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1.
Curr Pharmacol Rep ; 6(5): 228-240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682288

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), marked the third time in the twenty-first century when a new, highly pathogenic human coronavirus outbreak has led to an epidemic. The COVID-19 epidemic has emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan city of China and spread rapidly to other parts of the world. This quick spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection to many states across the globe affecting many people has led WHO to declare it a pandemic on March 12, 2020. As of July 4, 2020, more than 523,011 people lost their lives worldwide because of this deadly SARS-CoV-2. The current situation becomes more frightening as no FDA-approved drugs or vaccines are available to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The current therapeutic options for COVID-19 are limited only to supportive measures and non-specific interventions. So, the need of the hour is to search for SARS-CoV-2-specific antiviral treatments and to develop vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Also, it is equally important to maintain our immunity, and natural products and Ayurvedic medicines are indispensable in this regard. In this review, we discuss recent updates regarding various therapeutic approaches to combat COVID-19 pandemic and enlist the major pipeline drugs and traditional medicines that are under trial for COVID-19. Also, possible mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis are discussed, which further allow us to understand various drug targets and helps in discovering novel therapeutic approaches for COVID-19. Altogether, the information provided in this review will work as an intellectual groundwork and provides an insight into the ongoing development of various therapeutic agents.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(6): 1983-1989, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refractory to conventional management. Venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (VV-ECMO) is used to support patients with ARDS in whom conventional management fails. Scoring systems to predict mortality in VV-ECMO remain unvalidated in COVID-19 ARDS. This report describes a large single-center experience with VV-ECMO in COVID-19 and assesses the utility of standard risk calculators. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective database of all patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO cannulation between March 15 and June 27, 2020 at a single academic center was performed. Demographic, clinical, and ECMO characteristics were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; survivor and nonsurvivor cohorts were compared by using univariate and bivariate analyses. RESULTS: Forty patients who had COVID-19 and underwent ECMO were identified. Of the 33 patients (82.5%) in whom ECMO had been discontinued at the time of analysis, 18 patients (54.5%) survived to hospital discharge, and 15 (45.5%) died during ECMO. Nonsurvivors presented with a statistically significant higher Prediction of Survival on ECMO Therapy (PRESET)-Score (mean ± SD, 8.33 ± 0.8 vs 6.17 ± 1.8; P = .001). The PRESET score demonstrated accurate mortality prediction. All patients with a PRESET-Score of 6 or lowers survived, and a score of 7 or higher was associated with a dramatic increase in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that favorable outcomes are possible in patients with COVID-19 who undergo ECMO at high-volume centers. This study demonstrated an association between the PRESET-Score and survival in patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO. Standard risk calculators may aid in appropriate selection of patients with COVID-19 ARDS for ECMO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
3.
Am J Pathol ; 191(9): 1511-1519, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432756

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory changes are well-reported symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The virus targets cells for entry by binding of its spike protein to cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It is not known whether ACE2 is expressed on taste receptor cells (TRCs), or whether TRCs are infected directly. in situ hybridization probe and an antibody specific to ACE2 indicated presence of ACE2 on a subpopulation of TRCs (namely, type II cells in taste buds in taste papillae). Fungiform papillae of a SARS-CoV-2+ patient exhibiting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including taste changes, were biopsied. Presence of replicating SARS-CoV-2 in type II cells was verified by in situ hybridization. Therefore, taste type II cells provide a potential portal for viral entry that predicts vulnerabilities to SARS-CoV-2 in the oral cavity. The continuity and cell turnover of a patient's fungiform papillae taste stem cell layer were disrupted during infection and had not completely recovered 6 weeks after symptom onset. Another patient experiencing post-COVID-19 taste disturbances also had disrupted stem cells. These results demonstrate the possibility that novel and sudden taste changes, frequently reported in COVID-19, may be the result of direct infection of taste papillae by SARS-CoV-2. This may result in impaired taste receptor stem cell activity and suggest that further work is needed to understand the acute and postacute dynamics of viral kinetics in the human taste bud.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Stem Cells , Taste Buds , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Stem Cells/enzymology , Stem Cells/pathology , Stem Cells/virology , Taste Buds/enzymology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Buds/virology
5.
Am J Pathol ; 191(9): 1511-1519, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298622

