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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706826

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin (IG) lots (N=176) released since March 2020 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, with first positive results for September 2020 lots, mean = 1.7 IU/ml, 46% of lots positive. From there, values steadily increased, in correlation with the cumulative COVID-19 incidence, to reach a mean of 31.2 IU/ml and 93% of lots positive by January 2021. Extrapolating the correlation, IGs could reach an anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency of ~345 IU/ml by July 2021. At that stage, prophylactic IG treatment for primary/secondary immunodeficiency could contain similar doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 as convalescent plasma which is used for treatment of COVID-19.

2.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 572012, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574919

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused great harm to global public health, resulting in a large number of infections among the population. However, the epidemiology of coronavirus has not been fully understood, especially the mechanism of aerosol transmission. Many respiratory viruses can spread via contact and droplet transmission, but increasing epidemiological data have shown that viral aerosol is an essential transmission route of coronavirus and influenza virus due to its ability to spread rapidly and high infectiousness. Aerosols have the characteristics of small particle size, long-time suspension and long-distance transmission, and easy access to the deep respiratory tract, leading to a high infection risk and posing a great threat to public health. In this review, the characteristics of viral aerosol generation, transmission, and infection as well as the current advances in the aerosol transmission of zoonotic coronavirus and influenza virus are summarized. The aim of the review is to strengthen the understanding of viral aerosol transmission and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of these diseases.

