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1.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 885-894, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274648

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2018, only half of US women obtained all evidence-based cancer screenings. This proportion may have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of social distancing, high-risk factors, and fear. Objective: To evaluate optimal screening strategies in women who obtain some, but not all, US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)-recommended cancer screenings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This modeling study was conducted from January 31, 2017, to July 20, 2020, and used 4 validated mathematical models from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network using data from 20 million simulated women born in 1965 in the US. Interventions: Forty-five screening strategies were modeled that combined breast, cervical, colorectal, and/or lung cancer (LC) screenings; restricted to 1, 2, 3 or 4 screenings per year; or all eligible screenings once every 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeled life-years gained from restricted cancer screenings as a fraction of those attainable from full compliance with USPSTF recommendations (maximum benefits). Results were stratified by LC screening eligibility (LC-eligible/ineligible). We repeated the analysis with 2018 adherence rates, evaluating the increase in adherence required for restricted screenings to have the same population benefit as USPSTF recommendations. Results: This modeling study of 20 million simulated US women found that it was possible to reduce screening intensity to 1 carefully chosen test per year in women who were ineligible for LC screening and 2 tests per year in eligible women while maintaining 94% or more of the maximum benefits. Highly ranked strategies screened for various cancers, but less often than recommended by the USPSTF. For example, among LC-ineligible women who obtained just 1 screening per year, the optimal strategy frequently delayed breast and cervical cancer screenings by 1 year and skipped 3 mammograms entirely. Among LC-eligible women, LC screening was essential; strategies omitting it provided 25% or less of the maximum benefits. The top-ranked strategy restricted to 2 screenings per year was annual LC screening and alternating fecal immunochemical test with mammography (skipping mammograms when due for cervical cancer screening, 97% of maximum benefits). If adherence in a population of LC-eligible women obtaining 2 screenings per year were to increase by 1% to 2% (depending on the screening test), this model suggests that it would achieve the same benefit as USPSTF recommendations at 2018 adherence rates. Conclusions and Relevance: This modeling study of 45 cancer screening strategies suggests that women who are noncompliant with cancer screening guidelines may be able to reduce USPSTF-recommended screening intensity with minimal reduction in overall benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer , Models, Theoretical , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Mammography , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 654589, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264389

ABSTRACT

Background: With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need arose to maintain treatment continuity for religious Jewish Ultra-Orthodox young women with eating disorders (EDs) previously hospitalized in the ED department at the Ultra-Orthodox "Mayanei Hayeshua" medical center in Israel. This need led to the development of home-based online treatment channels, previously unfamiliar, and unaccepted in this population. The implementation of this model had to take into consideration many of the difficulties inherent in the use of online treatment in Jewish Ultra-Orthodox mental health patients. Aims: We sought to investigate our online home-based treatment model implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic in previously hospitalized young Ultra-Orthodox women with EDs. Method: We briefly review the literature on: (1) The Jewish Israeli Ultra-Orthodox culture; (2) Young women in Ultra-Orthodox society; and (3) EDs in Jewish Israeli Ultra-Orthodox women. We then present the inpatient ED department for Ultra-Orthodox young women and describe the online treatment model adapted to this population during the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight the difficulties, dilemmas, and advantages of our online model with the description of three patients. Findings: Online therapy can serve as a barrier to treatment in some cases, due to physical (lack of suitable online devices except phones), familial (over-crowded families), and religious circumstances, as well as because of the patients' reluctance to take part in this treatment. In other cases, virtual home-based treatment can lead to a positive change. This may be the case in patients who find the distancing online model suitable for them, and in parents who are committed to treatment, using their greater physical and emotional presence at home during the COVID-19 pandemic for the good if their ill-daughters. Discussion: This paper highlights the difficulties and possibilities inherent in a virtual home-based treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic for Ultra-Orthodox young women previously hospitalized because of an ED. This model can be effective for some patients and families if undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that is not only knowledgeable about the treatment of EDs and the use of online strategies but also knowledgeable and culturally sensitive to the specific needs and codes of Ultra-Orthodox populations.

