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1.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(10): 1417-1423, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777840

ABSTRACT

Symptom management and end-of-life care are core skills for all physicians, although in ordinary times many anesthesiologists have fewer occasions to use these skills. The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant mortality over a short time and has necessitated an increase in provision of both critical care and palliative care. For anesthesiologists deployed to units caring for patients with COVID-19, this narrative review provides guidance on conducting goals of care discussions, withdrawing life-sustaining measures, and managing distressing symptoms.


RéSUMé: La prise en charge des symptômes et les soins de fin de vie sont des compétences de base pour tous les médecins, bien qu'en temps ordinaire, de nombreux anesthésiologistes n'ont que peu d'occasions de mettre en pratique ces compétences. La pandémie actuelle de coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) a provoqué un taux de mortalité significatif dans un court intervalle et a nécessité une augmentation des besoins en soins intensifs et en soins palliatifs. Destiné aux anesthésiologistes déployés dans les unités prenant soin de patients atteints de la COVID-19, ce compte rendu narratif offre des recommandations quant à la façon de mener les discussions à propos des objectifs de soins, du retrait des thérapies de soutien vital, et de la prise en charge de symptômes de détresse.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Terminal Care/organization & administration , Anesthesiologists/organization & administration , Anesthesiologists/standards , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care/standards , Humans , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Pandemics , Physicians/organization & administration , Physicians/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Terminal Care/standards , Withholding Treatment
2.
Am J Med ; 134(10): 1252-1259.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to widespread implementation of public health measures, such as stay-at-home orders, social distancing, and masking mandates. In addition to decreasing spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, these measures also impact the transmission of seasonal viral pathogens, which are common triggers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Whether reduced viral prevalence mediates reduction in COPD exacerbation rates is unknown. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of data from a large, multicenter health care system to assess admission trends associated with community viral prevalence and with initiation of COVID-19 pandemic control measures. We applied difference-in-differences analysis to compare season-matched weekly frequency of hospital admissions for COPD prior to and after implementation of public health measures for COVID-19. Community viral prevalence was estimated using regional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention test positivity data and correlated to COPD admissions. RESULTS: Data involving 4422 COPD admissions demonstrated a season-matched 53% decline in COPD admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which correlated to community viral burden (r = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.78) and represented a 36% greater decline over admission frequencies observed in other medical conditions less affected by respiratory viral infections (incidence rate ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.71, P < .001). The post-COVID-19 decline in COPD admissions was most pronounced in patients with fewer comorbidities and without recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: The implementation of public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with decreased COPD admissions. These changes are plausibly explained by reduced prevalence of seasonal respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Symptom Flare Up
3.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(9): 2212-2220, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387241

ABSTRACT

The SARS-COV-2 pandemic has led to strict and generalized transmission prevention measures that may have changed the epidemiological landscape of common seasonal respiratory virus (CSRV). Through a prospective CSRV survey program conducted from 2016 onwards in allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients with respiratory symptoms, we aimed to analyze and compare the epidemiology and characteristics of CSRV over three consecutive periods [from February 1 to September 30 of 2018 (P1), 2019 (P2), and 2020 (P3)]. CSRV screening was performed through multiplex PCR assays during the study period. We identified 188 consecutive allo-HSCT recipients with 406 episodes screened for CSRV during the study period, of which 147 developed 300 CSRV. In P1 and P2 we diagnosed 115 (38.3%) and 145 (48.3%) CSRV episodes, respectively, whereas in P3 only 40 (13.3%) episodes were detected (p < 0.001). During P3, we observed a reduction of 80.2% in Ev/Rh, 93.3% in RSV, 80% in hIV, 96.3% HPIV, 68.4% in hMPV, 77.7% in ADV, 100% in HBoV, and 53.6% in HCoV as compared to P1 and P2. Consequently, we also observed a decline in absolute numbers of lower respiratory tract disease (68.1%), co-infections (91.7%), and hospitalizations (72.6%) during P3. We diagnosed SARS-COV-2 in nine allo-HSCT recipients, representing 23% of all CSRV detections in that period. In conclusion, we provide evidence of a significant drop in CSRV circulation during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic in our allo-HSCT recipients, indicating that prevention measures in the general population are highly effective in reducing CSRV prevalence and its complications in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Transplant Recipients
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 154-156, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385692

