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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0139, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has stretched ICU resources in an unprecedented fashion and outstripped personal protective equipment supplies. The combination of a novel disease, resource limitations, and risks to medical personnel health have created new barriers to implementing the ICU Liberation ("A" for Assessment, Prevention, and Manage pain; "B" for Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials and Spontaneous Breathing Trials; "C" for Choice of Analgesia and Sedation; "D" for Delirium Assess, Prevent, and Manage; "E" for Early Mobility and Exercise; and "F" for Family Engagement and Empowerment [ABCDEF]) Bundle, a proven ICU care approach that reduces delirium, shortens mechanical ventilation duration, prevents post-ICU syndrome, and reduces healthcare costs. This narrative review acknowledges barriers and offers strategies to optimize Bundle performance in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCES STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The most relevant literature, media reports, and author experiences were assessed for inclusion in this narrative review including PubMed, national newspapers, and critical care/pharmacology textbooks. DATA SYNTHESIS: Uncertainty regarding coronavirus disease 2019 clinical course, shifts in attitude, and changes in routine behavior have hindered Bundle use. A domino effect results from: 1) changes to critical care hierarchy, priorities, and ICU team composition; 2) significant personal protective equipment shortages cause; 3) reduced/restricted physical bedside presence favoring; 4) increased depth of sedation and use of neuromuscular blockade; 5) which exacerbate drug shortages; and 6) which require prolonged use of limited ventilator resources. Other identified barriers include manageable knowledge deficits among non-ICU clinicians unfamiliar with the Bundle or among PICU specialists deploying pediatric-based Bundle approaches who are unfamiliar with adult medicine. Both groups have been enlisted to augment the adult ICU work force to meet demand. Strategies were identified to facilitate Bundle performance to liberate patients from the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: We acknowledge current challenges that interfere with comprehensive management of critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Rapid response to new circumstances precisely requires established safety mechanisms and protocols like the ABCDEF Bundle to increase ICU and ventilator capacity and help survivors maximize recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 as early as possible.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753619

ABSTRACT

The real-world performance of a home telemonitoring strategy (ForeseeHome AMD Monitoring System®, Notal Vision, Inc.,Manassas VA, USA) was evaluated and compared to the device arm of the AREDS2-HOME study among patients with intermediate AMD (iAMD) who converted to neovascular AMD (nAMD). All patients with confirmed conversion to nAMD who used the home monitoring system from 10/2009 through 9/2018 were identified by Notal Vision Diagnostic Clinic's medical records. Selected outcome variables were evaluated, including visual acuity (VA) at baseline and at conversion, and change in visual acuity (VA) from baseline to time of conversion. In total, 8991 patients performed 3,200,999 tests at a frequency of 5.6 ± 3.2 times/week. The 306 eyes that converted from iAMD to nAMD over the study period (a 2.7% annual rate) were included in the analyses. There was a median (interquartile range) change of -3.0 (0.0-(-10.0)) letters among converted eyes, 81% [95% confidence interval (72-88%)] maintained a VA ≥ 20/40 at the time of conversion, while 69% of the conversion detections were triggered by system alerts. The real-world performance of an at-home testing strategy was similar to that reported for the device arm of the AREDS2-HOME study. The home telemonitoring system can markedly increase early detection of conversion to nAMD.

3.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(12): 2213-2219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714871