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory changes are well-reported symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The virus targets cells for entry by binding of its spike protein to cell-surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It is not known whether ACE2 is expressed on taste receptor cells (TRCs), or whether TRCs are infected directly. in situ hybridization probe and an antibody specific to ACE2 indicated presence of ACE2 on a subpopulation of TRCs (namely, type II cells in taste buds in taste papillae). Fungiform papillae of a SARS-CoV-2+ patient exhibiting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including taste changes, were biopsied. Presence of replicating SARS-CoV-2 in type II cells was verified by in situ hybridization. Therefore, taste type II cells provide a potential portal for viral entry that predicts vulnerabilities to SARS-CoV-2 in the oral cavity. The continuity and cell turnover of a patient's fungiform papillae taste stem cell layer were disrupted during infection and had not completely recovered 6 weeks after symptom onset. Another patient experiencing post-COVID-19 taste disturbances also had disrupted stem cells. These results demonstrate the possibility that novel and sudden taste changes, frequently reported in COVID-19, may be the result of direct infection of taste papillae by SARS-CoV-2. This may result in impaired taste receptor stem cell activity and suggest that further work is needed to understand the acute and postacute dynamics of viral kinetics in the human taste bud.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Stem Cells , Taste Buds , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Stem Cells/enzymology , Stem Cells/pathology , Stem Cells/virology , Taste Buds/enzymology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Buds/virology
6.
Cancer Discov ; 11(6): 1336-1344, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285108

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented destabilization of the world's health and economic systems. The rapid spread and life-threatening consequences of COVID-19 have imposed testing of repurposed drugs, by investigating interventions already used in other indications, including anticancer drugs. The contours of anticancer drug repurposing have been shaped by similarities between the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and malignancies, including abnormal inflammatory and immunologic responses. In this review, we discuss the salient positive and negative points of repurposing anticancer drugs to advance treatments for COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting anti-inflammatory pathways with JAK/STAT inhibitors or anticytokine therapies aiming to curb COVID-19-related cytokine storm, using antiangiogenic drugs to reduce vascular abnormalities or immune-checkpoint inhibitors to improve antiviral defenses, could be of value in COVID-19. However, conflicting data on drug efficacy point to the need for better patient selection and biomarker studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Repositioning , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 640040, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266675

ABSTRACT

The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome is linked to a virus-induced "cytokine storm", associated with systemic inflammation, coagulopathies, endothelial damage, thrombo-inflammation, immune system deregulation and disruption of angiotensin converting enzyme signaling pathways. To date, the most promising therapeutic approaches in COVID-19 pandemic are linked to the development of vaccines. However, the fight against COVID-19 pandemic in the short and mid-term cannot only rely on vaccines strategies, in particular given the growing proportion of more contagious and more lethal variants among exposed population (the English, South African and Brazilian variants). As long as collective immunity is still not acquired, some patients will have severe forms of the disease. Therapeutic perspectives also rely on the implementation of strategies for the prevention of secondary complications resulting from vascular endothelial damage and from immune system deregulation, which contributes to acute respiratory distress and potentially to long term irreversible tissue damage. While the anti-inflammatory effects of low dose irradiation have been exploited for a long time in the clinics, few recent physiopathological and experimental data suggested the possibility to modulate the inflammatory storm related to COVID-19 pulmonary infection by exposing patients to ionizing radiation at very low doses. Despite level of evidence is only preliminary, these preclinical findings open therapeutic perspectives and are discussed in this article.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 654589, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264389

