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2.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(10): 1150-1160, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of implementing a deep learning-based computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the interpretation of chest X-ray radiographs (CXR) of suspected coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and investigate the diagnostic performance of CXR interpretation with CAD assistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, initial CXR of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were investigated. A commercialized deep learning-based CAD system that can identify various abnormalities on CXR was implemented for the interpretation of CXR in daily practice. The diagnostic performance of radiologists with CAD assistance were evaluated based on two different reference standards: 1) real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) results for COVID-19 and 2) pulmonary abnormality suggesting pneumonia on chest CT. The turnaround times (TATs) of radiology reports for CXR and rRT-PCR results were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among 332 patients (male:female, 173:159; mean age, 57 years) with available rRT-PCR results, 16 patients (4.8%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. Using CXR, radiologists with CAD assistance identified rRT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients with sensitivity and specificity of 68.8% and 66.7%, respectively. Among 119 patients (male:female, 75:44; mean age, 69 years) with available chest CTs, radiologists assisted by CAD reported pneumonia on CXR with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 72.3%. The TATs of CXR reports were significantly shorter than those of rRT-PCR results (median 51 vs. 507 minutes; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Radiologists with CAD assistance could identify patients with rRT-PCR-positive COVID-19 or pneumonia on CXR with a reasonably acceptable performance. In patients suspected with COVID-19, CXR had much faster TATs than rRT-PCRs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(4): 501-504, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089760

ABSTRACT

From December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia (formerly known as the 2019 novel Coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) broke out in Wuhan, China. In this study, we present serial CT findings in a 40-year-old female patient with COVID-19 pneumonia who presented with the symptoms of fever, chest tightness, and fatigue. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CT showed rapidly progressing peripheral consolidations and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. After treatment, the lesions were shown to be almost absorbed leaving the fibrous lesions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(4): 305-311, 2020 Apr 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the principles of differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by analyzing one case of lymphoma who presented pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGO) after courses of chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline demographics and clinicopathological data of eligible patients were retrieved from medical records. Information of clinical manifestations, history of epidemiology, lab tests and chest CT scan images of visiting patients from February 13 to February 28 were collected. Literatures about pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients were searched from databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and CNKI. Results: Among the 139 cancer patients who underwent chest CT scans before chemotherapy, pulmonary infiltrates were identified in eight patients (5.8%), five of whom were characterized with GGOs in lungs. 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing was performed in three patients and the results were negative. One case was a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent CHOP chemotherapy regimen. His chest CT scan image displayed multiple GGOs in lungs and the complete blood count showed decreased lymphocytes. This patient denied any contact with confirmed/suspected cases of 2019-nCoV infection, fever or other respiratory symptoms. Considering the negative result of nuclear acid testing, this patient was presumptively diagnosed with viral pneumonia and an experiential anti-infection treatment had been prescribed for him. Conclusions: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicates the clinical scenario of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients. The epidemic history, clinical manifestation, CT scan image and lab test should be taken into combined consideration. The 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing might be applied in more selected patients. Active anti-infection treatment and surveillance of patient condition should be initiated if infectious disease is considered.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(8): 225-228, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989681

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that started in China in December 2019 and carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. To-date (4-22-2020) it affected over 2.6 million people and resulted in nearly 200,000 death worldwide mainly due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). Among the major underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in COVID 19 is hypercoagulability, leading to increased risk for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and was found to have a thrombus in transit by routine point of care ultrasound (POCUS). While computer tomography (CT) angiography is the test of choice, the utilization of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has gained traction as an adjunctive means of surveillance for the development of VTE in patients with COVID-19. In this report, we discuss the clinical utility of POCUS in diagnosing thrombus in transit in COVID 19 populations.

