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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1213-1221, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450185

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the "off-label" repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a considerable proportion of the world's population soon could receive COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or postexposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help health care professionals mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk of COVID-19 exposure to personnel and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Lopinavir , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ritonavir , Torsades de Pointes , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Repositioning/ethics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/mortality , Torsades de Pointes/therapy
2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(7): 1488-1493, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450042

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been particularly challenging due to a lack of established therapies and treatment guidelines. With the rapid transmission of disease, even the off-label use of available therapies has been impeded by limited availability. Several antivirals, antimalarials, and biologics are being considered for treatment at this time. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize the available information regarding treatment options for COVID-19 and serve as a resource for health care professionals. OBJECTIVES: This narrative review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of current therapy options for COVID-19 and address the controversial use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). PubMed and SCOPUS were queried using a combination of the keywords "COVID 19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "treatment." All types of studies were evaluated including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. DISCUSSION: There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence. Remdesivir and convalescent plasma may be considered in critical patients with respiratory failure; however, access to these therapies may be limited. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonists may be used in patients who develop evidence of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Corticosteroids should be avoided unless there is evidence of refractory septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or another compelling indication for their use. ACE inhibitors and ARBs should not be discontinued at this time and ibuprofen may be used for fever. CONCLUSION: There are several ongoing clinical trials that are testing the efficacy of single and combination treatments with the drugs mentioned in this review and new agents are under development. Until the results of these trials become available, we must use the best available evidence for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Additionally, we can learn from the experiences of healthcare providers around the world to combat this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(5): 416-437, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449937

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacologic management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immunomodulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Nelfinavir/administration & dosage , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics , Purines , Pyrazoles , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/adverse effects
4.
Pharmacol Rev ; 73(3): 924-967, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447969

ABSTRACT

The endothelium, a cellular monolayer lining the blood vessel wall, plays a critical role in maintaining multiorgan health and homeostasis. Endothelial functions in health include dynamic maintenance of vascular tone, angiogenesis, hemostasis, and the provision of an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic interface. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium presents with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, heightened oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, leukocyte adhesion and hyperpermeability, and endothelial cell senescence. Recent studies have implicated altered endothelial cell metabolism and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as new features of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as a hallmark of many diverse human panvascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction has also been implicated in severe coronavirus disease 2019. Many clinically used pharmacotherapies, ranging from traditional lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, and antidiabetic drugs to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors and interleukin 1ß monoclonal antibodies, counter endothelial dysfunction as part of their clinical benefits. The regulation of endothelial dysfunction by noncoding RNAs has provided novel insights into these newly described regulators of endothelial dysfunction, thus yielding potential new therapeutic approaches. Altogether, a better understanding of the versatile (dys)functions of endothelial cells will not only deepen our comprehension of human diseases but also accelerate effective therapeutic drug discovery. In this review, we provide a timely overview of the multiple layers of endothelial function, describe the consequences and mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction, and identify pathways to effective targeted therapies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The endothelium was initially considered to be a semipermeable biomechanical barrier and gatekeeper of vascular health. In recent decades, a deepened understanding of the biological functions of the endothelium has led to its recognition as a ubiquitous tissue regulating vascular tone, cell behavior, innate immunity, cell-cell interactions, and cell metabolism in the vessel wall. Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of cardiovascular, metabolic, and emerging infectious diseases. Pharmacotherapies targeting endothelial dysfunction have potential for treatment of cardiovascular and many other diseases.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Endothelium, Vascular , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Agents/classification , Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Drug Discovery , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112333, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318856