3.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(7): 2031-2041, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has re-ignited interest in the possible role of vitamin D in modulation of host responses to respiratory pathogens. Indeed, vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential preventative or therapeutic strategy. Recommendations for any intervention, particularly in the context of a potentially fatal pandemic infection, should be strictly based on clinically informed appraisal of the evidence base. In this narrative review, we examine current evidence relating to vitamin D and COVID-19 and consider the most appropriate practical recommendations. OBSERVATIONS: Although there are a growing number of studies investigating the links between vitamin D and COVID-19, they are mostly small and observational with high risk of bias, residual confounding, and reverse causality. Extrapolation of molecular actions of 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D to an effect of increased 25(OH)-vitamin D as a result of vitamin D supplementation is generally unfounded, as is the automatic conclusion of causal mechanisms from observational studies linking low 25(OH)-vitamin D to incident disease. Efficacy is ideally demonstrated in the context of adequately powered randomised intervention studies, although such approaches may not always be feasible. CONCLUSIONS: At present, evidence to support vitamin D supplementation for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 is inconclusive. In the absence of any further compelling data, adherence to existing national guidance on vitamin D supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency, predicated principally on maintaining musculoskeletal health, appears appropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of aspirin dose on the incidence of all gestational age preeclampsia and preterm preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Web of Science) were searched for articles published between January 1985 and March 2019 with no language restrictions. METHODS: We followed the PRIMSA guidelines and utilized Covidence software. Articles were screened by 2 independent reviewers, with discrepancies settled by an independent 3rd party. Study selection criteria were randomized trials comparing aspirin for prevention of all gestational age and preterm preeclampsia to placebo or no antiplatelet treatment in women aged 15-55 years with moderate or high-risk factors according to the list of risk factors from American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines. The quality of trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis comparing aspirin at doses of <81, 81, 100, and 150 mg. Pre-specified outcomes were all gestational age and preterm preeclampsia. RESULTS: Of 1,609 articles screened, 23 randomized trials, which included 32,370 women, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In preterm preeclampsia, women assigned at random to 150 mg experienced a significant 62% reduction in risk of preterm preeclampsia (RR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20-0.72; P = 0.011). Aspirin doses <150 mg produced no significant reductions. The number needed to treat with 150 mg of aspirin was 39 (95% CI: 23-100). There was a maximum 30% reduction in risk of all gestational age preeclampsia at all aspirin doses. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, based on indirect comparisons, aspirin at a dose greater than the current, recommended 81 mg was associated with the highest reduction in preterm preeclampsia. Our meta-analysis is limited due to the deficiency of homogeneous high evidence data available in the literature to date; however, it may be prudent for clinicians to consider that the optimal aspirin dose may be higher than the current guidelines advise. Future research to compare the efficacy aspirin doses greater than 81 mg is recommended. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019127951 (University of York, UK; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Young Adult
7.
Am J Ther ; 28(4): e434-e460, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Repurposed medicines may have a role against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The antiparasitic ivermectin, with antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, has now been tested in numerous clinical trials. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: We assessed the efficacy of ivermectin treatment in reducing mortality, in secondary outcomes, and in chemoprophylaxis, among people with, or at high risk of, COVID-19 infection. DATA SOURCES: We searched bibliographic databases up to April 25, 2021. Two review authors sifted for studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Meta-analyses were conducted and certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach and additionally in trial sequential analyses for mortality. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials involving 3406 participants met review inclusion. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES: Meta-analysis of 15 trials found that ivermectin reduced risk of death compared with no ivermectin (average risk ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.73; n = 2438; I2 = 49%; moderate-certainty evidence). This result was confirmed in a trial sequential analysis using the same DerSimonian-Laird method that underpinned the unadjusted analysis. This was also robust against a trial sequential analysis using the Biggerstaff-Tweedie method. Low-certainty evidence found that ivermectin prophylaxis reduced COVID-19 infection by an average 86% (95% confidence interval 79%-91%). Secondary outcomes provided less certain evidence. Low-certainty evidence suggested that there may be no benefit with ivermectin for "need for mechanical ventilation," whereas effect estimates for "improvement" and "deterioration" clearly favored ivermectin use. Severe adverse events were rare among treatment trials and evidence of no difference was assessed as low certainty. Evidence on other secondary outcomes was very low certainty. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence finds that large reductions in COVID-19 deaths are possible using ivermectin. Using ivermectin early in the clinical course may reduce numbers progressing to severe disease. The apparent safety and low cost suggest that ivermectin is likely to have a significant impact on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(8): 41, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the spectrum of neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been growing. We provide a critical review of the literature with special emphasis on presentation, proposed mechanisms of disease, and treatment of neurological involvement in APS. RECENT FINDINGS: Although stroke is the most common cause of neurological manifestations in patients with APS, other neurological disorders have been increasingly associated with the disease, including cognitive dysfunction, headache, and epilepsy. Direct oral anticoagulants have failed to show non-inferiority compared to vitamin K antagonists for the prevention of major thrombotic events. Antiphospholipid antibodies are often found in patients with acute COVID-19 but clear evidence supporting an association between these antibodies and the risk of thrombotic events, including stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis, is still lacking. APS patients may present with several distinct neurological manifestations. New criteria will facilitate the classification of patients presenting with increasingly recognized non-criteria neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Anticoagulants , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Build Environ ; 202: 108038, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263230

ABSTRACT

During the period of COVID-19, the number of residents infected in urban communities continued to rise, implying that most of the current building layouts can't effectively resist the spread of infectious diseases, and the outbreak of COVID-19 has led to the need of changes for the current building environment. Therefore, the epidemic prevention should be considered in the residential building design, and the health design of residential community should be carried out from the perspective of epidemic prevention. In order to improve the ability of epidemic prevention of residential buildings and deal with the sudden pandemic and influenza in the post-epidemic era, a Healthy Assessment System for Residential Building Epidemic Prevention (HASRBEP) was developed according to the epidemic impact on residential buildings, the design and measures of epidemic prevention for residential buildings and the Chinese Assessment standard for healthy building (T/ASC 02-2016). Both entropy weight method and expert scoring method were used to determine the specific weight of the index. The HASRBEP includes control item assessment, preliminary assessment and extension assessment. The newly developed HASRBEP was used to assess the residential buildings of the Yulongzhuang Building Community located in Quanzhou, Fujian Province, China. The results show that the HASRBEP can be used to guide the health and epidemic prevention design of residential buildings.

