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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1213-1221, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450185

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the "off-label" repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a considerable proportion of the world's population soon could receive COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or postexposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help health care professionals mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk of COVID-19 exposure to personnel and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Lopinavir , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ritonavir , Torsades de Pointes , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Repositioning/ethics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/mortality , Torsades de Pointes/therapy
2.
Am J Pathol ; 191(9): 1511-1519, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432756

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory changes are well-reported symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The virus targets cells for entry by binding of its spike protein to cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It is not known whether ACE2 is expressed on taste receptor cells (TRCs), or whether TRCs are infected directly. in situ hybridization probe and an antibody specific to ACE2 indicated presence of ACE2 on a subpopulation of TRCs (namely, type II cells in taste buds in taste papillae). Fungiform papillae of a SARS-CoV-2+ patient exhibiting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including taste changes, were biopsied. Presence of replicating SARS-CoV-2 in type II cells was verified by in situ hybridization. Therefore, taste type II cells provide a potential portal for viral entry that predicts vulnerabilities to SARS-CoV-2 in the oral cavity. The continuity and cell turnover of a patient's fungiform papillae taste stem cell layer were disrupted during infection and had not completely recovered 6 weeks after symptom onset. Another patient experiencing post-COVID-19 taste disturbances also had disrupted stem cells. These results demonstrate the possibility that novel and sudden taste changes, frequently reported in COVID-19, may be the result of direct infection of taste papillae by SARS-CoV-2. This may result in impaired taste receptor stem cell activity and suggest that further work is needed to understand the acute and postacute dynamics of viral kinetics in the human taste bud.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Stem Cells , Taste Buds , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Stem Cells/enzymology , Stem Cells/pathology , Stem Cells/virology , Taste Buds/enzymology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Buds/virology
4.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(9): 1787-1794, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, raising widespread public health concerns. Our team treated hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, where the outbreak first began, and we suspected that SARS-CoV-2 may cause testicular infection in male patients. We conducted this study to explore that observation. METHODS: We enrolled male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and performed a bedside ultrasound (US) examination of the scrotum, focused on findings of acute inflammation such as tunica albuginea thickening, enlargement and heterogeneous echogenicity of the testis, epididymis, or both, an abscess, scrotal wall edema, and hydrocele. Then we compared the proportions of observed epididymo-orchitis in patients from different age groups and COVID-19 severity groups. RESULTS: A total of 142 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in our study, and 32 (22.5%) patients had acute orchitis, epididymitis, or epididymo-orchitis on scrotal US imaging, according to the diagnosis criteria. The observed risk of acute scrotal infection increased with age, with the incidence reaching 53.3% in men older than 80 years. We also observed that men with severe COVID-19 had a significantly higher possibility of epididymo-orchitis compared to the nonsevere COVID-19 group (P = .037). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows US imaging evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may cause infection of the testis or epididymis, and the risk is worthy of the attention of clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orchitis , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Orchitis/diagnostic imaging , Orchitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
5.
Am J Pathol ; 191(9): 1511-1519, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298622