ABSTRACT

Background: With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need arose to maintain treatment continuity for religious Jewish Ultra-Orthodox young women with eating disorders (EDs) previously hospitalized in the ED department at the Ultra-Orthodox "Mayanei Hayeshua" medical center in Israel. This need led to the development of home-based online treatment channels, previously unfamiliar, and unaccepted in this population. The implementation of this model had to take into consideration many of the difficulties inherent in the use of online treatment in Jewish Ultra-Orthodox mental health patients. Aims: We sought to investigate our online home-based treatment model implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic in previously hospitalized young Ultra-Orthodox women with EDs. Method: We briefly review the literature on: (1) The Jewish Israeli Ultra-Orthodox culture; (2) Young women in Ultra-Orthodox society; and (3) EDs in Jewish Israeli Ultra-Orthodox women. We then present the inpatient ED department for Ultra-Orthodox young women and describe the online treatment model adapted to this population during the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight the difficulties, dilemmas, and advantages of our online model with the description of three patients. Findings: Online therapy can serve as a barrier to treatment in some cases, due to physical (lack of suitable online devices except phones), familial (over-crowded families), and religious circumstances, as well as because of the patients' reluctance to take part in this treatment. In other cases, virtual home-based treatment can lead to a positive change. This may be the case in patients who find the distancing online model suitable for them, and in parents who are committed to treatment, using their greater physical and emotional presence at home during the COVID-19 pandemic for the good if their ill-daughters. Discussion: This paper highlights the difficulties and possibilities inherent in a virtual home-based treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic for Ultra-Orthodox young women previously hospitalized because of an ED. This model can be effective for some patients and families if undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that is not only knowledgeable about the treatment of EDs and the use of online strategies but also knowledgeable and culturally sensitive to the specific needs and codes of Ultra-Orthodox populations.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 633433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 15% of Chinese respondents reported somatic symptoms in the last week of January 2020. Promoting resilience is a possible target in crisis intervention that can alleviate somatization. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the relationship between resilience and somatization, as well as the underlying possible mediating and moderating mechanism, in a large sample of Chinese participants receiving a crisis intervention during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. METHODS: Participants were invited online to complete demographic information and questionnaires. The Symptom Checklist-90 somatization subscale, 10-item Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and 10-item Perceived Stress Scale were measured. RESULTS: A total of 2,557 participants were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that lower resilience was associated with more somatic symptoms (p < 0.001). The conditional process model was proved (indirect effect = -0.01, 95% confidence interval = [-0.015, -0.002]). The interaction effects between perceived stress and sex predicted somatization (b = 0.05, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Resilience is a key predictor of somatization. The mediating effects of perceived stress between resilience and somatization work in the context of sex difference. Sex-specific intervention by enhancing resilience is of implication for alleviating somatization during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic.

10.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(2): 241-249, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high risk of death. Published data demonstrate the possibility of severe kidney injury in patients suffering from COVID-19. However, these data are still controversial. METHODS: A total of 1,280 patients with a proven diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in our study. COVID-19 was confirmed in all patients using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test of a nasopharyngeal swab, and based on the typical computed tomography findings. Demographic data, underlying comorbidities, and laboratory blood tests were assessed. We assessed the incidence of AKI and its associated mortality defined by survival status at discharge. RESULTS: Proteinuria was identified with 648 patients (50.6%) with COVID-19. AKI was identified in 371 patients (29.0%). Ten of these patients (2.7%) required dialysis. The risk factors for AKI included age of > 65 years, augmentation of C-reactive protein, ferritin and an increase in values of activated partial thromboplastin time. Overall, 162 of the 1,280 hospitalized patients (12.7%) and 111 of the 371 patients (29.9%) with AKI did not survive. The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 3.96 (95% confidence interval, 2.83-5.54) for patients with AKI vs. no AKI. CONCLUSION: AKI was a relatively common finding among patients with COVID-19. The risk factors for AKI in COVID-19 included old age, the inflammatory response, the severity of lung involvement, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. These same factors, in addition to arterial hypertension, were found to increase the risk of mortality.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256566

