, and the remaining patient required a circuit change on the day after the operation. Heparin was discontinued 8 h preoperatively and resumed 1-14 h later. The platelet count was below normal in two patients, but no transfusion was performed. APTT was almost normal, and D-dimer was elevated postoperatively. The remaining five patients received a tracheostomy after weaning off VV-ECMO, and no complication was observed. Eight patients were deeply sedated during VV-ECMO to prioritize lung rest and prevent infecting the healthcare workers. CONCLUSION: In the present study, patients who underwent a tracheostomy during VV-ECMO tended to have more hemorrhagic complications. Because an early tracheostomy during ECMO has little benefit for patients with COVID-19, it should be performed after weaning off VV-ECMO to protect the safety of the healthcare workers concerned.

7.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211001595, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) is a safe technique that is performed frequently by otolaryngologists and intensivists. New challenges have been identified in order to maintain the safety of this procedure during the COVID-19 pandemic. A novel approach, using a modified demistifier canopy, was developed during the first wave of the pandemic and implemented for 17 consecutive percutaneous tracheostomies in order to enhance procedural safety. METHODS: A protocol was developed after performing a literature review of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients. A multidisciplinary tracheostomy team was established, including the departments of otolaryngology, critical care, and respiratory therapy. Simulation was performed prior to each PT, and postoperative debriefings were done. RESULTS: A protocol and technical description of PT using a modified demistifier canopy covering was written and video documented. Data were collected on 17 patients who underwent this procedure safely in our tertiary care hospital. There were no procedure-related complications, and no evidence of COVID-19 transmission to any member of the health care team during the study period. CONCLUSION: As patients continue to recover from COVID-19, their need for tracheostomy will increase. The technique described provides a safe, multidisciplinary method of performing PT in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 25(1): e135-e140, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069135

ABSTRACT

Introduction Percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a well-established practice that shows a reduced risk of wound infection compared with surgical tracheostomy, thus facilitating mechanical ventilation, nursing procedures, reduction in sedation and early mobilization. Objective This is an observational case-control study that compares the results of PT in ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prospectively enrolled to a similar group of subjects, retrospectively recruited, without COVID-19. Methods Ninety-eight consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU at Pisa Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana between March 11th and May 20 th , 2020 were prospectively studied. Thirty of them underwent PT using different techniques. Another 30 non-COVID-19 ICU patients were used as a control-group. The main outcome was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of PT in COVID-19 patients. We measured the rate of complications. Results Percutaneous tracheostomy was performed with different techniques in 30 of the 98 COVID-19 ICU patients admitted to the ICU. Tracheostomy was performed on day 10 (mean 10 ± 3.3) from the time of intubation. Major tracheal complications occurred in 5 patients during the procedure. In the control group of 30 ICU patients, no differences were found with regards to the timing of the tracheostomy, whereas a statistically significant difference was observed regarding complications with only one tracheal ring rupture reported. Conclusion Percutaneous tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients showed a higher rate of complications compared with controls even though the same precautions and the same expertise were applied. Larger studies are needed to understand whether the coronavirus disease itself carries an increased risk of tracheal damage.

11.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 8815925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033011

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The rapidly spreading Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) appeared to be a highly transmissible pathogen in healthcare environments and had resulted in a significant number of patients with respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy, an aerosol-generating procedure that places healthcare workers at high risk of contracting the infection. Instead of deferring or delaying the procedure, we developed and implemented a novel percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) protocol aimed at minimizing the risk of transmission while maintaining favorable procedural outcome. Patients and Methods. All patients who underwent PDT per novel protocol were included in the study. The key element of the protocol was the use of apnea during the critical part of the insertion and upon any opening of the ventilator circuit. This was coupled with the use of enhanced personnel protection equipment (PPE) with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR). The operators underwent antibody serology testing and were evaluated for COVID-19 symptoms two weeks from the last procedure included in the study. RESULTS: Between March 12th and June 30th, 2020, a total of 32 patients underwent PDT per novel protocol. The majority (80%) were positive for COVID-19 at the time of the procedure. The success rate was 94%. Only one patient developed minor self-limited bleeding. None of the proceduralists developed positive serology or any symptoms compatible with COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: A novel protocol that uses periods of apnea during opening of the ventilator circuit along with PAPR-enhanced PPE for PDT on COVID-19 patients appears to be effective and safe for patients and healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/surgery , Tracheostomy/methods , Aerosols , COVID-19/surgery , Dilatation , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tracheostomy for coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis patients requiring prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation remains a matter of debate. This study analysed the timing and outcomes of percutaneous tracheostomy, and reports our experience of a dedicated ENT-anaesthetics department led tracheostomy team. METHOD: A prospective single-centre observational study was conducted of patients undergoing tracheostomy, who had been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis, between 21st March and 20th May 2020. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients underwent tracheostomy after a median (interquartile range) of 16 (13-20) days of invasive mechanical ventilation. Median follow-up duration was 32 (23-40) days. Of patients, 86.7 per cent were successfully liberated from invasive mechanical ventilation in a median (interquartile range) of 12 (7-16) days. Moreover, 68.7 per cent were subsequently discharged from hospital. On univariate analysis, there was no difference in outcomes between early (before day 14) and late (day 14 or later) tracheostomy. The mortality rate was 8.6 per cent and no deaths were tracheostomy related. CONCLUSION: Outcomes appear favourable when patients are carefully selected. Percutaneous tracheostomy performed via a multidisciplinary approach, with appropriate training, was safe and optimised healthcare resource utilisation.