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory changes are well-reported symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The virus targets cells for entry by binding of its spike protein to cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It is not known whether ACE2 is expressed on taste receptor cells (TRCs), or whether TRCs are infected directly. in situ hybridization probe and an antibody specific to ACE2 indicated presence of ACE2 on a subpopulation of TRCs (namely, type II cells in taste buds in taste papillae). Fungiform papillae of a SARS-CoV-2+ patient exhibiting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including taste changes, were biopsied. Presence of replicating SARS-CoV-2 in type II cells was verified by in situ hybridization. Therefore, taste type II cells provide a potential portal for viral entry that predicts vulnerabilities to SARS-CoV-2 in the oral cavity. The continuity and cell turnover of a patient's fungiform papillae taste stem cell layer were disrupted during infection and had not completely recovered 6 weeks after symptom onset. Another patient experiencing post-COVID-19 taste disturbances also had disrupted stem cells. These results demonstrate the possibility that novel and sudden taste changes, frequently reported in COVID-19, may be the result of direct infection of taste papillae by SARS-CoV-2. This may result in impaired taste receptor stem cell activity and suggest that further work is needed to understand the acute and postacute dynamics of viral kinetics in the human taste bud.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Stem Cells , Taste Buds , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Stem Cells/enzymology , Stem Cells/pathology , Stem Cells/virology , Taste Buds/enzymology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Buds/virology
6.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(5): 666-670, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While COVID-19 symptoms impact rhinology (anosmia) and laryngology (airways), two major disciplines of the otolaryngology armamentarium, the virus has seemed to spare the auditory system. A recent study, however, reported changes in otoacoustic emission (OAE) signals measured in SARS-COV-2 positive patients. We sought to assess the effect of COVID-19 infection on auditory performance in a cohort of recovered SARS-COV-2 patients and controls. To avoid a potential bias of previous audiological dysfunction not related to SARS-COV-2 infection, the study encompasses patients with normal auditory history. We hypothesized that if SARS-COV-2 infection predisposes to hearing loss, we would observe subtle and early audiometric deficits in our cohort in the form of subclinical auditory changes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: The Institutional Review Board approved the study and we recruited participants who had been positive for SARS-COV-2 infection, according to an Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test on two nasopharyngeal swabs. The patients included in this study were asymptomatic for the SARS-COV-2 infection and were evaluated following recovery, confirmed by repeated swab testing. The control group comprised healthy individuals matched for age and sex, and with a normal auditory and otologic history. INTERVENTIONS: The eligibility to participate in this study included a normal audiogram, no previous auditory symptoms, normal otoscopy examination with an intact tympanic membrane, and bilateral tympanometry type A. None of our volunteers reported any new auditory symptoms following SARS-COV-2 infection. Ototacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements were used to evaluate the auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: OAE and ABR measurements. RESULTS: We have found no significant differences between recovered asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 patients and controls in any of transitory evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), or ABR responses. CONCLUSIONS: There is no cochlear dysfunction represented by ABR, TEOAE, and DPOAE responses in recovered COVID-19 asymptomatic patients. Retrocochlear function was also preserved as evident by the ABR responses. A long-term evaluation of a larger cohort of SARS-COV-2 patients will help to identify a possible contribution of SARS-COV-2 infection to recently published anecdotal auditory symptoms associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Humans , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
7.
Cancer Discov ; 11(6): 1336-1344, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285108

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented destabilization of the world's health and economic systems. The rapid spread and life-threatening consequences of COVID-19 have imposed testing of repurposed drugs, by investigating interventions already used in other indications, including anticancer drugs. The contours of anticancer drug repurposing have been shaped by similarities between the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and malignancies, including abnormal inflammatory and immunologic responses. In this review, we discuss the salient positive and negative points of repurposing anticancer drugs to advance treatments for COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting anti-inflammatory pathways with JAK/STAT inhibitors or anticytokine therapies aiming to curb COVID-19-related cytokine storm, using antiangiogenic drugs to reduce vascular abnormalities or immune-checkpoint inhibitors to improve antiviral defenses, could be of value in COVID-19. However, conflicting data on drug efficacy point to the need for better patient selection and biomarker studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Repositioning , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046799, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276961

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to idenfy treatments for COVID-19 that reduce illness duration and hospital admission in those at higher risk of a longer illness course and complications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Platform Randomised trial of INterventions against COVID-19 In older peoPLE trial is an open-label, multiarm, prospective, adaptive platform, randomised clinical trial to evaluate potential treatments for COVID-19 in the community. A master protocol governs the addition of new interventions as they become available, as well as the inclusion and cessation of existing intervention arms via frequent interim analyses. The first three interventions are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and doxycycline. Eligible participants must be symptomatic in the community with possible or confirmed COVID-19 that started in the preceding 14 days and either (1) aged 65 years and over or (2) aged 50-64 years with comorbidities. Recruitment is through general practice, health service helplines, COVID-19 'hot hubs' and directly through the trial website. Participants are randomised to receive either usual care or a study drug plus usual care, and outcomes are collected via daily online symptom diary for 28 days from randomisation. The research team contacts participants and/or their study partner following days 7, 14 and 28 if the online diary is not completed. The trial has two coprimary endpoints: time to first self-report of feeling recovered from possible COVID-19 and hospital admission or death from possible COVID-19 infection, both within 28 days from randomisation. Prespecified interim analyses assess efficacy or futility of interventions and to modify randomisation probabilities that allocate more participants to interventions with better outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval Ref: 20/SC/0158 South Central - Berkshire Research Ethics Committee; IRAS Project ID: 281958; EudraCT Number: 2020-001209-22. Results will be presented to policymakers and at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN86534580.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 654589, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264389