3.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 674-677, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate anxiety and depression in pregnant women during this global disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study recruiting 120 pregnant women. The study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. We recruited women attending for antenatal care. Anxiety was evaluated using an Arabic validated Kuwait University Anxiety Scale (KUAS). Depression was evaluated using a validated Arabic form of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS: The study included 48 (40%) nulliparous and 72 (60%) multiparous women. The mean KUAS scores for nulliparous and multiparous women were 45.27±10.78 and 47.28±10.62. Both nulliparous and multiparous women had a fairly high possibility of depression. Fifty-three (44.2%) of them reported scores ≥ of 14. Ninety-three (77.5%) women thought that COVID-19 pandemic would affect their pregnancies. There was a significant association between the number of women reporting fear related to the COVID-19 pandemic and their KUAS and EPDS scores (p-value <0.001 each). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 affected the mental health of pregnant women to a great extent. Care should be directed to measures that would decrease the impact of this pandemic on vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(1): 203-205, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210295

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will continue affecting pregnant women with possibility of vertical transmissions. However, knowledge and evidences regarding vertical transmission of COVID-19 are just emerging. This information is very crucial in the obstetrical care of COVID-19 infected women as well as in the care of newborn born to COVID-19 positive mothers. We report a case of vertical transmission in a neonate born to asymptomatic COVID-19 infected mother. Newborn was immediately shifted to isolation nursery and formula feed was started. The nasopharyngeal swab of newborn taken at 42 hours of life tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Therefore the vertical transmission in COVID-19 is possible. Despite this, the neonatal outcome is good. Keywords: Duodenal atresia; flip flop circulation; neonates; persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nepal , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 885-894, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206734

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2018, only half of US women obtained all evidence-based cancer screenings. This proportion may have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of social distancing, high-risk factors, and fear. Objective: To evaluate optimal screening strategies in women who obtain some, but not all, US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)-recommended cancer screenings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This modeling study was conducted from January 31, 2017, to July 20, 2020, and used 4 validated mathematical models from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network using data from 20 million simulated women born in 1965 in the US. Interventions: Forty-five screening strategies were modeled that combined breast, cervical, colorectal, and/or lung cancer (LC) screenings; restricted to 1, 2, 3 or 4 screenings per year; or all eligible screenings once every 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeled life-years gained from restricted cancer screenings as a fraction of those attainable from full compliance with USPSTF recommendations (maximum benefits). Results were stratified by LC screening eligibility (LC-eligible/ineligible). We repeated the analysis with 2018 adherence rates, evaluating the increase in adherence required for restricted screenings to have the same population benefit as USPSTF recommendations. Results: This modeling study of 20 million simulated US women found that it was possible to reduce screening intensity to 1 carefully chosen test per year in women who were ineligible for LC screening and 2 tests per year in eligible women while maintaining 94% or more of the maximum benefits. Highly ranked strategies screened for various cancers, but less often than recommended by the USPSTF. For example, among LC-ineligible women who obtained just 1 screening per year, the optimal strategy frequently delayed breast and cervical cancer screenings by 1 year and skipped 3 mammograms entirely. Among LC-eligible women, LC screening was essential; strategies omitting it provided 25% or less of the maximum benefits. The top-ranked strategy restricted to 2 screenings per year was annual LC screening and alternating fecal immunochemical test with mammography (skipping mammograms when due for cervical cancer screening, 97% of maximum benefits). If adherence in a population of LC-eligible women obtaining 2 screenings per year were to increase by 1% to 2% (depending on the screening test), this model suggests that it would achieve the same benefit as USPSTF recommendations at 2018 adherence rates. Conclusions and Relevance: This modeling study of 45 cancer screening strategies suggests that women who are noncompliant with cancer screening guidelines may be able to reduce USPSTF-recommended screening intensity with minimal reduction in overall benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer , Models, Theoretical , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Mammography , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
6.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(5): 687-697, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135134

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoonotic coronavirus that crossed species to infect humans, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite a potentially higher risk of pregnant women acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the non-pregnant population (particularly in some ethnic minorities), no additional specific recommendations to avoid exposure are needed in pregnancy. The most common clinical symptoms and laboratory signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy are fever, cough, lymphopenia and elevated C-reactive protein levels. Pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the non-pregnant population, including pneumonia, admission to the intensive care unit and death, even after adjusting for potential risk factors for severe outcomes. The risk of miscarriage does not appear to be increased in women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evidence with regards to preterm birth and perinatal mortality is conflicting, but these risks are generally higher only in symptomatic, hospitalized women. The risk of vertical transmission, defined as the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the mother to the fetus or the newborn, is generally low. Fetal invasive procedures are considered to be generally safe in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, although the evidence is still limited. In pregnant women with COVID-19, use of steroids should not be avoided if clinically indicated; the preferred regimen is a 2-day course of dexamethasone followed by an 8-day course of methylprednisolone. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used if there are no contraindications. Hospitalized pregnant women with severe COVID-19 should undergo thromboprophylaxis throughout the duration of hospitalization and at least until discharge, preferably with low molecular weight heparin. Hospitalized women who have recovered from a period of serious or critical illness with COVID-19 should be offered a fetal growth scan about 14 days after recovery from their illness. In asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic women who have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection at full term (i.e. ≥ 39 weeks of gestation), induction of labor might be reasonable. To date, there is no clear consensus on the optimal timing of delivery for critically ill women. In women with no or few symptoms, management of labor should follow routine evidence-based guidelines. Regardless of COVID-19 status, mothers and their infants should remain together and breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, kangaroo mother care and rooming-in throughout the day and night should be practiced, while applying necessary infection prevention and control measures. Many pregnant women have already undergone vaccination, mostly in the USA where the first reports show no significant difference in pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy compared with the background risk. Vaccine-generated antibodies were present in the umbilical cord blood and breast milk samples of pregnant and lactating women who received the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Based on the available limited data on the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy, it seems reasonable to offer the option of vaccination to pregnant women after accurate counseling on the potential risk of a severe course of the disease and the unknown risk of fetal exposure to the vaccine. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Counseling/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Patient Education as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 575553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083593