11.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(13): 1579-1587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the global scenario. To date, there are no treatment or preventive options. The discovery of a new drug will take time. In addition, the new drug will have side effects, and the virus will gradually become resistant to it. Therefore, it is important to search for a drug with a natural origin. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we analyzed and summarized various ethnomedicinal plants and their bioactive compounds as a source of antiviral agents for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. METHODS: From the literature, we selected different natural compounds that can act as potential targets at low cost with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. RESULTS: Of the 200 Chinese herbal extracts tested for their possible role against SARS-CoV, Lycoris radiata, Artemisia annua, Pyrrosia lingua, and Lindera aggregate showed anti-SARS-CoV effects with the median effective concentration = 2.4-88.2 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: Ethnomedicinal herbs can be used as an alternative source of novel, promising antiviral agents that might directly or indirectly inhibit the COVID-19 progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Nat Protoc ; 16(7): 3639-3671, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243308

ABSTRACT

As exemplified by the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, there is a strong demand for rapid high-throughput isolation pipelines to identify potent neutralizing antibodies for prevention and therapy of infectious diseases. However, despite substantial progress and extensive efforts, the identification and production of antigen-specific antibodies remains labor- and cost-intensive. We have advanced existing concepts to develop a highly efficient high-throughput protocol with proven application for the isolation of potent antigen-specific antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis C virus, human cytomegalovirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 and Ebola virus. It is based on computationally optimized multiplex primer sets (openPrimeR), which guarantee high coverage of even highly mutated immunoglobulin gene segments as well as on optimized antibody cloning and production strategies. Here, we provide the detailed protocol, which covers all critical steps from sample collection to antibody production within 12-14 d.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Vopr Pitan ; 90(2): 26-39, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239345

ABSTRACT

The problem of increasing immunity has become especially relevant in the conditions of the rapid spread of the new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2. Nowadays it has been proven that a deficiency of certain micronutrients in the diet can disrupt chemical, structural and regulatory processes in the organism, which negatively affects, first of all, the state of immune system. Zinc is one of the most significant essential trace elements affecting immunological resistance. The aim of the study was to substantiate the need of including zinc-containing products and diet supplements in the diet of the population during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the basis of the study of pathogenetic mechanisms of various disorders of the immunological status under zinc deficit. Material and methods. This review analyzes the data from scientific electronic libraries CyberLeninka, eLIBRARY.RU, the Google Scholar databases and bibliographic medical databases MEDLINE and PubMed-NCBI. Results and discussion. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, adequate zinc supply is especially important, due to its antiviral, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic effects. This element also regulates the severity of the cytokine response, exhibits antibacterial properties and helps to compensate for chronic comorbid diseases, which plays a particularly significant role in preventing severe SARS-CoV-2 and recurrent respiratory diseases. Prevention and correction of zinc deficiency is considered as one of the important measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, aimed at increasing antiviral and general immunity, reducing the systemic inflammatory response and correcting hormonal and metabolic status. Conclusion. The pathogenetically substantiated inclusion of zinc-containing foods and supplements in the diet will enhance the immunity of the population during the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Zinc/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans
14.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 11(4): 1498-1508, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237565

ABSTRACT

Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) have many advantages and represent an excellent alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. TDDS are more convenient and less invasive tools for disease and viral infection treatment, prevention, detection, and surveillance. The emerging development of microneedles for TDDS has facilitated improved skin barrier penetration for the delivery of macromolecules or hydrophilic drugs. Microneedle TDDS patches can be fabricated to deliver virus vaccines and potentially provide a viable alternative vaccine modality that offers improved immunogenicity, thermostability, simplicity, safety, and compliance as well as sharp-waste reduction, increased cost-effectiveness, and the capacity for self-administration, which could improve vaccine distribution. These advantages make TDDS-based vaccine delivery an especially well-suited option for treatment of widespread viral infectious diseases including pandemics. Because microneedle-based bioassays employ transdermal extraction of interstitial fluid or blood, they can be used as a minimally invasive approach for surveying disease markers and providing point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. For cutaneous viral infections, TDDS can provide localized treatment with high specificity and less systemic toxicity. In summary, TDDS, especially those that employ microneedles, possess special attributes that can be leveraged to reduce morbidity and mortality from viral infectious diseases. In this regard, they may have considerable positive impact as a modality for improving global health. In this article, we introduce the possible role and summarize the current literature regarding TDDS applications for fighting common cutaneous or systemic viral infectious diseases, including herpes simplex, varicella or herpes zoster, warts, influenza, measles, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Microinjections/methods , Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems/trends , Humans , Microinjections/trends
15.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(23): 4608-4619, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236100