ABSTRACT

Background: With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need arose to maintain treatment continuity for religious Jewish Ultra-Orthodox young women with eating disorders (EDs) previously hospitalized in the ED department at the Ultra-Orthodox "Mayanei Hayeshua" medical center in Israel. This need led to the development of home-based online treatment channels, previously unfamiliar, and unaccepted in this population. The implementation of this model had to take into consideration many of the difficulties inherent in the use of online treatment in Jewish Ultra-Orthodox mental health patients. Aims: We sought to investigate our online home-based treatment model implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic in previously hospitalized young Ultra-Orthodox women with EDs. Method: We briefly review the literature on: (1) The Jewish Israeli Ultra-Orthodox culture; (2) Young women in Ultra-Orthodox society; and (3) EDs in Jewish Israeli Ultra-Orthodox women. We then present the inpatient ED department for Ultra-Orthodox young women and describe the online treatment model adapted to this population during the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight the difficulties, dilemmas, and advantages of our online model with the description of three patients. Findings: Online therapy can serve as a barrier to treatment in some cases, due to physical (lack of suitable online devices except phones), familial (over-crowded families), and religious circumstances, as well as because of the patients' reluctance to take part in this treatment. In other cases, virtual home-based treatment can lead to a positive change. This may be the case in patients who find the distancing online model suitable for them, and in parents who are committed to treatment, using their greater physical and emotional presence at home during the COVID-19 pandemic for the good if their ill-daughters. Discussion: This paper highlights the difficulties and possibilities inherent in a virtual home-based treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic for Ultra-Orthodox young women previously hospitalized because of an ED. This model can be effective for some patients and families if undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that is not only knowledgeable about the treatment of EDs and the use of online strategies but also knowledgeable and culturally sensitive to the specific needs and codes of Ultra-Orthodox populations.

10.
Endocrine ; 73(2): 243-254, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) advances to affect every part of the globe and remains a challenge to the human race. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was shown to affect many organs and organ systems including the thyroid gland as these parts highly express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which functions as a receptor for initially entering the virus into the cells. Furthermore, some categories of the population including older people and persons with comorbidities are prone to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications. Recent reports showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause Graves' disease (autoimmune hyperthyroidism) in post-COVID-19 patients. Factors that may boost the mortality risk of COVID-19 patients are not completely known yet and a clear perception of the group of vulnerable people is also essential. This review briefly summarizes the features of Graves' disease such as symptoms, risk factors, including environmental, genetic, immunological, and other factors, associated disorders, and therapeutic options. It comprehensively describes the recent advances in SARS-CoV-2-induced Graves' disease and the pivotal role of autoimmune factors in inducing the disease. The review also discusses the possible risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19 in people with hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, it explains thyroid disease and its association with the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Aged , Comorbidity , Graves Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 633433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 15% of Chinese respondents reported somatic symptoms in the last week of January 2020. Promoting resilience is a possible target in crisis intervention that can alleviate somatization. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the relationship between resilience and somatization, as well as the underlying possible mediating and moderating mechanism, in a large sample of Chinese participants receiving a crisis intervention during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. METHODS: Participants were invited online to complete demographic information and questionnaires. The Symptom Checklist-90 somatization subscale, 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and 10-item Perceived Stress Scale were measured. RESULTS: A total of 2,557 participants were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that lower resilience was associated with more somatic symptoms (p < 0.001). The conditional process model was proved (indirect effect = -0.01, 95% confidence interval = [-0.015, -0.002]). The interaction effects between perceived stress and sex predicted somatization (b = 0.05, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Resilience is a key predictor of somatization. The mediating effects of perceived stress between resilience and somatization work in the context of sex difference. Sex-specific intervention by enhancing resilience is of implication for alleviating somatization during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic.

12.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(2): 241-249, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high risk of death. Published data demonstrate the possibility of severe kidney injury in patients suffering from COVID-19. However, these data are still controversial. METHODS: A total of 1,280 patients with a proven diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in our study. COVID-19 was confirmed in all patients using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test of a nasopharyngeal swab, and based on the typical computed tomography findings. Demographic data, underlying comorbidities, and laboratory blood tests were assessed. We assessed the incidence of AKI and its associated mortality defined by survival status at discharge. RESULTS: Proteinuria was identified with 648 patients (50.6%) with COVID-19. AKI was identified in 371 patients (29.0%). Ten of these patients (2.7%) required dialysis. The risk factors for AKI included age of > 65 years, augmentation of C-reactive protein, ferritin and an increase in values of activated partial thromboplastin time. Overall, 162 of the 1,280 hospitalized patients (12.7%) and 111 of the 371 patients (29.9%) with AKI did not survive. The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 3.96 (95% confidence interval, 2.83-5.54) for patients with AKI vs. no AKI. CONCLUSION: AKI was a relatively common finding among patients with COVID-19. The risk factors for AKI in COVID-19 included old age, the inflammatory response, the severity of lung involvement, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. These same factors, in addition to arterial hypertension, were found to increase the risk of mortality.