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of viruses responsible for the severe pathophysiological effects on human health. The most severe outbreak includes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 poses major challenges to clinical management because no specific FDA-approved therapy yet to be available. Thus, the existing therapies are being used for the treatment of COVID-19, which are under clinical trials and compassionate use, based on in vitro and in silico studies. In this review, we summarize the potential therapies utilizing small molecules, bioactive compounds, nucleoside and nucleotide analogs, peptides, antibodies, natural products, and synthetic compounds targeting the complex molecular signaling network involved in COVID-19. In this review>230 natural and chemically synthesized drug therapies are described with their recent advances in research and development being done in terms of their chemical, structural and functional properties. This review focuses on possible targets for viral cells, viral proteins, viral replication, and different molecular pathways for the discovery of novel viral- and host-based therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus
6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e925-e931, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among people at risk of infection is crucial for understanding both the past transmission of COVID-19 and vulnerability of the population to continuing transmission and, when done serially, the intensity of ongoing transmission over an interval in a community. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 in a representative population-based cohort in Iquitos, one of the regions with the highest mortality rates from COVID-19 in Peru, where a devastating number of cases occurred in March, 2020. METHODS: We did a population-based study of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Iquitos at two timepoints: July 13-18, 2020 (baseline), and Aug 13-18, 2020 (1-month follow-up). We obtained a geographically stratified representative sample of the city population using the 2017 census data, which was updated on Jan 20, 2020. We included people who were inhabitants of Iquitos since COVID-19 was identified in Peru (March 6, 2020) or earlier. We excluded people living in institutions, people receiving any pharmacological treatment for COVID-19, people with any contraindication for phlebotomy, and health workers or individuals living with an active health worker. We tested each participant for IgG and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Zhejiang Orient Gene Biotech, China). We used survey analysis methods to estimate seroprevalence accounting for the sampling design effect and test performance characteristics. FINDINGS: We identified 726 eligible individuals and enrolled a total of 716 participants (99%), distributed across 40 strata (four districts, two sexes, and five age groups). We excluded ten individuals who: did not have consent from a parent or legal representative (n=3), had moved to Iquitos after March 6, 2020 (n=3), were in transit (n=2), or had respiratory symptoms (n=1). After adjusting for the study sampling effects and sensitivity and specificity of the test, we estimated a seroprevalence of 70% (95% CI 67-73) at baseline and 66% (95% CI 62-70) at 1 month of follow-up, with a test-retest positivity of 65% (95% CI 61-68), and an incidence of new exposures of 2% (95% CI 1-3). We observed significant differences in the seroprevalence between age groups, with participants aged 18-29 years having lower seroprevalence than those aged younger than 12 years (prevalence ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·73-0·98]; p=0·029). INTERPRETATION: After the first epidemic peak, Iquitos had one of the highest rates of seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies worldwide. Nevertheless, the city experienced a second wave starting in January, 2021, probably due to the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 P1 variant, which has shown higher transmissibility and reinfection rates. FUNDING: Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto (DIRESA), Loreto, Peru. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 644095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268239

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), triggered by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may lead to extrapulmonary manifestations like diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia, both predicting a poor prognosis and an increased risk of death. SARS-CoV-2 infects the pancreas through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), where it is highly expressed compared to other organs, leading to pancreatic damage with subsequent impairment of insulin secretion and development of hyperglycemia even in non-DM patients. Thus, this review aims to provide an overview of the potential link between COVID-19 and hyperglycemia as a risk factor for DM development in relation to DM pharmacotherapy. For that, a systematic search was done in the database of MEDLINE through Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine (CBM), and Wanfang Data. Data obtained underline that SARS-CoV-2 infection in DM patients is more severe and associated with poor clinical outcomes due to preexistence of comorbidities and inflammation disorders. SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs glucose homeostasis and metabolism in DM and non-DM patients due to cytokine storm (CS) development, downregulation of ACE2, and direct injury of pancreatic ß-cells. Therefore, the potent anti-inflammatory effect of diabetic pharmacotherapies such as metformin, pioglitazone, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2Is), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors may mitigate COVID-19 severity. In addition, some antidiabetic agents and also insulin may reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and severity through the modulation of the ACE2 receptor expression. The findings presented here illustrate that insulin therapy might seem as more appropriate than other anti-DM pharmacotherapies in the management of COVID-19 patients with DM due to low risk of uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). From these findings, we could not give the final conclusion about the efficacy of diabetic pharmacotherapy in COVID-19; thus, clinical trial and prospective studies are warranted to confirm this finding and concern.

8.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1230-1235, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254219