6.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(10): 337-340, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989678

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a public health emergency and has been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. It has commonly been associated with pulmonary manifestations and there is a growing body of evidence of multisystem involvement of the virus. As evidenced by various case reports and cohort studies, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy has been a common manifestation amongst the critically ill and has been associated with increased mortality. The presence of venous thromboembolic events in patients who are critically ill due to COVID-19 has prompted the adoption of anticoagulation regimens aimed at preventing thromboembolic phenomena. Coagulation abnormalities have also been implicated in the progression and the severity of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). There is strong evidence that D-dimer levels help predict which patients are at risk of thromboembolic events, progression to ARDS, DIC, immune dysregulation and mortality. We will review the utility of D-dimer as screening tool and in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients prone to developing thromboembolic events, DIC, immune dysregulation and death. To date, the studies that have been published show the presence of elevated D-dimer levels in both the adult and pediatric populations and the measured level correlates with disease severity. Studies have also shown the relative increase of D-dimer levels in non-survivors compared to survivors. The elevation of D-dimer levels has shown to guide clinical decision making, namely the initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation and mortality benefit in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia compared to severe non COVID-19 pneumonia. Although the current body of literature suggested the use of D-dimer as a risk stratification tool and as a test to augment clinical judgement regarding the initiation of anticoagulation, randomized control trials are needed to fully understand the relationship between COVID-19 infection and the efficacy of D-dimer assays in clinical decision making.

9.
Wien Klin Mag ; 23(3): 92-115, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906083

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is currently a challenge worldwide. In Austria, a crisis within the health care system has so far been avoided. The treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including SARS-CoV­2 infections, should continue to be based on evidence-based CAP guidelines during the pandemic. However, COVID-19-specific adjustments are useful. The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases must be adapted during the pandemic, but must still be guaranteed.

10.
Acta Clin Belg ; 77(1): 113-117, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent publications on Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) report that diabetic people with or without co-morbidities are at higher risk of developing severe and/or fatal illnesses. METHOD AND RESULT: We report the first case of a 60-year-old man with a 27-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus, infected by SARS-CoV-2 presenting with an euglycaemic ketoacidosis and an acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSION: This case report reminds us of the importance of adjusting more recent glucose-lowering drugs, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, in the overall management of type 1 diabetic individuals during the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. ABBREVIATIONS: COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, T1DM: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, SGLT2i: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis, euDKA: euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JGH Open ; 4(6): 1102-1107, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898843

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Hepatic steatosis (HS) is associated with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, comorbidities recently related to COVID-19 severity. Here, we assessed if tomographic HS is also a risk factor for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: We included 213 patients with a positive real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and chest computed tomography (CT) from an out-hospital facility and a hospital. We obtained information on demographics; weight; height; smoking history; diabetes; hypertension; and cardiovascular, lung, and renal disease. Two radiologists scored the CO-RADs system (COVID-19 Reporting and Data System) (1 = normal, 2 = inconsistent, 3-4 = indeterminate, and 5 = typical findings) and the chest CT severity index (≥20 of 40 was considered severe disease). They evaluated the liver-to-spleen ratio (CTL/S) and defined tomographic steatosis as a CTL/S index ≤0.9. We used descriptive statistics, χ2 and t student tests, logistic regression, and reported odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Of the patients, 61% were men, with a mean age of 51.2 years, 48.3% were CO-RADs 1 and 51.7% CO-RADs 2-5. Severe tomographic disease was present in 103 patients (48.4%), all CO-RADs 5. This group was older; mostly men; and with a higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and HS (69.9 vs 29%). On multivariate analysis, age (OR 1.058, 95% CI 1.03-1.086, P < 0.0001), male gender (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.03-3.8, P = 0.04), and HS (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.4-9.7, P < 0.0001) remained associated. Conclusion: HS was independently associated with severe COVID pneumonia. The physiopathological explanation of this finding remains to be elucidated. CTL/S should be routinely measured in thoracic CT scans in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

12.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(2): 55-60, 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804805