ABSTRACT

Worldwide infections and fatalities caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants responsible for COVID-19 have significantly impeded the economic growth of many nations. People in many nations have lost their livelihoods, it has severely impacted international relations and, most importantly, health infrastructures across the world have been tormented. This pandemic has already left footprints on human psychology, traits, and priorities and is certainly going to lead towards a new world order in the future. As always, science and technology have come to the rescue of the human race. The prevention of infection by instant and repeated cleaning of surfaces that are most likely to be touched in daily life and sanitization drives using medically prescribed sanitizers and UV irradiation of textiles are the first steps to breaking the chain of transmission. However, the real challenge is to develop and uplift medical infrastructure, such as diagnostic tools capable of prompt diagnosis and instant and economic medical treatment that is available to the masses. Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, are atomic sheets that have been in the news for quite some time due to their unprecedented electronic mobilities, high thermal conductivity, appreciable thermal stability, excellent anchoring capabilities, optical transparency, mechanical flexibility, and a unique capability to integrate with arbitrary surfaces. These attributes of 2D materials make them lucrative for use as an active material platform for authentic and prompt (within minutes) disease diagnosis via electrical or optical diagnostic tools or via electrochemical diagnosis. We present the opportunities provided by 2D materials as a platform for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Transistors, Electronic
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 643619, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory virus, which can proliferate by invading the ACE2 receptor of host cells. Clinical studies have found that the virus can cause dyspnea, pneumonia and other cardiopulmonary system damage. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure and even death. Although there are currently no effective drugs or vaccines for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, the patient's prognosis recovery can be effectively improved by ameliorating the dysfunction of the respiratory system, cardiovascular systems, and immune function. Intermittent hypoxic preconditioning (IHP) as a new non-drug treatment has been applied in the clinical and rehabilitative practice for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, and other diseases. Many clinical studies have confirmed that IHP can improve the cardiopulmonary function of patients and increase the cardiorespiratory fitness and the tolerance of tissues and organs to ischemia. This article introduces the physiological and biochemical functions of IHP and proposes the potential application plan of IHP for the rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19, so as to provide a better prognosis for patients and speed up the recovery of the disease. The aim of this narrative review is to propose possible causes and pathophysiology of COVID-19 based on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune response, and to provide a new, safe and efficacious strategy for the better rehabilitation from COVID-19.

17.
Hum Antibodies ; 29(3): 179-191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226968

ABSTRACT

The harmful COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus imposes the scientific community to develop or find conventional curative drugs, protective vaccines, or passive immune strategies rapidly and efficiently. Passive immunity is based on recovering hyper-immune plasma from convalescent patients, or monoclonal antibodies with elevated titer of neutralizing antibodies with high antiviral activity, that have potential for both treatment and prevention. In this review, we focused on researching the potentiality of monoclonal antibodies for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection. Our research review includes antibody-based immunotherapy, using human monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 viral protein regions, specifically the spike protein regions, and using hyper-immune plasma from convalescent COVID-19 patients, in which monoclonal antibodies act as immunotherapy for the cytokine storm syndrome associated with the COVID-19 infection. In addition, we will demonstrate the role of the monoclonal antibodies in the development of candidate vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the recent progress of the diagnostic mouse monoclonal antibodies' role will be highlighted, as an accurate and rapid diagnostic assay, in the antigen detection of SARS-CoV-2. In brief, the monoclonal antibodies are the potential counter measures that may control SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19 disease, through immunotherapy and vaccine development, as well as viral detection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 17: 371-387, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218459