13.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(6): 2107-2114, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic placed an unprecedented demand on critical care services for the provision of mechanical ventilation. Tracheostomy formation facilitates liberation from mechanical ventilation with advantages for both the patient and wider critical care resource, and can be performed using both percutaneous dilatational and surgical techniques. We compared outcomes in those patients undergoing percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy to those undergoing surgical tracheostomy and make recommendations for provision of tracheostomy services in any future surge. METHODS: Multicentre multidisciplinary retrospective observational cohort study including 201 patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis admitted to an ICU in one of five NHS Trusts within the South London Adult Critical Care Network who required mechanical ventilation and subsequent tracheostomy. RESULTS: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy was performed in 124 (62%) of patients, and surgical tracheostomy in 77 (38%) of patients. There was no difference between percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy and surgical tracheostomy in either the rate of peri-operative complications (16.9 vs. 22.1%, p = 0.46), median [IQR(range)] time to decannulation [19.0 (15.0-30.2 (5.0-65.0)] vs. 21.0 [15.5-36.0 (5.0-70.0) days] or mortality (13.7% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.84). Of the 172 patients that were alive at follow-up, two remained ventilated and 163 were decannulated. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis that require tracheostomy to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation, there was no difference in outcomes between those patients that had percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy compared with those that had surgical tracheostomy. Planning for future surges in COVID-19-related critical care demands should utilise all available resource and expertise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Adult , Humans , London , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acute Crit Care ; 35(4): 263-270, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease that causes respiratory failure. Tracheostomy is an essential procedure in critically ill COVID-19 patients; however, it is an aerosol-generating technique and thus carries the risk of infection transmission. We report our experience with percutaneous tracheostomy and its safety in a real medical setting. METHODS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, 13 critically ill patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Daegu Catholic University Medical Center between February 24 and April 30, 2020. Seven of these patients underwent percutaneous tracheostomy using Ciaglia Blue Rhino. The medical environment, percutaneous tracheostomy method, and COVID-19 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results were retrospectively reviewed. After treatment, the COVID-19 infection status of healthcare personnel was investigated by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The ICU contained negative pressure cohort areas and isolation rooms, and healthcare personnel wore a powered air-purifying respirator system. We performed seven cases of percutaneous tracheostomy in the same way as in patients without COVID-19. Five patients (71.4%) tested positive for COVID-19 by RT-PCR at the time of tracheostomy. The median cycle threshold value for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was 30.60 (interquartile range [IQR], 25.50-36.56) in the upper respiratory tract and 35.04 (IQR, 28.40-36.74) in the lower respiratory tract. All healthcare personnel tested negative for COVID-19 by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous tracheostomy was performed with conventional methods in the negative pressure cohort area. It was safe to perform percutaneous tracheostomy in an environment of COVID-19 infection.

