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1.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1392-1396, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384168

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 pandemic continues to produce a large number of patients with chronic respiratory failure and ventilator dependence. As such, surgeons will be called upon to perform tracheotomy for a subset of these chronically intubated patients. As seen during the SARS and the SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) have been associated with higher rates of infection of medical personnel and potential acceleration of viral dissemination throughout the medical center. Therefore, a thoughtful approach to tracheotomy (and other AGPs) is imperative and maintaining traditional management norms may be unsuitable or even potentially harmful. We sought to review the existing evidence informing best practices and then develop straightforward guidelines for tracheotomy during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This communication is the product of those efforts and is based on national and international experience with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the SARS epidemic of 2002/2003.


Subject(s)
Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Tracheotomy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Ventilator Weaning/methods
2.
SLAS Discov ; 26(9): 1091-1106, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255878

ABSTRACT

Lung imaging and autopsy reports among COVID-19 patients show elevated lung scarring (fibrosis). Early data from COVID-19 patients as well as previous studies from severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and other respiratory disorders show that the extent of lung fibrosis is associated with a higher mortality, prolonged ventilator dependence, and poorer long-term health prognosis. Current treatments to halt or reverse lung fibrosis are limited; thus, the rapid development of effective antifibrotic therapies is a major global medical need that will continue far beyond the current COVID-19 pandemic. Reproducible fibrosis screening assays with high signal-to-noise ratios and disease-relevant readouts such as extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (the hallmark of fibrosis) are integral to any antifibrotic therapeutic development. Therefore, we have established an automated high-throughput and high-content primary screening assay measuring transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß)-induced ECM deposition from primary human lung fibroblasts in a 384-well format. This assay combines longitudinal live cell imaging with multiparametric high-content analysis of ECM deposition. Using this assay, we have screened a library of 2743 small molecules representing approved drugs and late-stage clinical candidates. Confirmed hits were subsequently profiled through a suite of secondary lung fibroblast phenotypic screening assays quantifying cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In silico target prediction and pathway network analysis were applied to the confirmed hits. We anticipate this suite of assays and data analysis tools will aid the identification of new treatments to mitigate against lung fibrosis associated with COVID-19 and other fibrotic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mass Screening , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
3.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129788

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm syndrome in patients with COVID-19 is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in acute lung injury and multiorgan failure. Elevation in serum ferritin and D-dimer is observed in COVID-19 patients. To determine prognostic values of optimal serum cutoff with trajectory plots for both serum ferritin and D-dimer in COVID-19 patients with invasive ventilator dependence and in-hospital mortality. We used retrospective longitudinal data from the Cerner COVID-19 de-identified cohort. COVID-19 infected patients with valid repeated values of serum ferritin and D-dimer during hospitalization were used in mixed-effects logistic-regression models. Among 52,411 patients, 28.5% (14,958) had valid serum ferritin and 28.6% (15,005) D-dimer laboratory results. Optimal cutoffs of ferritin (714 ng/mL) and D-dimer (2.1 mg/L) revealed AUCs ≥ 0.99 for in-hospital mortality. Optimal cutoffs for ferritin (502 ng/mL) and D-dimer (2.0 mg/L) revealed AUCs ≥ 0.99 for invasive ventilator dependence. Optimal cutoffs for in-house mortality, among females, were lower in serum ferritin (433 ng/mL) and D-dimer (1.9 mg/L) compared to males (740 ng/mL and 2.5 mg/L, respectively). Optimal cutoffs for invasive ventilator dependence, among females, were lower in ferritin (270 ng/mL) and D-dimer (1.3 mg/L) compared to males (860 ng/mL and 2.3 mg/L, respectively). Optimal prognostic cutoffs for serum ferritin and D-dimer require considering the entire trajectory of laboratory values during the disease course. Females have an overall lower optimal cutoff for both serum ferritin and D-dimer. The presented research allows health professionals to predict clinical outcomes and appropriate allocation of resources during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially early recognition of COVID-19 patients needing higher levels of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 576, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613554