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the association between psychological stress and physical fitness. BACKGROUND: Both obesity and psychological stress reduce exercise performance. OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether obesity may modify the relationship. METHODS: A population of 4,080 military subjects in Taiwan was divided to three groups according to the BMI ≥27.0 kg/m2 (obesity), 24.0-26.9 kg/m2 (overweight) and 18.5-23.9 kg/m2 (normal weight). Normal, slight, and great psychological stress was evaluated by the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale (BSRS-5) score ≤5, 6-9, and ≥10, respectively. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness were respectively evaluated by time for a 3000-meter run and numbers of 2-minute sit-ups and 2-minute push-ups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with adjustments for age and sex was used to determine the relationship. RESULTS: The mean time (sec) for a 3000-meter run (standard error) under slight and great stress differed from that under normal stress in the normal weight (881.0 (11.0) and 877.9 (5.8) vs. 862.2 (1.7), p=0.089 and 0.0088, respectively) and in the obesity (928.1 (16.8) and 921.8 (10.7) vs. 895.2 (1.6), p=0.054 and 0.016, respectively), while the differences were not significant in the overweight (877.1 (12.7) and 877.5 (7.1) vs. 867.1 (2.1), both p >0.5). The impacts of the BMI on 2-minute sit-ups had a similar pattern with that on a 3000-meter run whereas the impact of the BMI on 2-minute push-ups was insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Mental stress may not affect physical fitness in overweight military personnel. The mechanism is not clear and should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Military Personnel , Body Mass Index , Hospitalization , Humans , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
4.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 28(2): 177-187, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to examine the prevalence rates and the relationship of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and comorbid depression/anxiety with neurocognitive performance in college athletes at baseline. We hypothesized a priori that the mood disturbance groups would perform worse than healthy controls, with the comorbid group performing worst overall. METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty-one (M = 620, F = 211) collegiate athletes completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at baseline which included self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Athletes were separated into four groups [Healthy Control (HC) (n = 578), Depressive Symptoms Only (n = 137), Anxiety Symptoms Only (n = 54), and Comorbid Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms (n = 62)] based on their anxiety and depression scores. Athletes' neurocognitive functioning was analyzed via Z score composites of Attention/Processing Speed and Memory. RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance revealed that, compared to HC athletes, the comorbid group performed significantly worse on measures of Attention/Processing Speed but not Memory. However, those in the depressive symptoms only and anxiety symptoms only groups were not significantly different from one another or the HC group on neurocognitive outcomes. Chi-square analyses revealed that a significantly greater proportion of athletes in all three affective groups were neurocognitively impaired compared to the HC group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that collegiate athletes with comorbid depressive/anxiety symptoms should be identified, as their poorer cognitive performance at baseline could complicate post-concussion interpretation. Thus, assessing for mood disturbance at baseline is essential to obtain an accurate measurement of baseline functioning. Further, given the negative health outcomes associated with affective symptomatology, especially comorbidities, it is important to provide care as appropriate.

5.
Neurophotonics ; 8(2): 025002, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666346

ABSTRACT

Significance: High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) has been shown to approach the resolution and localization accuracy of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging in the adult brain by exploiting densely spaced, overlapping samples of the probed tissue volume, but the technique has to date required large and cumbersome optical fiber arrays. Aim: To evaluate a wearable HD-DOT system that provides a comparable sampling density to large, fiber-based HD-DOT systems, but with vastly improved ergonomics. Approach: We investigated the performance of this system by replicating a series of classic visual stimulation paradigms, carried out in one highly sampled participant during 15 sessions to assess imaging performance and repeatability. Results: Hemodynamic response functions and cortical activation maps replicate the results obtained with larger fiber-based systems. Our results demonstrate focal activations in both oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin with a high degree of repeatability observed across all sessions. A comparison with a simulated low-density array explicitly demonstrates the improvements in spatial localization, resolution, repeatability, and image contrast that can be obtained with this high-density technology. Conclusions: The system offers the possibility for minimally constrained, spatially resolved functional imaging of the human brain in almost any environment and holds particular promise in enabling neuroscience applications outside of the laboratory setting. It also opens up new opportunities to investigate populations unsuited to traditional imaging technologies.

6.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 67(1): 217-225, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575690