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Covid-19 is a contagious disease, and it is characterised by different symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Rising concerns about Covid-19 have severely affected the healthcare system in all countries as the Covid-19 outbreak has developed at a rapid rate all around the globe. Intriguing, a clinically used drug, acetazolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, CA, EC 4.2.1.1), is used to treat high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE), showing a high degree of clinical similarities with the pulmonary disease caused by Covid-19. In this context, this preliminary study aims to provide insights into some factors affecting the Covid-19 patients, such as hypoxaemia, hypoxia as well as the blood CA activity. We hypothesise that patients with Covid-19 problems could show a dysregulated acid-base status influenced by CA activity. These preliminary results suggest that the use of CA inhibitors as a pharmacological treatment for Covid-19 may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carbonic Anhydrases/blood , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Altitude Sickness/blood , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Bicarbonates/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Cough/blood , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Drug Repositioning , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/virology , Fever/blood , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/blood , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Oximetry , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 679702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed excessive strain on health care systems and is especially evident in treatment decision-making for cancer patients. Glioblastoma (GBM) patients are among the most vulnerable due to increased incidence in the elderly and the short survival time. A virtual meeting was convened on May 9, 2020 with a panel of neuro-oncology experts with experience using Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields). The objective was to assess the risk-to-benefit ratio and provide guidance for using TTFields in GBM during the COVID-19 pandemic. PANEL DISCUSSION: Topics discussed included support and delivery of TTFields during the COVID-19 pandemic, concomitant use of TTFields with chemotherapy, and any potential impact of TTFields on the immune system in an intrinsically immunosuppressed GBM population. Special consideration was given to TTFields' use in elderly patients and in combination with radiotherapy regimens. Finally, the panel discussed the need to better capture data on COVID-19positive brain tumor patients to analyze longitudinal outcomes and changes in treatment decision-making during the pandemic. EXPERT OPINION: TTFields is a portable home-use device which can be managed via telemedicine and safely used in GBM patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. TTFields has no known immunosuppressive effects which is important during a crisis where other treatment methods might be limited, especially for elderly patients with multiple co-morbidities. It is too early to estimate the full impact of COVID-19 on the global healthcare system and on patient outcomes and the panel strongly recommended collaboration with existing cancer COVID-19 registries to follow CNS tumor patients.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 625836, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241176

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through excessive end organ inflammation. Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology, management, and the great efforts worldwide to produce effective drugs, death rates of COVID-19 patients remain unacceptably high, and effective treatment is unfortunately lacking. Pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating inflammation in COVID-19 are being evaluated worldwide. Several drug therapies targeting this excessive inflammation, such as tocilizumab, an interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitor, corticosteroids, programmed cell death protein (PD)-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition, cytokine-adsorption devices, and intravenous immunoglobulin have been identified as potentially useful and reliable approaches to counteract the cytokine storm. However, little attention is currently paid for non-drug therapeutic strategies targeting inflammatory and immunological processes that may be useful for reducing COVID-19-induced complications and improving patient outcome. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates inflammation both in experimental models and preliminary data in human. Modulating the activity of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways (CAPs) described by the group of KJ Tracey has indeed become an important target of therapeutic research strategies for inflammatory diseases and sepsis. Non-invasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS), as a non-pharmacological adjuvant, may help reduce the burden of COVID-19 and deserve to be investigated. VNS as an adjunct therapy in COVID-19 patients should be investigated in clinical trials. Two clinical trials on this topic are currently underway (NCT04382391 and NCT04368156). The results of these trials will be informative, but additional larger studies are needed.

11.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 4(5): e1388, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The understanding of the impact of COVID-19 in patients with cancer is evolving, with need for rapid analysis. AIMS: This study aims to compare the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with cancer (with and without COVID-19) and characterize the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-world data (RWD) from two health systems were used to identify 146 702 adults diagnosed with cancer between 2015 and 2020; 1267 COVID-19 cases were identified between February 1 and July 30, 2020. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics were extracted. Incidence of all-cause mortality, hospitalizations, and invasive respiratory support was assessed between February 1 and August 14, 2020. Among patients with cancer, patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be Non-Hispanic black (NHB), have active cancer, have comorbidities, and/or live in zip codes with median household income <$30 000. Patients with COVID-19 living in lower-income areas and NHB patients were at greatest risk for hospitalization from pneumonia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, cough, respiratory failure, and acute renal failure and were more likely to receive hydroxychloroquine. All-cause mortality, hospital admission, and invasive respiratory support were more frequent among patients with cancer and COVID-19. Male sex, increasing age, living in zip codes with median household income <$30 000, history of pulmonary circulation disorders, and recent treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors or chemotherapy were associated with greater odds of all-cause mortality in multivariable logistic regression models. CONCLUSION: RWD can be rapidly leveraged to understand urgent healthcare challenges. Patients with cancer are more vulnerable to COVID-19 effects, especially in the setting of active cancer and comorbidities, with additional risk observed in NHB patients and those living in zip codes with median household income <$30 000.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Data Analysis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
12.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230425

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered a sudden global change in healthcare systems. Cancer patients have a higher risk of death from COVID-19 in comparison to patients without cancer. Many studies have stated that various factors, such as older age, frequent exposure to healthcare, and higher smoking rates are responsible for the complications of COVID-19. We hypothesize that side effects of chemotherapy, such as cellular senescence, could worsen COVID-19. Given this situation, in this review, we highlight the updated findings of research investigating the impact of cellular senescence on COVID-19 complications and explored potential therapeutic targets for eliminating senescent cells during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/virology
13.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 38(8): 683-694, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223197