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and its associated measures led to high levels of mental distress in the general population. Previous research indicated that young people are especially vulnerable for a wide range of mental health problems during the pandemic, but little is known about the mechanisms. This study examined mental distress and its contributing factors among young Belgian people. Methods: An online survey was widely distributed in Belgium during the first wave of COVID-19 in March, and 16-25-year-olds were selected as a subsample. Mental distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and a threshold of ≥4 was used to discriminate mental distress cases from non-cases. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate possible predictors of mental distress, including demographics, chronic condition, history of mental health problems, social support, exposure to COVID-19, and several changes in everyday activities. Results: A total of 2,008 respondents were included, of which the majority was female (78.09%) and student (66.82%). The results indicate that about two thirds (65.49%) experienced mental distress. In the multivariable regression model, significant (p < 0.01) predictors of mental distress were female gender (OR = 1.78), low social support (OR = 2.17), loneliness (OR = 5.17), a small (OR = 1.63), or large (OR = 3.08) increase in social media use, a small (OR = 1.63) or large (OR = 2.17) decrease in going out for drinks or food, and a decrease in doing home activities (OR = 2.72). Conclusion: Young people experience high levels of mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings indicate that mental distress was highest among women, those experiencing loneliness or low social support and those whose usual everyday life is most affected. The psychological needs of young people, such as the need for peer interaction, should be more recognized and supported.

8.
Hypertens Res ; 44(4): 386-398, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065860

ABSTRACT

This review assesses markers of endothelial dysfunction (ED) associated with the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia (PE). We evaluate the role of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected preeclamptic women. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the potential of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), dolutegravir (DTG) and remdesivir (RDV) in drug repurposing and their safety in pregnancy complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In HIV infection, the trans-activator of transcription protein, which has homology with vascular endothelial growth factor, impairs angiogenesis, leading to endothelial injury and possible PE development despite neutralization of their opposing immune states. Markers of ED show strong evidence supporting the adverse role of ART in PE development and mortality compared to treatment-naïve pregnancies. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, exploits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) to induce ED and hypertension, thereby mimicking angiotensin II-mediated PE in severe cases of infection. Upregulated ACE 2 in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent PE development. The potential effectiveness of LPV/r against COVID-19 is inconclusive; however, defective decidualization, along with elevated markers of ED, was observed. Therefore, the safety of these drugs in HIV-positive pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 requires attention. Despite the observed endothelial protective properties of DTG, there is a lack of evidence of its effects on pregnancy and COVID-19 therapeutics. Understanding RDV-ART interactions and the inclusion of pregnant women in antiviral drug repurposing trials is essential. This review provides a platform for further research on PE in the HIV-COVID-19 syndemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelium/physiopathology , HIV Infections/complications , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Pregnancy
9.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(2): 242-247, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women can be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), yet the incidence of perinatal infection is low. We hypothesized that this could be related to low expression of the membrane receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in the fetoplacental unit. We evaluated protein expression of ACE2 at various gestational ages in both placentae and fetal organs from pregnancies not infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In May 2020, using samples from a registered biobank, we performed immunohistochemical analysis for ACE2 in tissue samples from fetal organs and placentae from five cases of second- or third-trimester medical termination of pregnancy in healthy women (performed between 15 and 38 weeks' gestation), as well as a further two placentae, one from a 7-week spontaneous miscarriage in a non-infected woman and one from a symptomatic pregnant woman positive for SARS-CoV-2 delivered by Cesarean section at 34 weeks. Samples were paraffin-embedded and organ tissues included kidney, brain, lung, intestinal tract, heart and testis. Matching tissues (kidney, intestinal tract, lung and testis) from autopsies of four 8-year-old children were tested as controls. Tissue sections were incubated with rabbit monoclonal anti-ACE2, and protein expression of ACE2 was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: ACE2 expression was detected in fetal kidney, rectum and ileum samples from 15 weeks onwards and in the pediatric controls. It was barely detectable in fetal lung samples at 15 + 5 weeks' gestation and not detectable thereafter, and, in the pediatric controls, ACE2 was detectable only in type-2 pneumocytes. No ACE2 expression was found in the cerebral ependymal or parenchymal tissues or in cardiac tissues. ACE2 was expressed in placental syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast samples, but not in the amnion, from 7 weeks onwards. The intensity and distribution of ACE2 staining in the placenta from the symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 woman was similar to that in the non-infected placentae. CONCLUSIONS: Marked placental expression of ACE2 provides a rationale for vertical transmission at the cellular level. Absence of ACE2 expression in the fetal brain and heart is reassuring regarding the risk of congenital malformation. Clinical follow-up of infected pregnant women and their children is needed to validate these observations. © 2020 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Fetus/enzymology , Placenta/enzymology , Adult , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/enzymology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Trophoblasts/metabolism
10.
Ren Replace Ther ; 6(1): 59, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Complications of acute kidney injury (AKI) are common in patients with coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). However, clinical characteristics of COVID-19-associated AKI are poorly described. We present two cases of severe COVID-19 patients with AKI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was suspected of having vancomycin-associated AKI, and a 45-year-old man was suspected of having heme pigment-induced AKI caused by rhabdomyolysis. The granular cast, which is known to be a valuable diagnostic tool for confirming the diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis, was detected in both patients at the onset of AKI. Interestingly, both patients also developed microscopic hematuria at the occurrence of AKI, and one patient had elevated d-dimer and low platelet levels simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: Some reports suggested that COVID-19-associated microangiopathy contributed to the kidney damage. Therefore, it is possible that our patients might have accompanied renal microangiopathy, and that this pathological background may have caused exaggerated tubular damage by vancomycin or heme pigment. The etiology of AKI in patients with COVID-19 is multifactorial. Superimposition of nephrotoxin(s) and virus-associate intra-renal microangiopathy may be a crucial trigger of kidney injury leading to severe AKI in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, in COVID-19 patients, risk factors for AKI should be taken into consideration to prevent its progression into severe AKI.