ABSTRACT

Graduate medical education (GME) in ophthalmology has faced and overcome many challenges over the past years, and 2020 has been a game-changer. Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pandemic disrupted medical education globally, ophthalmic educators rapidly transformed their curricula to novel and effective virtual learning formats. Thus, while the COVID-19 outbreak has been one of the most significant challenges faced in the history of medical education, it has also provided an impetus to develop innovative teaching practices, bringing with it unprecedented success in allowing medical students to continue their education in ophthalmology despite these challenges. We review and appraise novel educational interventions implemented by various institutions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting their effectiveness, challenges and proposing future directions beyond the pandemic. Many of these innovations will persist even after the end of the pandemic because they have proven that face-to-face learning is not required for all aspects of the ophthalmic GME curriculum. As ophthalmic educators harness the power of educational technology it is critical that their novel educational initiatives are incorporated into competency-based curricula with assessments mapped to the competencies. Future research should focus on evaluating the impact of this transformation to virtual learning environments on student performances as well as implementing longitudinal assessment strategies for clinical competence in workplace-based practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Ophthalmology , Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , Ophthalmology/education , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 402-409, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a high burden on the healthcare system. Prediction models may assist in triaging patients. We aimed to assess the value of several prediction models in COVID-19 patients in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: In this retrospective study, ED patients with COVID-19 were included. Prediction models were selected based on their feasibility. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality, secondary outcomes were 14-day mortality and a composite outcome of 30-day mortality and admission to medium care unit (MCU) or intensive care unit (ICU). The discriminatory performance of the prediction models was assessed using an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: We included 403 patients. Thirty-day mortality was 23.6%, 14-day mortality was 19.1%, 66 patients (16.4%) were admitted to ICU, 48 patients (11.9%) to MCU, and 152 patients (37.7%) met the composite endpoint. Eleven prediction models were included. The RISE UP score and 4 C mortality scores showed very good discriminatory performance for 30-day mortality (AUC 0.83 and 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.88 for both), significantly higher than that of the other models. CONCLUSION: The RISE UP score and 4 C mortality score can be used to recognise patients at high risk for poor outcome and may assist in guiding decision-making and allocating resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23390, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial symptoms of patients with COVID-19 are very much like those of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); it is difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP with clinical symptoms and imaging examination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to construct an effective model for the early identification of COVID-19 that would also distinguish it from CAP. METHODS: The clinical laboratory indicators (CLIs) of 61 COVID-19 patients and 60 CAP patients were analyzed retrospectively. Random combinations of various CLIs (ie, CLI combinations) were utilized to establish COVID-19 versus CAP classifiers with machine learning algorithms, including random forest classifier (RFC), logistic regression classifier, and gradient boosting classifier (GBC). The performance of the classifiers was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and recall rate in COVID-19 prediction using the test data set. RESULTS: The classifiers that were constructed with three algorithms from 43 CLI combinations showed high performance (recall rate >0.9 and AUROC >0.85) in COVID-19 prediction for the test data set. Among the high-performance classifiers, several CLIs showed a high usage rate; these included procalcitonin (PCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), uric acid, albumin, albumin to globulin ratio (AGR), neutrophil count, red blood cell (RBC) count, monocyte count, basophil count, and white blood cell (WBC) count. They also had high feature importance except for basophil count. The feature combination (FC) of PCT, AGR, uric acid, WBC count, neutrophil count, basophil count, RBC count, and MCHC was the representative one among the nine FCs used to construct the classifiers with an AUROC equal to 1.0 when using the RFC or GBC algorithms. Replacing any CLI in these FCs would lead to a significant reduction in the performance of the classifiers that were built with them. CONCLUSIONS: The classifiers constructed with only a few specific CLIs could efficiently distinguish COVID-19 from CAP, which could help clinicians perform early isolation and centralized management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
10.
Intern Med J ; 51(11): 1810-1815, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 long-term sequelae are ill-defined since only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of this disease so far. AIMS: To evaluate the 6-month respiratory outcome and exercise capacity of COVID-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective observational study included COVID-19 patients with ARF. Interventions included CPAP during hospitalisation and 6-month follow up. Frailty assessment was carried out through frailty index (FI), pO2 /FiO2 during hospitalisation and at follow up, respiratory parameters, 6-min walking test (6MWT) and the modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Borg scale at follow up. RESULTS: More than half of the patients had no dyspnoea according to the mMRC scale. Lower in-hospital pO2 /FiO2 correlated with higher Borg scale levels after 6MWT (ρ 0.27; P 0.04) at the follow-up visit. FI was positively correlated with length of hospitalisation (ρ 0.3; P 0.03) and negatively with the 6MWT distance walked (ρ -0.36; P 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Robust and frail patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with CPAP outside the intensive care unit setting had good respiratory parameters and exercise capacity at 6-month follow up, although more severe patients had slightly poorer respiratory performance compared with patients with higher PaO2 /FiO2 and lower FI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Survival Rate/trends
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(1): 72-81, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the performance of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in predicting adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Emcare databases from 1989 to March 2019 to identify studies correlating sFlt-1, PlGF, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio with the occurrence of adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers screened 3,194 studies using Covidence. Studies were included if they examined the performance of sFLT-1, PlGF, or the sFLT-1/PlGF ratio in predicting adverse outcomes in women with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We extracted contingency tables with true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative results. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (area sROC) through a bivariate mixed-effects meta-analysis. Our literature search identified 3,194 articles, of which 33 (n=9,426 patients) were included. There was significant variation in the included studies with regard to the biomarkers and outcomes assessed. As such, few studies (n=4-8) were included in the meta-analysis component with significant heterogeneity between studies (I2=33-99). Nonetheless, both PlGF and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio demonstrated area sROC values between 0.68 and 0.87 for the prediction of composite adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes, preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSION: Placental growth factor and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio show prognostic promise for adverse outcomes in preeclampsia, but study heterogeneity limits their clinical utility. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019136207.