ABSTRACT

Cells convey information among one another. One instrument employed to transmit data and constituents to specific (target) cells is extracellular vesicles (EVs). They originate from a variety of cells (endothelial, immune cells, platelets, mesenchymal stromal cells, etc.), and consequently, their surface characteristics and cargo vary according to the paternal cell. The cargo could be DNA, mRNA, microRNA, receptors, metabolites, cytoplasmic proteins, or pathological molecules, as a function of which EVs exert different effects upon endocytosis in recipient cells. Recently, EVs have become important participants in a variety of pathologies, including atherogenesis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated thrombosis. Herein, we summarize recent advances and some of our own results on the role of EVs in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, and discuss their potential to function as signaling mediators, biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Since COVID-19 patients have a high rate of thrombotic events, a special section of the review is dedicated to the mechanism of thrombosis and the possible therapeutic potential of EVs in COVID-19-related thrombosis. Yet, EV mechanisms and their role in the transfer of information between cells in normal and pathological conditions remain to be explored.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Atherosclerosis/therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/virology
12.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 674-677, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate anxiety and depression in pregnant women during this global disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study recruiting 120 pregnant women. The study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. We recruited women attending for antenatal care. Anxiety was evaluated using an Arabic validated Kuwait University Anxiety Scale (KUAS). Depression was evaluated using a validated Arabic form of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS: The study included 48 (40%) nulliparous and 72 (60%) multiparous women. The mean KUAS scores for nulliparous and multiparous women were 45.27±10.78 and 47.28±10.62. Both nulliparous and multiparous women had a fairly high possibility of depression. Fifty-three (44.2%) of them reported scores ≥ of 14. Ninety-three (77.5%) women thought that COVID-19 pandemic would affect their pregnancies. There was a significant association between the number of women reporting fear related to the COVID-19 pandemic and their KUAS and EPDS scores (p-value <0.001 each). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 affected the mental health of pregnant women to a great extent. Care should be directed to measures that would decrease the impact of this pandemic on vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247286

ABSTRACT

Most countries in the world have recommended or mandated face masks in some or all public places during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, mask use has been thought to increase people's face-touching frequency and thus risk of self-inoculation. Across two studies, we video-observed the face-touching behaviour of members of the public in Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) during the first wave of the pandemic. Study 1 (n = 383) yielded evidence in favour of the absence of an association between mask-wearing and face-touching (defined as touches of face or mask), and Study 2 (n = 421) replicated this result. Secondary outcome analysis of the two studies-analysed separately and with pooled data sets-evidenced a negative association between mask-wearing and hand contact with the face and its t-zone (i.e. eyes, nose and mouth). In sum, the current findings alleviate the concern that mask-wearing has an adverse face-touching effect.

14.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(4): 25-30, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244382

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the features of asthenic syndrome and the possibilities of its therapy in patients in the post-covid period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 129 patients with an average age of 49.8±8.9 years who had undergone COVID-19 using a continuous sample method. Patients for the study were selected at the clinical bases of outpatient clinics in Samara (Russia) in July-August 2020. All patients signed an informed consent form prior to enrollment. Patients were randomized into two groups: in the main group (n=64), ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (Neurox) was prescribed 1 tablet (125 mg) 3 times a day for 4 weeks; in the comparison group (n=65), medical drugs (MD) did not contain substances from the pharmacological group related to antihypoxants/antioxidants/nootropics. Three visits (V) were conducted: the first (V1) - the period of inclusion, the second (V2) - after 14 days, the third (V3) - on the 28th day from the start of therapy. The dynamics of the general state (weakness, fatigue, concentration, dizziness, headache, sleep disorders) were evaluated on a visual-analog scale (VAS), the assessment of the subjective feeling of severity of asthenia (fatigue, physical and mental fatigue, decreased motivation and activity) - on Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), cognitive functions - on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), vegetative tone - according to the Kerdo index. RESULTS: At the end of the study (V3), statistically significant changes in indicators (VAS, MFI-20) were obtained only in the main group patients; no statistically significant differences were obtained for the Kerdo index. Analysis of the MMSE data revealed a decrease in cognitive functions in both groups, which may be associated with pseudocognitive deficits due to asthenia. CONCLUSIONS: We have obtained evidence of a high incidence of asthenic syndrome after COVID-19. Against the background of taking Neurox, there was a decrease in the severity and expression of asthenia symptoms.