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) that began in China had infected so far more than 109,217,366 million individuals worldwide and accounted for more than 2,413,912 fatalities. With the dawn of this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), there was a requirement to select potential therapies that might effectively kill the virus, accelerate the recovery, or decrease the case fatality rate. Besides the currently available antiviral medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) regimen with or without azithromycin has been repurposed in China and was recommended by the National Health Commission, China in mid-February 2020. By this time, the selection of this regimen was based on its efficacy against the previous SARS-CoV-1 virus and its potential to inhibit viral replication of the SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. There was a shortage of robust clinical proof about the effectiveness of this regimen against the novel SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, extensive research effort has been made by several researchers worldwide to investigate whether this regimen is safe and effective for the management of COVID-19. In this review, we provided a comprehensive overview of the CQ/HCQ regimen, summarizing data from in vitro studies and clinical trials for the protection against or the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Despite the initial promising results from the in vitro studies and the widespread use of CQ/HCQ in clinical settings during the 1st wave of COVID-19, current data from well-designed randomized controlled trials showed no evidence of benefit from CQ/HCQ supplementation for the treatment or prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly, the two largest randomized controlled trials to date (RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY trials), both confirmed that CQ/HCQ regimen does not provide any clinical benefit for COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of this regimen in COVID-19 patients outside the context of clinical trials.

19.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2115-2131, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217370

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) urgently requires an effective vaccine for prevention. In this study, 66 epitopes containing pentapeptides of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the IEDB database were compared with the amino acid sequence of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and 66 potentially immune-related peptides of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were obtained. Based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms analysis of spike protein of 1218 SARS-CoV-2 isolates, 52 easily mutated sites were identified and used for vaccine epitope screening. The best vaccine candidate epitopes in the 66 peptides of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were screened out through mutation and immunoinformatics analysis. The best candidate epitopes were connected by different linkers in silico to obtain vaccine candidate sequences. The results showed that 16 epitopes were relatively conservative, immunological, nontoxic, and nonallergenic, could induce the secretion of cytokines, and were more likely to be exposed on the surface of the spike protein. They were both B- and T-cell epitopes, and could recognize a certain number of HLA molecules and had high coverage rates in different populations. Moreover, epitopes 897-913 were predicted to have possible cross-immunoprotection for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The results of vaccine candidate sequences screening suggested that sequences (without linker, with linker GGGSGGG, EAAAK, GPGPG, and KK, respectively) were the best. The proteins translated by these sequences were relatively stable, with a high antigenic index and good biological activity. Our study provided vaccine candidate epitopes and sequences for the research of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Computational Biology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
20.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(12): 2731-2738, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases are a constant threat to the public's health and health care systems around the world. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), which was defined by the World Health Organization as pandemic, has rapidly emerged as a global health threat. Outbreak evolution and prevention of international implications require substantial flexibility of frontline health care facilities in their response. AIM: To explore the effect of the implementation and management strategy of pre-screening triage in children during COVID-19. METHODS: The standardized triage screening procedures included a standardized triage screening questionnaire, setup of pre-screening triage station, multi-point temperature monitoring, extensive screenings, and two-way protection. In order to ensure the implementation of the pre-screening triage, the prevention and control management strategies included training, emergency exercise, and staff protection. Statistical analysis was performed on the data from all the children hospitalized from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020 at solstice during the pandemic period. Data were obtained from questionnaires and electronic medical record systems. RESULTS: A total of 17561 children, including 2652 who met the criteria for screening, 192 suspected cases, and two confirmed cases without omission, were screened from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020 at solstice during the pandemic period. There was zero transmission of the infection to any medical staff. CONCLUSION: The effective strategies for pre-screening triage have an essential role in the prevention and control of hospital infection.

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