Subject(s)
Placenta Growth Factor/blood , Pre-Eclampsia/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243342, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388895

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In numerous countries, large population testing is impossible due to the limited availability of RT-PCR kits and CT-scans. This study aimed to determine a pre-test probability score for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study (4 University Hospitals) included patients with clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and results of blood tests (complete white blood cell count, serum electrolytes and CRP) were collected. A pre-test probability score was derived from univariate analyses of clinical and biological variables between patients and controls, followed by multivariate binary logistic analysis to determine the independent variables associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 605 patients were included between March 10th and April 30th, 2020 (200 patients for the training cohort, 405 consecutive patients for the validation cohort). In the multivariate analysis, lymphocyte (<1.3 G/L), eosinophil (<0.06 G/L), basophil (<0.04 G/L) and neutrophil counts (<5 G/L) were associated with high probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection but no clinical variable was statistically significant. The score had a good performance in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.918 (CI: [0.891-0.946]; STD = 0.014) with a Positive Predictive Value of high-probability score of 93% (95%CI: [0.89-0.96]). Furthermore, a low-probability score excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection with a Negative Predictive Value of 98% (95%CI: [0.93-0.99]). The performance of the score was stable even during the last period of the study (15-30th April) with more controls than infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: The PARIS score has a good performance to categorize the pre-test probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on complete white blood cell count. It could help clinicians adapt testing and for rapid triage of patients before test results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Probability , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 25(7): 2376-2387, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328979

ABSTRACT

Researchers seek help from deep learning methods to alleviate the enormous burden of reading radiological images by clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, clinicians are often reluctant to trust deep models due to their black-box characteristics. To automatically differentiate COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia from healthy lungs in radiographic imaging, we propose an explainable attention-transfer classification model based on the knowledge distillation network structure. The attention transfer direction always goes from the teacher network to the student network. Firstly, the teacher network extracts global features and concentrates on the infection regions to generate attention maps. It uses a deformable attention module to strengthen the response of infection regions and to suppress noise in irrelevant regions with an expanded reception field. Secondly, an image fusion module combines attention knowledge transferred from teacher network to student network with the essential information in original input. While the teacher network focuses on global features, the student branch focuses on irregularly shaped lesion regions to learn discriminative features. Lastly, we conduct extensive experiments on public chest X-ray and CT datasets to demonstrate the explainability of the proposed architecture in diagnosing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Algorithms , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Med Sci Educ ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic revealed existing gaps in the medical educational system that is heavily dependent on the presence of medical students and teachers in laboratory and class for instruction. This affects continuity in the implementation of the neuroanatomy component of the medical neuroscience laboratory activities during COVID-19. We hypothesized that pivoting wet laboratory neuroanatomy activities to online using an adaptive flexible blended method might represent an effective approach in the implementation of laboratory neuroanatomy activities during a pandemic. METHODS: The current study describes an adaptive flexible blended learning approach that systematically mixes virtual face-to-face interaction activities with the online learning of brain structures, and the discussion of clinical cases. Learning materials are delivered through both synchronous and asynchronous modes, and Year 1 medical students learn neuroanatomy laboratory activities at different locations and different times. Student performances in the adaptive flexible blended learning approach were compared with the learning of similar activities during an in-person implementation of neuroscience laboratory activities. RESULTS: The results of using this adaptive flexible blended learning approach provided an autonomous independent learning, self-study approach that broadened student performance such that we have more students scoring between 80 and 89%, whereas the in-person learning resulted in most of the students scoring > 90% in the medical neuroscience laboratory activities. CONCLUSION: An adaptive flexible blended learning approach that combined virtual face-to-face instruction using digital technology with online learning of neuroscience laboratory activities provided a unique educational experience for Year 1 medical students to learn neuroscience laboratory activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Brain ; 144(4): 1263-1276, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313840