13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104941, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246086

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has affected millions of people since its beginning in 2019. The propagation of new lineages and the discovery of key mechanisms adopted by the virus to overlap the immune system are central topics for the entire public health policies, research and disease management. Since the second semester of 2020, the mutation E484K has been progressively found in the Brazilian territory, composing different lineages over time. It brought multiple concerns related to the risk of reinfection and the effectiveness of new preventive and treatment strategies due to the possibility of escaping from neutralizing antibodies. To better characterize the current scenario we performed genomic and phylogenetic analyses of the E484K mutated genomes sequenced from Brazilian samples in 2020. From October 2020, more than 40% of the sequenced genomes present the E484K mutation, which was identified in three different lineages (P.1, P.2 and B.1.1.33 - posteriorly renamed as N.9) in four Brazilian regions. We also evaluated the presence of E484K associated mutations and identified selective pressures acting on the spike protein, leading us to some insights about adaptive and purifying selection driving the virus evolution.


Subject(s)
Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selection, Genetic
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247286

ABSTRACT

Most countries in the world have recommended or mandated face masks in some or all public places during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, mask use has been thought to increase people's face-touching frequency and thus risk of self-inoculation. Across two studies, we video-observed the face-touching behaviour of members of the public in Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) during the first wave of the pandemic. Study 1 (n = 383) yielded evidence in favour of the absence of an association between mask-wearing and face-touching (defined as touches of face or mask), and Study 2 (n = 421) replicated this result. Secondary outcome analysis of the two studies-analysed separately and with pooled data sets-evidenced a negative association between mask-wearing and hand contact with the face and its t-zone (i.e. eyes, nose and mouth). In sum, the current findings alleviate the concern that mask-wearing has an adverse face-touching effect.

15.
JRSM Open ; 12(5): 20542704211011837, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of chest computed tomography (CT) scan versus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as the reference standard in the initial diagnostic assessment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. A search of electronic information was conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMCARE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. SETTING: Studies that compared the diagnostic performance within the same patient cohort of chest CT scan versus RT-PCR in COVID-19 suspected patients. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen non-randomised studies enrolling 4092 patients were identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes included other test performance characteristics and discrepant findings between both investigations. RESULTS: Chest CT had a median sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.91 (range 0.82-0.98), 0.775 (0.25-1.00) and 0.87 (0.68-0.99), respectively, with RT-PCR as the reference. Importantly, early small, China-based studies tended to favour chest CT versus later larger, non-China studies. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high false positive rate can be expected with chest CT. It is possible it may still be useful to provide circumstantial evidence, however, in some patients with a suspicious clinical presentation of COVID-19 and negative initial Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 RT-PCR tests, but more evidence is required in this context. In acute cardiorespiratory presentations, negative CT scan and RT-PCR tests is likely to be reassuring.

16.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 144(3): 229-235, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240997

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought challenges for healthcare management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Concerns regarding vulnerability to infections and disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and their complications have been raised. Recent published guidelines on the use of DMTs in relation to COVID-19 in MS patients have been diverse between countries with lack of evidence-based facts. In Sweden, there exists a particular interest in anti-CD20 therapy as a possible risk factor for severe COVID-19 due to the large number of rituximab-treated patients off-label in the country. Rapid responses from the Swedish MS Association (SMSS) and the Swedish MS registry (SMSreg) have resulted in national guidelines on DMT use for MS patients and implementation of a COVID-19 module in the SMSreg. Recently updated guidelines also included recommendations on COVID-19 vaccination with regard to the different DMTs. Social distancing policies forced implementation of telemedicine consultation to replace in-person consultations as part of regular MS health care. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in SMSreg have been useful in this respect. This paper reports our experiences on the progress of national MS health care during the COVID-19 pandemic, in addition to offering an overview of the present scientific context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Sweden/epidemiology , Telemedicine
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 465, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic since March 11th, 2020. Despite emerging reports and literature covering a broad spectrum of COVID-19 clinical manifestations, facets of COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated. To the authors' concern, sinus bradycardia as a manifestation of COVID-19-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) has never been reported before. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper, we report a case of a 59-year-old male patient with confirmed COVID-19 initially presented with presyncope. Further investigations reveal sinus bradycardia related to COVID-19-induced SIADH. This case highlights the possibility of immuno-neuroendocrino-cardiovascular crosstalk resulting in an atypical manifestation of COVID-19: near syncope due to sinus bradycardia. CONCLUSIONS: Another possible cause of sinus bradycardia in COVID-19 is electrolyte imbalance due to COVID-19-related SIADH.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Bradycardia/complications , Bradycardia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Humans , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Water-Electrolyte Balance
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211018013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234502