11.
J Reprod Immunol ; 143: 103250, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939094

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread rapidly across the world. The vast majority of patients with COVID-19 manifest mild to moderate symptoms but may progress to severe cases or even mortalities. Young adults of reproductive age are the most affected population by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there is no consensus yet if pregnancy contributes to the severity of COVID-19. Initial studies of pregnant women have found that COVID-19 significantly increases the risk of preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and low birth weight, which have been associated with non-communicable diseases in offspring. Besides, maternal viral infections with or without vertical transmission have been allied with neurological and behavioral disorders of the offspring. In this review, obstetrical outcomes of women with COVID-19 and possible risks for their offspring are discussed by reviewing maternal immune responses to COVID-19 based on the current evidence. Structural and systemic follow-up of offspring who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in-utero is suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Child of Impaired Parents , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Problem Behavior , Risk
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(9): e25622, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754809

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted global health service delivery, including provision of HIV services. Countries with high HIV burden are balancing the need to minimize interactions with health facilities to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission, while delivering uninterrupted essential HIV prevention, testing and treatment services. Many of these adaptations in resource-constrained settings have not adequately accounted for the needs of pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children and adolescents. We propose whole-family, tailored programme adaptations along the HIV clinical continuum to protect the programmatic gains made in services. DISCUSSION: Essential HIV case-finding services for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children should be maintained and include maternal testing, diagnostic testing for infants exposed to HIV, index testing for children whose biological parents or siblings are living with HIV, as well as for children/adolescents presenting with symptoms concerning for HIV and comorbidities. HIV self-testing for children two years of age and older should be supported with caregiver and provider education. Adaptations include bundling services in the same visit and providing testing outside of facilities to the extent possible to reduce exposure risk to COVID-19. Virtual platforms can be used to identify vulnerable children at risk of HIV infection, abuse, harm or violence, and link them to necessary clinical and psychosocial support services. HIV treatment service adaptations for families should focus on family based differentiated service delivery models, including community-based ART initiation and multi-month ART dispensing. Viral load monitoring should not be a barrier to transitioning children and adolescents experiencing treatment failure to more effective ART regimens, and viral load monitoring for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children should be prioritized and bundled with other essential services. CONCLUSIONS: Protecting pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children and adolescents from acquiring SARS-CoV-2 while sustaining essential HIV services is an immense global health challenge. Tailored, family friendly programme adaptations for case-finding, ART delivery and viral load monitoring for these populations have the potential to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission while ensuring the continuity of life-saving HIV case identification and treatment efforts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Family , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Resources , Humans , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
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