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, neurological symptoms increasingly moved into the focus of interest. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed neurological and cognitive symptoms in hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients and aimed to determine their neuronal correlates. Patients with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection who required inpatient treatment primarily because of non-neurological complications were screened between 20 April 2020 and 12 May 2020. Patients (age > 18 years) were included in our cohort when presenting with at least one new neurological symptom (defined as impaired gustation and/or olfaction, performance < 26 points on a Montreal Cognitive Assessment and/or pathological findings on clinical neurological examination). Patients with ≥2 new symptoms were eligible for further diagnostics using comprehensive neuropsychological tests, cerebral MRI and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as soon as infectivity was no longer present. Exclusion criteria were: premorbid diagnosis of cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases or intensive care unit treatment. Of 41 COVID-19 inpatients screened, 29 patients (65.2 ± 14.4 years; 38% female) in the subacute stage of disease were included in the register. Most frequently, gustation and olfaction were disturbed in 29/29 and 25/29 patients, respectively. Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance was impaired in 18/26 patients (mean score 21.8/30) with emphasis on frontoparietal cognitive functions. This was confirmed by detailed neuropsychological testing in 15 patients. 18FDG PET revealed pathological results in 10/15 patients with predominant frontoparietal hypometabolism. This pattern was confirmed by comparison with a control sample using voxel-wise principal components analysis, which showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.62) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment performance. Post-mortem examination of one patient revealed white matter microglia activation but no signs of neuroinflammation. Neocortical dysfunction accompanied by cognitive decline was detected in a relevant fraction of patients with subacute COVID-19 initially requiring inpatient treatment. This is of major rehabilitative and socioeconomic relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
17.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(3): 623-632, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. Chest radiographs (CXRs) are typically obtained early in patients admitted with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and may help guide prognosis and initial management decisions. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of an admission CXR severity scoring system in predicting hospital outcomes in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS. This retrospective study included 240 patients (142 men, 98 women; median age, 65 [range, 50-80] years) admitted to the hospital from March 16 to April 13, 2020, with COVID-19 confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction who underwent chest radiography within 24 hours of admission. Three attending chest radiologists and three radiology residents independently scored patients' admission CXRs using a 0- to 24-point composite scale (sum of scores that range from 0 to 3 for extent and severity of disease in upper and lower zones of left and right lungs). Interrater reliability of the score was assessed using the Kendall W coefficient. The mean score was obtained from the six readers' scores for further analyses. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and admission laboratory values were collected from electronic medical records. ROC analysis was performed to assess the association between CXR severity and mortality. Additional univariable and multivariable logistic regression models incorporating patient characteristics and laboratory values were tested for associations between CXR severity and clinical outcomes. RESULTS. Interrater reliability of CXR scores ranged from 0.687 to 0.737 for attending radiologists, from 0.653 to 0.762 for residents, and from 0.575 to 0.666 for all readers. A composite CXR score of 10 or higher on admission achieved 53.0% (35/66) sensitivity and 75.3% (131/174) specificity for predicting hospital mortality. Hospital mortality occurred in 44.9% (35/78) of patients with a high-risk admission CXR score (≥ 10) versus 19.1% (31/162) of patients with a low-risk CXR score (< 10) (p < .001). Admission composite CXR score was an independent predictor of death (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10-1.24; p < .001). composite CXR score was a univariable predictor of intubation (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.34; p < .001) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.27; p = .007) but was not associated with these in multivariable models (p > .05). CONCLUSION. For patients admitted with COVID-19, an admission CXR severity score may help predict hospital mortality, intubation, and CRRT. CLINICAL IMPACT. CXR may assist risk assessment and clinical decision-making early in the course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
18.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 290-298, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307985