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of devices that provide continuous positive pressure in the airway has shown improvement in various pathologies that cause respiratory failure. In the COVID 19 pandemic episode the use of these devices has become widespread, but, due to the shortage of conventional CPAP devices, alternative devices have been manufactured. The objective of this study is to describe the use of these devices, as well as their efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data are collected from patients admitted for Pneumonia due to COVID 19 at the IFEMA Field Hospital. Data are collected from 23 patients with respiratory failure and need for ventilatory support. RESULTS: Study carried out on a total of 23 patients, dated admission to IFEMA. Alternative CPAP was used in five patients (21.7%), while ventilatory support with a reservoir mask or Ventimask Venturi effect was used in the remaining 18 patients (78.3%). A progressive increase in saturation is observed in those patients in whom alternative CPAP was used (from 94% on average to 98% and 99% on average after 30 and 60 min with the mask, respectively), although this change was not significant (p = 0.058 and p = 0.122 respectively). No significant change in RF was observed at the beginning and end of the measurement in patients who used alternative CPAP (p = 0.423), but among those who did not use alternative CPAP (p = 0.001). A statistically significant improvement in the variable oxygen saturation / fraction inspired by oxygen is observed in patients who used alternative CPAP (p = 0.040). CONCLUSION: The use of these devices has helped the ventilatory work of several patients by improving their oxygenation parameters. To better observe the evolution of patients undergoing this therapy and compare them with patients with other types of ventilatory support, further studies are necessary.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El uso de dispositivos que aportan presión positiva continua en la vía aérea ha demostrado mejoría en diversas patologías que producen insuficiencia respiratoria. En el episodio de pandemia por COVID 19 el uso de estos dispositivos se ha generalizado, pero, debido a la escasez de dispositivos convencionales de CPAP, se han fabricado dispositivos alternativos. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el uso de estos dispositivos, así como su eficacia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se recogen datos de pacientes ingresados por Neumonía por COVID 19 en el Hospital de campaña de IFEMA. Se recogen datos de pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria y necesidad de soporte ventilatorio. RESULTADOS: Estudio realizado sobre un total de 23 pacientes, con fecha ingreso en IFEMA. Se empleó CPAP alternativa en cinco pacientes (21,7%), mientras que en los 18 pacientes restantes (78,3%) se usó soporte ventilatorio con mascarilla reservorio o Ventimask efecto Venturi. Se observa un aumento progresivo de la saturación en aquellos pacientes en los que se empleó CPAP alternativa (de 94% de promedio a 98% y 99% de promedio tras 30 y 60 minutos con la máscara, respectivamente), aunque este cambio no resultó significativo (p = 0,058 y p = 0,122 respectivamente). No se observó un cambio significativo de frecuencia respiratoria al inicio y final de la medición en pacientes que usaron CPAP alternativa (p = 0,423) pero si entre los que no la usaron (p = 0,001). Se observa una mejoría estadísticamente significativa en la variable Saturación de oxigeno / Fracción inspirado de oxígeno en los pacientes que usaron CPAP alternativa (p = 0,040). CONCLUSIÓN: El uso de estos dispositivos ha ayudado al trabajo ventilatorio de varios pacientes mejorando sus parámetros de oxigenación. Para observar mejor la evolución de los pacientes sometidos a esta terapia y compararlos con pacientes con otro tipo de soporte ventilatorio, son necesarios más estudios en los que se aleatorice su uso.

13.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of coagulation profiles - via traditional and whole blood thromboelastometry tests - in COVID-19 positive vs. COVID-19 negative patients admitted to medical wards for acute pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to Internal Medicine wards of Padova University Hospital between 7 March and 30 April 2020 for COVID-19-related pneumonia (cases) vs. non-COVID-19 pneumonia (controls). A group of healthy subjects acted as baseline for thromboelastometry parameters. RESULTS: Fifty-six cases (mean age 64±15 yrs, M/F 37/19) and 56 controls (mean age 76±11 yrs, M/F 35/21) were enrolled. Cases and controls showed markedly hypercoagulable thromboelastometry profiles vs. healthy subjects, mainly characterized by a significantly shorter propagation phase of coagulation (Clot Formation Time, CFT) and significantly increased maximum clot firmness (MCF) (p <0.001 in all comparisons). COVID-19 patients with pneumonia had significantly shorter CFT and higher MCF (p <0.01 and <0.05, respectively in all comparisons) vs. controls. CONCLUSION: Patients admitted to internal medicine wards for COVID-19 pneumonia presented a markedly prothrombotic state, which seems peculiar to COVID-19 rather than pneumonia itself.