15.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 52(5): 366-372, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983603

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection has resulted in thousands of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs and treated with mechanical ventilation. Percutaneous tracheostomy is a well-known technique utilised as a strategy to wean critically ill patients from mechanical ventilation. Worldwide differences exist in terms of methods, operators, and settings, and questions remain regarding timing and indications. If tracheostomy is to be performed in COVID-19 patients, a safe environment is needed for optimal care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present a guidewire dilating forceps tracheostomy procedure in COVID-19 patients that was optimised including apnoea-moments, protective clothing, checklists, and clear protocols. We performed a retrospective analysis of the outcome after tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients between March 2020 and May 2020. RESULTS: The follow-up of the first 16 patients, median age 62 years, revealed a median intubation time until tracheostomy of 18 days and median cannulation time of 20 days. The overall perioperative complication rate and complication rate while cannulated was 19%, mainly superficial bleeding. None of the healthcare providers involved in performing the procedure developed any symptoms of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: This COVID-19-centred strategy based on flexibility, preparation, and cooperation between healthcare providers with different backgrounds facilitated percutaneous tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients without an increase in the overall complication rate or evidence of risk to healthcare providers. Our findings provide initial evidence that tracheostomy can be performed safely as a standard of care for COVID-19 patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation as was standard practice in ICU patients prior to the COVID-19 pandemic to promote ventilator weaning and patient recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , Anesthesia , Bronchoscopy , Checklist , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Personal Protective Equipment , Postoperative Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Postoperative Hemorrhage/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Instruments , Tracheostomy/instrumentation , Ventilator Weaning
16.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(5): 612-616, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the development of severe and persistent respiratory failure requiring long term ventilatory support. This necessitates the need for a reliable and easy to implement tracheostomy protocol given the concern for viral transmission risk to the involved healthcare personnel due to the aerosol generating nature of the procedure. We describe a protocol with unique and novel modifications to the Ciaglia dilatational percutaneous tracheostomy, effectively implemented during the Covid-19 pandemic at our institution. METHODS: We describe the baseline characteristics of our initial 11 patients who underwent the procedure. Outlined are the healthcare personnel involved and the steps which are organized into 4 phases: planning, pre-procedure, intra-procedure and post-procedure. We have tracked procedural duration, provider safety as well as the development of new complications. RESULTS: We describe use of this protocol for 11 bedside percutaneous tracheostomies performed on patients with COVID-19. The average total procedural duration as well as incision to tracheostomy tube placement times was 32.6 minutes and 5.8 minutes respectively. All 3 providers performing the tracheostomies remained asymptomatic with negative COVID-19 RT-PCR testing at 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: We report an efficacious and adaptable protocol for elective bedside percutaneous tracheostomies for patients with persistent ventilatory requirements due to COVID-19 with an intent to provide standardized and safe care for the patient and the involved healthcare personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Respiratory Insufficiency , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Proof of Concept Study , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Safety Management , Tracheostomy/methods , Tracheostomy/trends , United States
17.
J Surg Res ; 260: 38-45, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urgent guidance is needed on the safety for providers of percutaneous tracheostomy in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) with a period of apnea in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 is safe and can be performed for the usual indications in the intensive care unit. METHODS: This study involves an observational case series at a single-center medical intensive care unit at a level-1 trauma center in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were assessed for tracheostomy. Success of a modified technique included direct visualization of tracheal access by bronchoscopy and a blind dilation and tracheostomy insertion during a period of patient apnea to reduce aerosolization. Secondary outcomes include transmission rate of COVID-19 to providers and patient complications. RESULTS: From April 6th, 2020 to July 21st, 2020, 2030 patients were admitted to the hospital with COVID-19, 615 required intensive care unit care (30.3%), and 254 patients required mechanical ventilation (12.5%). The mortality rate for patients requiring mechanical ventilation was 29%. Eighteen patients were assessed for PDT, and 11 (61%) underwent the procedure. The majority had failed extubation at least once (72.7%), and the median duration of intubation before tracheostomy was 15 d (interquartile range 13-24). The median positive end-expiratory pressure at time of tracheostomy was 10.8. The median partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio on the day of tracheostomy was 142.8 (interquartile range 104.5-224.4). Two patients had bleeding complications. At 1-week follow-up, eight patients still required ventilator support (73%). At the most recent follow-up, eight patients (73%) have been liberated from the ventilator, one patient (9%) died as a result of respiratory/multiorgan failure, and two were discharged on the ventilator (18%). Average follow-up was 20 d. None of the surgeons performing PDT have symptoms of or have tested positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: and relevance: PDT for patients with COVID-19 is safe for health care workers and patients despite higher positive end-expiratory pressure requirements and should be performed for the same indications as other causes of respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/standards , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/instrumentation , Tracheostomy/methods , Tracheostomy/standards , Treatment Outcome
18.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936564