ABSTRACT

This paper describes how an anatomy and physiology laboratory class transitioned from a paper-based lab to an online learning platform that updated the curriculum to rely more on face-to-face small group collaboration and peer teaching. Student perceptions of the new format were positive, but halfway through the transition a global pandemic challenged the new instruction method. The face-to-face curriculum had to be adjusted to a virtual format that lacked in-person interaction between the instructor and the students. This switch to virtual labs had an adverse effect on both student perception and student performance in the second half of the semester. Our observations underscore the importance of creating an interactive community when teaching virtually.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Distance , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Humans , Pandemics , Students , Teaching
19.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(4): 1005-1011, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays are becoming increasingly available and may serve as a diagnostic aid in a multitude of settings relating to past infection status. However, there is limited literature detailing the longitudinal performance of EUA-cleared serologic assays in US populations, particularly in cohorts with a remote history of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (e.g., >2 months). METHODS: We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (anti-N) and Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (anti-S1-RBD) assays, using 174 residual clinical samples up to 267 days post-PCR diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 154) and a subset of samples obtained prior to the COVID-19 pandemic as negative controls (n = 20). RESULTS: The calculated diagnostic sensitivities for the anti-N and anti-S1-RBD assays were 89% and 93%, respectively. Of the 154 samples in the SARS-CoV-2-positive cohort, there were 6 discrepant results between the anti-N and anti-S1-RBD assays, 5 of which were specimens collected ≥200 days post-PCR positivity and only had detectable levels of anti-S1-RBD antibodies. When only considering specimens collected ≥100 days post-PCR positivity (n = 41), the sensitivities for the anti-N and anti-S1-RBD assays were 85% and 98%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-S1-RBD assay demonstrated superior sensitivity at time points more remote to the PCR detection date, with 6 more specimens from the SARS-CoV-2-positive cohort detected, 5 of which were collected more than 200 days post-PCR positivity. While analytical differences and reagent lot-to-lot variability are possible, this may indicate that, in some instances, anti-S1-RBD antibodies may persist longer in vivo and may be a better target for detecting remote SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Europe , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States
20.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(5): 666-670, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While COVID-19 symptoms impact rhinology (anosmia) and laryngology (airways), two major disciplines of the otolaryngology armamentarium, the virus has seemed to spare the auditory system. A recent study, however, reported changes in otoacoustic emission (OAE) signals measured in SARS-COV-2 positive patients. We sought to assess the effect of COVID-19 infection on auditory performance in a cohort of recovered SARS-COV-2 patients and controls. To avoid a potential bias of previous audiological dysfunction not related to SARS-COV-2 infection, the study encompasses patients with normal auditory history. We hypothesized that if SARS-COV-2 infection predisposes to hearing loss, we would observe subtle and early audiometric deficits in our cohort in the form of subclinical auditory changes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: The Institutional Review Board approved the study and we recruited participants who had been positive for SARS-COV-2 infection, according to an Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test on two nasopharyngeal swabs. The patients included in this study were asymptomatic for the SARS-COV-2 infection and were evaluated following recovery, confirmed by repeated swab testing. The control group comprised healthy individuals matched for age and sex, and with a normal auditory and otologic history. INTERVENTIONS: The eligibility to participate in this study included a normal audiogram, no previous auditory symptoms, normal otoscopy examination with an intact tympanic membrane, and bilateral tympanometry type A. None of our volunteers reported any new auditory symptoms following SARS-COV-2 infection. Ototacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements were used to evaluate the auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: OAE and ABR measurements. RESULTS: We have found no significant differences between recovered asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 patients and controls in any of transitory evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), or ABR responses. CONCLUSIONS: There is no cochlear dysfunction represented by ABR, TEOAE, and DPOAE responses in recovered COVID-19 asymptomatic patients. Retrocochlear function was also preserved as evident by the ABR responses. A long-term evaluation of a larger cohort of SARS-COV-2 patients will help to identify a possible contribution of SARS-COV-2 infection to recently published anecdotal auditory symptoms associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Humans , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
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