14.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0144, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection to which there is no community immunity. Patients admitted to ICUs have high mortality, with only supportive therapies available. Our aim was to profile plasma inflammatory analytes to help understand the host response to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Daily blood inflammation profiling with immunoassays. SETTING: Tertiary care ICU and academic laboratory. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted to the ICU suspected of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, using standardized hospital screening methodologies, had daily blood samples collected until either testing was confirmed negative on ICU day 3 (coronavirus disease 2019 negative), or until ICU day 7 if the patient was positive (coronavirus disease 2019 positive). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Age- and sex-matched healthy controls and ICU patients that were either coronavirus disease 2019 positive or coronavirus disease 2019 negative were enrolled. Cohorts were well-balanced with the exception that coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients were more likely than coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients to suffer bilateral pneumonia. Mortality rate for coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients was 40%. We measured 57 inflammatory analytes and then analyzed with both conventional statistics and machine learning. Twenty inflammatory analytes were different between coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients and healthy controls (p < 0.01). Compared with coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients, coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients had 17 elevated inflammatory analytes on one or more of their ICU days 1-3 (p < 0.01), with feature classification identifying the top six analytes between cohorts as tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, interleukin-18, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10, and elastase 2. While tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, and interleukin-18 were elevated for all seven ICU days, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 transiently elevated on ICU days 2 and 3 and elastase 2 increased over ICU days 2-7. Inflammation profiling predicted coronavirus disease 2019 status with 98% accuracy, whereas elevated heat shock protein 70 was strongly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: While many inflammatory analytes were elevated in coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients, relative to healthy controls, the top six analytes distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients from coronavirus disease 2019 negative ICU patients were tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, interleukin-18, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10, and elastase 2.

15.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0266, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence of a distinct coagulopathy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection which is associated with poor prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019. Coagulation abnormalities in blood samples resemble systemic coagulopathies in other severe infections but demonstrate specific features such as a very high d-dimer. These clinical observations are consistent with histopathologic findings of locally disturbed pulmonary microvascular thrombosis and angiopathy in end-stage coronavirus disease 2019. However, exact underlying processes and the sequence of events are not fully understood. DATA SOURCES: CT perfusion may provide insight in the dynamic aspect of the vascularity in pulmonary lesions in coronavirus disease 2019 infection as, in contrast to dual energy CT, a multiphase perfusion pattern is displayed. STUDY SELECTION: In six patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, findings on additional CT perfusion series were correlated with known histopathologic vascular patterns upon pulmonary autopsy of patients who had died of coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: In this case series, we were able to show perfusion changes on CT scans in typical pulmonary lesions illustrating diverse patterns. DATA SYNTHESIS: We demonstrated hyperperfusion in areas with ground glass and a severely decreased perfusion pattern in more consolidated areas often seen later in the course of disease. A combination was also observed, illustrating temporal heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and further understanding of the mechanisms that lead to respiratory failure in these patients.

16.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 569414, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in patients with pneumonia in December 2019 in China and it spread rapidly to the rest of the world becoming a global pandemic. Several observational studies have reported that cancer is a risk factor for COVID-19. On the other hand, ACE2, a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was found to be aberrantly expressed in many tumors. However, the characterization of aberrant ACE2 expression in malignant tumors has not been elucidated. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis of the ACE2 expression profile across 31 types of tumors. METHODS: Distribution of ACE2 expression was analyzed using the GTEx, CCLE, TCGA pan-cancer databases. We evaluated the effect of ACE2 on clinical prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier survival plot and COX regression analysis. Correlation between ACE2 and immune infiltration levels was investigated in various cancer types. Additionally, the correlation between ACE2 and immune neoantigen, TMB, microsatellite instability, Mismatch Repair Genes (MMRs), HLA gene members, and DNA Methyltransferase (DNMT) was investigated. The frequency of ACE2 gene mutation in various tumors was analyzed. Functional enrichment analysis was conducted in various cancer types using the GSEA method. RESULTS: In normal tissues, ACE2 was highly expressed in almost all 31 organs tested. In cancer cell lines, the expression level of ACE2 was low to medium. Although aberrant expression was observed in most cancer types, high expression of ACE2 was not linked to OS, DFS, RFS, and DFI in most tumors in TCGA pan-cancer data. We found that ACE2 expression was significantly correlated with the infiltrating levels of macrophages and dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells in multiple tumors. A positive correlation between ACE2 expression and immune neoantigen, TMB, and microsatellite instability was found in multiple cancers. GSEA analysis which was carried out to determine the effect of ACE2 on tumors indicated that several cancer-associated pathways and immune-related pathways were hyperactivated in the high ACE2 expression group of most tumors. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ACE2 is not correlated with prognosis in most cancer types. However, elevated ACE2 is significantly correlated with immune infiltrating levels, including those of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs in multiple cancers, especially in lung and breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that ACE2 may affect the tumor environment in cancer patients with COVID-19.