Subject(s)
Asthenia , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Niacinamide , Russia , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 465, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic since March 11th, 2020. Despite emerging reports and literature covering a broad spectrum of COVID-19 clinical manifestations, facets of COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated. To the authors' concern, sinus bradycardia as a manifestation of COVID-19-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) has never been reported before. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper, we report a case of a 59-year-old male patient with confirmed COVID-19 initially presented with presyncope. Further investigations reveal sinus bradycardia related to COVID-19-induced SIADH. This case highlights the possibility of immuno-neuroendocrino-cardiovascular crosstalk resulting in an atypical manifestation of COVID-19: near syncope due to sinus bradycardia. CONCLUSIONS: Another possible cause of sinus bradycardia in COVID-19 is electrolyte imbalance due to COVID-19-related SIADH.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Bradycardia/complications , Bradycardia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Humans , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Water-Electrolyte Balance
16.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211018013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234502

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and possible risk factors for hand eczema with respect to the dissemination of information about new hand hygiene habits to protect against ongoing COVID-19 cross-transmission. The authors conducted a survey among health care workers (HCWs) and non-HCW populations in Khon Kaen, Thailand. RESULTS: A total of 805 participants participated. The prevalence of hand eczema in the study population was 20.87%. There were several risk factors, including working as a HCW, having a history of previous hand eczema, having underlying atopic dermatitis, wearing gloves in everyday life, and washing hands frequently (more than 10 times/day). Hand hygiene with alcohol-based products was shown to be a risk factor for hand eczema, (OR (95% CI) 1.86 (1.03-3.35), P = .04). CONCLUSION: In terms of hand eczema prevention, we suggest that the use of alcohol-based products should be discontinued if other handwashing methods are available. The following factors increase the risk of hand eczema: being a HCW, having previous hand eczema, and having underlying atopic dermatitis. Proper strategies in terms of hand eczema prevention should be addressed, especially in this group, since we need to continue performing hand hygiene during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eczema , Hand Dermatoses , Hand Hygiene , Eczema/epidemiology , Eczema/etiology , Eczema/prevention & control , Habits , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Dermatoses/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology
17.
GMS Hyg Infect Control ; 16: Doc17, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232519

ABSTRACT

Background: The cytotoxic effects of COVID-19 raise the question of a possible relation between COVID-19 infection and new-onset type 1 diabetes. We report the case of an eight-year-old boy with new-onset type 1 diabetes and an asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Case presentation: The eight-year-old boy was hospitalized on December 18th, 2020 due to increased polyuria during the preceding 1 week. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed with autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase and insulin. The Hba1c value was 11.6%. Upon admission, the PCR test for COVID-19 was positive, the duration of the infection was not clear due to the asymptomatic course, and antibodies were initially negative. Significantly elevated antibodies against COVID-19 were detected 15 days later. Conclusion: The laboratory findings led us to the hypothesis that the boy already had an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases (HLA DR3-DQB1*02:01 and DR4-DQB1*03:02 positive). The Hba1c value allows speculation that the diabetes manifestation was already "on the way" and that a relatively recent COVID-19 infection could have accelerated the process. The findings are in contrast to a recent report in which COVID-19 infection preceded the manifestation of an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by about 5-7 weeks. Due to the paucity of reports, cases with a suspected connection between diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 infection should be entered into the CoviDiab registry (https://covidiab.e-dendrite.com).