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and possible risk factors for hand eczema with respect to the dissemination of information about new hand hygiene habits to protect against ongoing COVID-19 cross-transmission. The authors conducted a survey among health care workers (HCWs) and non-HCW populations in Khon Kaen, Thailand. RESULTS: A total of 805 participants participated. The prevalence of hand eczema in the study population was 20.87%. There were several risk factors, including working as a HCW, having a history of previous hand eczema, having underlying atopic dermatitis, wearing gloves in everyday life, and washing hands frequently (more than 10 times/day). Hand hygiene with alcohol-based products was shown to be a risk factor for hand eczema, (OR (95% CI) 1.86 (1.03-3.35), P = .04). CONCLUSION: In terms of hand eczema prevention, we suggest that the use of alcohol-based products should be discontinued if other handwashing methods are available. The following factors increase the risk of hand eczema: being a HCW, having previous hand eczema, and having underlying atopic dermatitis. Proper strategies in terms of hand eczema prevention should be addressed, especially in this group, since we need to continue performing hand hygiene during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eczema , Hand Dermatoses , Hand Hygiene , Eczema/epidemiology , Eczema/etiology , Eczema/prevention & control , Habits , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Dermatoses/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 197, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233703

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of the protective immunity, particularly the long-term dynamics of neutralizing antibody (NAbs) response to SARS-CoV-2, is currently limited. We enrolled a cohort of 545 COVID-19 patients from Hubei, China, who were followed up up to 7 months, and determined the dynamics of NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 by using a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). In our validation study, sVNT IC50 titers and the neutralization rate measured at a single dilution (1:20) were well correlated with FRNT titers (r = 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). The median time to seroconversion of NAbs was 5.5 days post onset of symptoms. The rate of positive sVNT was 52% in the first week, reached 100% in the third week, and remained above 97% till 6 months post onset. Quantitatively, NAbs peaked in the fourth week and only a quarter of patients had an estimated peak titer of >1000. NAbs declined with a half-time of 61 days (95% CI: 49-80 days) within the first two months, and the decay deaccelerated to a half-time of 104 days (95% CI: 86-130 days) afterward. The peak levels of NAbs were positively associated with severity of COVID-19 and age, while negatively associated with serum albumin levels. The observation that the low-moderate peak neutralizing activity and fast decay of NAbs in most naturally infected individuals called for caution in evaluating the feasibility of antibody-based therapy and vaccine durability. NAbs response positively correlated with disease severity, warning for the possibility of repeat infection in patients with mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224078

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to cause respiratory tract infections ranging from colds to more severe diseases, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). New Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which led to deaths as well as social and economic disruptions, is an ongoing worldwide pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, there is no approved treatment for COVID-19. Hence, only supportive care has been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for now. Pharmacological agents used for the adjunctive treatment of COVID-19 following the current literature and clinical experiences include antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-malaria drugs, and other traditional or untraditional treatments. However, it has been reported that the use of these drugs may have some negative effects and comorbidities. Moreover, the current data have indicated that the risk of drug-drug interactions may also be high in polypharmacy cases, especially in elderly people, some comorbidity situations, and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. It is highly possible that these situations can not only increase the risk of drug-drug interactions but also increase the risk of food/nutrition-drug interactions and affect the nutritional status. However, this issue has not yet been entirely discussed in the literature. In this review, current information on the possible mechanisms as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of some pharmacological agents used in the treatment of COVID-19 and/or their secondary interactions with nutrition were evaluated and some future directions were given.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Food-Drug Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
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