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective: The primary objective is to reduce initiation of mechanical ventilator dependency in patients with moderate to severe CoViD- 19. This will be measured as the difference between the control group and active group for subjects admitted to the hospital for CoViD-19. Secondary Objectives: • To evaluate cytokine trends / Prevent cytokine storms • To evaluate supplemental oxygen requirements • To decrease mortality of CoViD-19 patients • Delay onset of ventilation TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a single centre, 2-arm, prospective, randomized (ratio 1:1), controlled trial with parallel groups design to compare the reduction of respiratory distress in a CoViD-19 population, using the intervention of the gammaCore®-Sapphire device plus standard of care (active) vs. standard of care alone (SoC) - the control group. The gammaCore® treatments will be used acutely and prophylactically. The active and control groups will be matched for disease and severity. PARTICIPANTS: i. Inclusion Criteria The subjects have to meet all of the following criteria to be eligible to enter the trial: 1.Patient older than 18 years2.Been tested positive or suspected/presumed positive for CoViD-19 Has a cough, shortness of breath or respiratory O2 Saturation less than or equal to 92% without need for mechanical ventilation or acute respiratory failure 3.Agree to use the gammaCore®-Sapphire device as intended and to follow all of the requirements of the study including recording required study data4.Patient is able to provide signed and witnessed Informed Consent ii. Exclusion Criteria Subjects meeting any of the following criteria cannot be included in this research study: 1.Pregnant women2.On home/therapy oxygen (i.e. for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) at baseline prior to development of CoViD-193.Patient already enrolled in a clinical trial using immunotherapeutic regimen for CoViD-194.History of aneurysm, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumors, or significant head trauma5.Known or suspected severe atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, severe carotid artery disease (eg, bruits or history of transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident), congestive heart failure, known severe coronary artery disease, or recent myocardial infarction6.Uncontrolled high blood pressure (>140/90)7.Current implantation of an electrical and/or neurostimulator device, including but not limited to a cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator, vagal neurostimulator, deep brain stimulator, spinal stimulator, bone growth stimulator, or cochlear implant8.Current implantation of metal cervical spine hardware or a metallic implant near the gammaCore stimulation site9.Belongs to a vulnerable population or has any condition such that his or her ability to provide informed consent, comply with the follow-up requirements, or provide self-assessments is compromised (e.g. homeless, developmentally disabled and prisoner) Participants will be recruited from Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia in Spain. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: Prophylactic: Administer 2 doses (at 2 minutes each) of gammaCore®-Sapphire, one dose on each side of the neck scheduled three times a day (morning, mid-day and 1 hour before bed at night).Acute respiratory failure or shortness of breath: Administer 2 doses (at 2 minutes each) of gammaCore®-Sapphire, one on each side of the neck. If shortness of breath (SOB) persists 20 minutes after the start of the first treatment, a second dose will be administered. Max doses per day is 9 or 18 stimulations.Plus standard of care Control: Standard of care: oxygen therapy, antibiotics and ventilatory support if necessary depending on the clinic MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Endpoint: Initiation of mechanical ventilation, from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first Secondary Endpoints: Safety; ascertainment of Adverse Effects/Serious Adverse Events, from randomisation to ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstCytokine Storm measured by: Tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 1ß. Days 1,3,5,10,15 and/or at hospital dischargeMortality and/or need for Critical Care admission, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first,O2 saturation levels , from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs firstNeed for supplemental oxygen, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first RANDOMISATION: The patients are classified according to their oxygen levels as mild, moderate and severe and randomized according to their classification to the intervention and control in a ratio of 1:1. The randomization will be stratified for gender and age. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study, it is not possible to blind the participants and healthcare providers to the intervention. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The total number of patients to be included in the study is 90, with 45 in each study group TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version is 8.0 from 07th April 2020. The recruitment began 20th April 2020 and is expected to be complete 31st July 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in clinicaltrials.gov on 29th April 2020 with the identification number: NCT04368156 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/instrumentation , COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
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