ABSTRACT

Since the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, the strain on healthcare services affected patients suffering from various comorbidities and added to the psychological burden. The study aimed to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and anxiety levels of pediatric Hematology/Oncology patients during the COVID19 pandemic and evaluate the association between anxiety levels and physical, emotional, and social aspects of HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 292 children between 2.5 - 13 years with chronic hematological/oncological disorders. Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale were used for assessment of HRQoL and anxiety, respectively. Linear regression was performed to assess the association between background and COVID-19 related factors with anxiety level. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was performed to assess the association between the three HRQoL dimensions with child anxiety and different independent variables. Transfusion-dependent patients had lower anxiety levels than patients receiving chemotherapy (B=-14.45, 95% CI=-21.94,-6.95).Children who were aware of the pandemic had lower anxiety scores than those who were not, while those suffering from canceled clinic days had higher anxiety levels (B=-8.66,95% CI=-14.86,-2.45, and B = 7.33,95% CI =1.22,13.45, respectively). Anxiety significantly reduced the three HRQoL domains (B=-0.36, 95% CI=-0.47, -0.24 for physical functioning, B=-0.45, 95% CI =-0.56, -0.33 for social functioning and B=-0.50, 95% CI=-0.63,-0.38 for emotional functioning). This study highlights the effect of the pandemic on the anxiety level and hence the HRQoL of chronic hematological/oncological pediatric patients for guiding policies and interventions to maintain their psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Neoplasms , Quality of Life , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hematologic Diseases/psychology , Humans , Neoplasms/psychology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 615333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221951

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is spreading worldwide at disturbing rates, overwhelming global healthcare. Mounting death cases due to disease complications highlight the necessity of describing efficient drug therapy strategies for severe patients. COVID-19 severity associates with hypercoagulation and exacerbated inflammation, both influenced by ACE2 downregulation and cytokine storm occurrence. In this review, we discuss the applicability of the anticoagulant heparin and the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone for managing severe COVID-19 patients. The upregulated inflammation and blood clotting may be mitigated by administrating heparin and its derivatives. Heparin enhances the anticoagulant property of anti-thrombin (AT) and may be useful in conjunction with fibrinolytic drugs for severe COVID-19 patients. Besides, heparin can also modulate immune responses, alleviating TNF-α-mediated inflammation, impairing IL-6 production and secretion, and binding to complement proteins and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Moreover, heparin may present anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential once it can impact viral infectivity and alter SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein architecture. Another feasible approach is the administration of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Although glucocorticoid's administration for viral infection managing is controversial, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that dexamethasone treatment is capable of drastically diminishing the death rate of patients presenting with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) that required invasive mechanical ventilation. Importantly, dexamethasone may be detrimental by impairing viral clearance and inducing hyperglycemia and sodium retention, hence possibly being deleterious for diabetics and hypertensive patients, two major COVID-19 risk groups. Therefore, while heparin's multitarget capacity shows to be strongly beneficial for severe COVID-19 patients, dexamethasone should be carefully administered taking into consideration underlying medical conditions and COVID-19 disease severity. Therefore, we suggest that the multitarget impact of heparin as an anti-viral, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory drug in the early stage of the COVID-19 could significantly reduce the need for dexamethasone treatment in the initial phase of this disease. If the standard treatment of heparins fails on protecting against severe illness, dexamethasone must be applied as a potent anti-inflammatory shutting-down the uncontrolled and exacerbated inflammation.