18.
Andrology ; 9(4): 1066-1075, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and lung failure, was first reported in mid-December 2019 in China and has spread around the world. In addition to causing serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and lung failure, there have been conflicting reports about the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen of patients who were previously diagnosed with COVID-19 and possible implications for the male reproductive tract. OBJECTIVE: The goal for the present study was to review the current status of the literature concerning COVID-19 and male reproduction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic literature search was done by using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Relevant papers, concerning SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19 and male reproduction, published between January 2020 and December 2020 were selected, analyzed and eventually included in the present literature review. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 may infect any cell type expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), including reproductive cells. Besides the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, the expression of host proteases, such as transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), is needed to cleave the viral S protein, allowing permanent fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Here, we aimed to review the current status of the literature concerning COVID-19 and male reproduction. The lack of co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the testis suggests that sperm cells may not be at increased risk of viral entry and spread. However, the presence of orchitis in COVID-19-confirmed patients and compromised sex-related hormonal balance among these patients intrigues reproductive medicine. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 may use alternate receptors to enter certain cell types, or the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 may not be detected in healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 challenges all medical areas, including reproductive medicine. It is not yet clear what effects, if any, the COVID-19 pandemic will have on male reproduction. Further research is needed to understand the long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproduction , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Genitalia, Male/metabolism , Humans , Male
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 564635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226980

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with or without respiratory alkalosis, and analyze the relationship of respiratory alkalosis and the outcome of adult coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of adult COVID-19 patients in a single center in China, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve and cox regression were adopted to analyze the association between respiratory alkalosis and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Results: Of 230 adult COVID-19 patients, 66 patients (28.7%) had respiratory alkalosis on admission. Of 66 patients, the median age was 53 years old (range, 21-84 years), and 43 (65.2%) were female. Compared with those without respiratory alkalosis, patients with respiratory alkalosis were significantly older (P = 0.002), had a higher proportion of female (P = 0.004), and showed higher ratios of underlying diseases including hypertension (P = 0.023) and cardiovascular disease (P = 0.028). Moreover, they demonstrated higher proportion of severe events (P = 0.001). Patients with respiratory alkalosis had a higher possibility of developing severe events compared with those without respiratory alkalosis (Log Rank P = 0.001). After adjusting for gender, age, and comorbidities, patients with respiratory alkalosis still showed significantly elevated risks of developing to severe cases (HR 2.445, 95% CI 1.307-4.571, P = 0.005) using cox regression analyses. Conclusions: Respiratory alkalosis as a common acid-base disorder in COVID-19 patients, was associated with a higher risk of developing severe event.

20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219241

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates through modelling the possible individual and combined effect of three populational parameters of pathogens (reproduction rate; rate of novelty emergence; and propagule size) on the colonization of new host species-putatively the most fundamental process leading to the emergence of new infectious diseases. The results are analysed under the theoretical framework of the Stockholm Paradigm using IBM simulations to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of the pathogen population and the possible role of Ecological Fitting. The simulations suggest that all three parameters positively influence the success of colonization of new hosts by a novel parasite population, but contrary to the prevailing belief, the rate of novelty emergence (e.g. mutations) is the least important factor. Maximization of all parameters results in a synergetic facilitation of the colonization and emulates the expected scenario for pathogenic microorganisms. The simulations also provide theoretical support for the retention of the capacity of fast-evolving lineages to retro-colonize their previous host species/lineage by ecological fitting. Capacity is, thus, much larger than we can anticipate. Hence, the results support the empirical observations that opportunity of encounter (i.e. the breakdown in mechanisms for ecological isolation) is a fundamental determinant to the emergence of new associations-especially Emergent Infectious Diseases-and the dynamics of host exploration, as observed in SARS-CoV-2. Insights on the dynamics of Emergent Infectious Diseases derived from the simulations and from the Stockholm Paradigm are discussed.

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