17.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 12(1): e2020046, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate, retrospectively, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, laboratory results, radiologic findings, and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with transfusion-dependent ß thalassemia major (TM), ß-thalassemia intermedia (TI) and sickle cell disease (SCD). DESIGN: A total of 17 Centers, from 10 countries, following 9,499 patients with hemoglobinopathies, participated in the survey. MAIN OUTCOME DATA: Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 were collected from medical records and summarized. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients, 7 with TM, 3 with TI, and 3 with SCD, with confirmed COVID-19, were identified in 6 Centers from different countries. The overall mean age of patients was 33.7±12.3 years (range:13-66); 9/13 (69.2%) patients were females. Six patients had pneumonia, and 4 needed oxygen therapy. Increased C-reactive protein (6/10), high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 6/10), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; 6/10) were the most common laboratory findings. 6/10 patients had an exacerbation of anemia (2 with SCD). In the majority of patients, the course of COVID-19 was moderate (6/10) and severe in 3/10 patients. A 30-year-old female with TM, developed a critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by death in an Intensive Care Unit. In one Center (Oman), the majority of suspected cases were observed in patients with SCD between the age of 21 and 40 years. A rapid clinical improvement of tachypnea/dyspnea and oxygen saturation was observed, after red blood cell exchange transfusion, in a young girl with SCD and worsening of anemia (Hb level from 9.2 g/dl to 6.1g/dl). CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this survey permit an early assessment of the clinical characteristics of COVID 19 in different countries. 70% of symptomatic patients with COVID- 19 required hospitalization. The presence of associated co-morbidities can aggravate the severity of COVID- 19, leading to a poorer prognosis irrespective of age.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
19.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(11): 2419-2422, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682642

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new coronavirus SARS-COV2 that can be complicated by acute distress respiratory syndrome and multiorgan failure. In light of the high rate of mortality associated with COVID-19, pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to prevent the infection are currently being tested. Among non-pharmacological preventive measures, vaccines represent one of the main resources for public health. It has been suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine may protect individuals against infection from COVID-19 virus, and two clinical trials addressing this question are underway. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman, vaccinated with BCG when she was 1 year old, who was diagnosed with apical tuberculous pneumonia of the right lung along with COVID 19 pneumonia.

20.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3418-3425, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) patients could be a vulnerable group in the pandemic era of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mainly due to respiratory muscle weakness, older age and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. We aimed to define factors predicting the severity of COVID-19 in MG patients and risk of MG exacerbation during COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated clinical features and outcomes after COVID-19 in 93 MG patients. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (38%) had severe pneumonia and we recorded 10 deaths (11%) due to COVID-19. Higher forced vital capacity (FVC) values tested before COVID-19 were shown to be protective against severe infection (95% CI 0.934-0.98) as well as good control of MG measured by the quantified myasthenia gravis score (95% CI 1.047-1.232). Long-term chronic corticosteroid treatment worsened the course of COVID-19 in MG patients (95% CI 1.784-111.43) and this impact was positively associated with dosage (p = 0.005). Treatment using azathioprine (95% CI 0.448-2.935), mycophenolate mofetil (95% CI 0.91-12.515) and ciclosporin (95% CI 0.029-2.212) did not influence the course of COVID-19. MG patients treated with rituximab had a high risk of death caused by COVID-19 (95% CI 3.216-383.971). Exacerbation of MG during infection was relatively rare (15%) and was not caused by remdesivir, convalescent plasma or favipiravir (95% CI 0.885-10.87). CONCLUSIONS: As the most important predictors of severe COVID-19 in MG patients we identified unsatisfied condition of MG with lower FVC, previous long-term corticosteroid treatment especially in higher doses, older age, the presence of cancer, and recent rituximab treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Myasthenia Gravis , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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