15.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(4): 436-443, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide, affecting 1.39 billion people. This review discusses recent literature regarding the global burden of HTN and emerging concepts in prevalence, treatment, and control in different regions around the globe. RECENT FINDINGS: Community-based interventions and telemedicine may be useful in increasing access to care and identifying/assisting patients with HTN, especially in populations with geographical and economic barriers to healthcare. Home blood pressure monitoring is beneficial for HTN control in diverse regions. Polypills have proven benefits to decrease HTN and CVD risk. Continuation of treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers in high risk COVID-19 patients appears appropriate. SUMMARY: Extensive research demonstrates that early screening/treatment, lifestyle modification, and pharmacotherapy are essential to control HTN worldwide. This review highlights recent research and novel concepts on effective interventions being used globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Neth Heart J ; 29(Suppl 1): 20-34, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been debate on the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme­2 (ACE2) expression mediating pharmacotherapy in COVID-19 infected patients. Although it has been suggested that these drugs might lead to a higher susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection, experimental data suggest these agents may reduce acute lung injury via blocking angiotensin-II-mediated pulmonary permeability, inflammation and fibrosis. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to answer the question: What is the effect of medications that influence ACE2 expression (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and thiazolidinediones) on the outcomes of COVID-19? Relevant outcome measures were mortality (crucial), hospital admission, length of stay, thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism, stroke, transient ischaemic attack), need for mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury and use of renal replacement therapy. Medline and Embase databases were searched with relevant search terms until 24 June 2020. After systematic analysis, nine studies were included. RESULTS: The results were described for two different groups, an overall group in which all users were compared with non-users and a group in which only hypertensive patients were included. Within each group a distinction was made between results for ACEI/ARB use, ACEI use, ARB use, NSAID use and thiazolidinedione use. None of the studies demonstrated increased mortality in the two groups. Furthermore, none of the studies showed an effect on other outcome measures in COVID-19, such as ICU admission, length of hospital stay, thromboembolic complications, need for mechanical ventilation, acute kidney failure or need for renal replacement therapy. However, the level of evidence of all studies varied from 'moderate' to 'very low', according to the GRADE methodology. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the literature demonstrated that there was insufficient evidence to answer our objective on the effect of ACE2 expression mediating pharmacotherapy on outcome in COVID-19 patients, especially due to the low scientific quality of the described studies. Randomised controlled studies are needed to answer this question.

17.
J Transl Int Med ; 9(1): 8-11, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183793
18.
Respir Care ; 66(7): 1167-1172, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181735

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, has led to a pandemic of acute respiratory illness. Pharmacologic treatments for COVID-19 have included treatments that target infection prevention, prevention of viral replication, reduce inflammation, and manage symptoms of respiratory failure caused by the disease. This is a review of key pharmacologic treatments for COVID-19 based on peer-reviewed articles from 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 85: 109-113, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the first peak phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the German Ministry of Health recommended that elective treatments should be postponed to increase hospital capacities. This has also compromised the capacity for application of specialized Parkinson's disease (PD) therapies to an unknown extent. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study using administrative database of all hospitalized patients with main diagnosis of PD receiving multimodal complex treatment (PD-MCT), initial setup of levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) or continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) in Germany. We compared case numbers and clinical characteristics of the pandemic (March 16th - May 15th, 2020) and post-lockdown (July 16th - September 15th, 2020) period with the pre-pandemic (January 16th - March 15th, 2020) and historical control period (March 16th - May 15th, 2019). RESULTS: We identified a strong decline for PD-MCT(-62.8%) and for the application of drug pump-based therapies (-69.4%) during the first peak phase of the pandemic as compared to the pre-pandemic period while specialized PD treatment procedures increased again in the post-lockdown phase. Advanced disease was a marker for PD-MCT patients during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: Besides the marked decline in specialized PD treatments during the first peak phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we found recuperative effects for these procedures in the post-lockdown period without reaching pre-pandemic levels. Strengthening treatment capacities for PD patients, even in the event of a persistent pandemic, is urgently needed in order to maintain the quality of care.


Subject(s)
Antiparkinson Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infusion Pumps/trends , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Combined Modality Therapy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175191

ABSTRACT

There is currently no curative drug therapy for COVID-19. The spread of the virus seems relentless despite the unprecedented epidemiological measures. Prevention remains the only feasible option to stop the pandemic; without population-level vaccination, we are unlikely to regain the quality of social life and the unrestricted economy/commerce we enjoyed before. Anti-vaxxers and conspiracy theorists are seemingly oblivious to the detrimental effect of COVID-19 both at an individual and societal level. These groups have (and probably will) continue to attempt to undermine efforts to eradicate the virus despite the fact that the major reduction in morbidity/and mortality of infectious diseases of the past century was achieved through the development of vaccines and improved hygiene. Conspiracy theories are directly associated with reduced vaccine uptake and unfortunately neither anti-vaxxers nor vaccine hesitants cannot be persuaded (debunked) with logical arguments; hence, prescribers must not only be aware of the truth underlying the dense web of misinformation but must fully understand the psychological aspects as well to be able to efficiently counsel about the potential benefits and harms. Such knowledge is pivotal to help the lay public to make informed decisions about SARS CoV-2 in general and vaccination in particular; as the COVID-19 situation can probably be best controlled with mass inoculation and novel immune therapies. The lessons learnt regarding the importance of efficient communication and the adherence to the proven epidemiological measures hopefully would be leaving us better prepared for the future if challenged by novel communicable diseases of pandemic potential.

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