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Many ventilated COVID-19 patients require prolonged ventilation. We do not know if tracheostomy will improve their care. Given the paucity of data on this topic, the optimal surgical approach has yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal surgical strategy for performing tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Cohort study of 143 ventilator dependent COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheostomy at an academic medical center from April 15 to May 15, 2020, with follow up until June 1, 2020. SETTING: A New York City (NYC) academic quaternary referral center during its peak of COVID-19. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients admitted to a NYC medical center with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation for greater than 2 weeks who were unable to be extubated and determined to have reasonable chance of recovery and fit defined tracheostomy candidate criteria. EXPOSURE: Patients had either a percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) or open surgical tracheostomy (ST) performed by one of three surgical services. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and results of tracheostomy for both patients with COVID-19 and the surgeons performing the tracheostomy. Specifically, tracheostomy complications, inpatient mortality, disposition of patients, and transmission of COVID-19 to surgeons were measured. RESULTS: 143 patients underwent tracheostomy, 58 (41%) via a ST, and 85 (59%) via a PT. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the two groups, except that more patients who had a history of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) underwent PT (11% vs 2%, p=0.049). There were no statistical differences observed between the PT and ST groups with regard to bleeding complications (3.5% vs 10.3%, p=0.099), tracheostomy related complications (5.9% vs 8.6%, p=0.528), inpatient death (12% vs 5%, p=0.178), discharge from hospital (39% vs 36%,p=0.751) or surgeon illness (0% v 0%, p=1). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The rapid formation of a multi-disciplinary team allows for the efficient evaluation and performance of a large volume of tracheostomies in a resource-limited setting. Bedside tracheostomy in COVID-19 does not cause additional harm to patients if performed after 2 weeks from intubation. It also appears to be safe for proceduralists to perform in this timeframe. The manner of tracheostomy does not change outcomes significantly if it is performed safely and efficiently.

19.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): 261-270, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Early tracheotomy, defined as a procedure performed within 10 days from intubation, is associated with more ventilator free days, shorter ICU stay, and lower mortality than late tracheotomy. During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, it was especially important to save operating room resources and to have a shorter ICU stay for patients, when ICUs had insufficient beds. In this context of limited resources, early percutaneous tracheostomy could be an effective way to manage mechanically ventilated patients. Nevertheless, current recommendations suggest delaying or avoiding the tracheotomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Aim of the study was to analyze the hospital mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 patients who had received early percutaneous tracheostomy and factors associated with removal of tracheostomy cannula at ICU discharge. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Coronavirus disease 2019 ICU. PATIENTS: Adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 3 days after ICU admission. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three days after ICU admission, 164 patients were present in ICU and included in the analysis. One-hundred and twenty-one patients (74%) were tracheostomized, whereas the other 43 (26%) were managed with translaryngeal intubation only. In multivariable analysis, early percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with lower hospital mortality. Sixty-six of tracheostomized patients (55%) were discharged alive from the hospital. Age and male sex were the only characteristics that were independently associated with mortality in the tracheostomized patients (45.5% and 62.8% in tracheostomized and nontracheostomized patients, respectively; p = 0.009). Tracheostomy tube was removed in 47 of the tracheostomized patients (71%). The only variable independently associated with weaning from tracheostomy at ICU discharge was a faster start of spontaneous breathing after tracheotomy was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Early percutaneous tracheostomy was safe and effective in coronavirus disease 2019 patients, giving a good chance of survival and of weaning from tracheostomy cannula at ICU discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Survival Analysis
20.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(9): 832-834, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has inundated healthcare systems globally especially resources in intensive care units (ICUs). Tracheostomy may be required in critically ill COVID-19 patients to facilitate weaning and to optimize resources like ventilator and ICU beds. Percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) has become the standard of care globally in ICUs; however, it is considered a high-risk procedure in COVID-19 patients because of the inherent risk of aerosol generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 who were on mechanical ventilation because of respiratory failure for ≥10 days were evaluated for PCT. We developed a four-step approach from patient selection and timing, preparation, performance, and postprocedure for PCT in these patients. RESULTS: We evaluated our four-step protocol in four patients. One of them was non-COVID patient and rest three were COVID patients. The procedure was uneventful in all of the patients with median time of procedure and apnea is 10 minutes 30 seconds and 2 minutes 20 seconds, respectively. The tracheostomy was decannulated in two of these patients and one patient is still on ventilator. CONCLUSION: We believe our four-step protocol for PCT in critically ill COVID-19 patient is simple, safe, and easily adapted in any setting with limited training and available resources. We recommend further studies to evaluate this approach in selected critically ill COVID-19 patients who need tracheostomy. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Nasa P, Singh A, Ali A, Patidar S, Georgian A. Percutaneous Tracheostomy in COVID-19 Patients: A Four-step Safe Protocol. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(9):832-834.

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