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are a major cause of mortality worldwide and in France, where they cause several thousands of deaths every year. University Hospital Institute-Méditerranée Infection performs real-time surveillance of all diagnoses of infections and associated deaths in public hospitals in Marseille, Southeastern France. This study compared mortality associated with diagnoses of respiratory viruses during the colder months of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 (week 47-week 14). In 2018-2019, 73 patients (0.17% of 42,851 hospitalized patients) died after being diagnosed with a respiratory virus; 40 and 13 deaths occurred in patients diagnosed with influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), respectively. In 2019-2020, 50 patients (0.10% of 49,043 patients hospitalized) died after being diagnosed with a common respiratory virus; seven and seven deaths occurred in patients diagnosed with influenza A virus and RSV, respectively. Additionally, 55 patients died after being diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of respiratory virus-associated deaths among hospitalized patients was thus significantly lower for common respiratory viruses in 2019-2020 than in 2018-2019 (102 versus 170 per 100,000 hospitalized patients; p = 0.003), primarily as a consequence of a decrease in influenza A virus (-83%) and RSV (-46%)-associated deaths. Overall, the proportion of respiratory virus-associated deaths among hospitalized patients was higher, but not significantly, in 2019-2020 than in 2018-2019 (214 versus 170 per 100,000 hospitalized patients; p = 0.08, Yates-corrected Chi-square test). These findings put into perspective the death burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this geographical area.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1199-1201, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379069

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Saliva
6.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 388-398, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380064

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory virus infections may cause serious respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to viral infections comparing etiological agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ARF patients with positive viral serology were retrospectively recruited. Cohort was evaluated with regard to subgroups as influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV), as well as survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULT: Out of 938 admitted patients, 319 were followed as ARF and only 149 patients had viral respiratory panel results. In 49 patients with ARF, 52 positive viral results were detected and 47 patients with single positive viral isolates of either influenza or ORV were included. Among them, 62% had ORV with quite similar characteristics with influenza group apart from diabetes mellitus which was encountered more in influenza group (p= 0.02). Overall ICU mortality was 32% and there was no difference between the two groups (p= 0.42). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was independently associated with ICU mortality (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.51; p= 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes to consider the possibility of other respiratory viruses for the cause of ARF with similar characteristics and mortality as influenza species.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Influenza, Human/mortality , Patient Admission , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Turkey , Young Adult
7.
Pathogens ; 9(1)2020 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300286

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the first cause of death by disease in childhood globally. The most frequent types of cancers in children and adolescents are leukemias, followed by brain and central nervous system tumors and lymphomas. The recovery rate of cancer in children is around 80% in developed countries and up to 30% in developing countries. Some of the main causes of complications in children and adolescents with cancer are respiratory viral infections, mainly in bone marrow-transplanted patients. Respiratory viruses have been detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage or nasal wash specimens from cancer patients with or without respiratory illness symptoms. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is within the ten most common viruses that are encountered in samples from pediatric patients with underlying oncology conditions. In most of cases, HMPV is found as the only viral agent, but co-infection with other viruses or with bacterial agents has also been reported. The discrepancies between the most prevalent viral agents may be due to the different populations studied or the range of viral agents tested. Some of the cases of infection with HMPV in cancer patients have been fatal, especially in those who have received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This review seeks to show a general view of the participation of HMPV in respiratory illness as a complication of cancer in childhood and adolescence.

8.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13626, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fever-7 is a test evaluating host mRNA expression levels of IFI27, JUP, LAX, HK3, TNIP1, GPAA1 and CTSB in blood able to detect viral infections. This test has been validated mostly in hospital settings. Here we have evaluated Fever-7 to identify the presence of respiratory viral infections in a Community Health Center. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the "Servicio de Urgencias de Atención Primaria" in Salamanca, Spain. Patients with clinical signs of respiratory infection and at least one point in the National Early Warning Score were recruited. Fever-7 mRNAs were profiled on a Nanostring nCounter® SPRINT instrument from blood collected upon patient enrolment. Viral diagnosis was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) using the Biofire-RP2 panel. RESULTS: A respiratory virus was detected in the NPAs of 66 of the 100 patients enrolled. Median National Early Warning Score was 7 in the group with no virus detected and 6.5 in the group with a respiratory viral infection (P > .05). The Fever-7 score yielded an overall AUC of 0.81 to predict a positive viral syndromic test. The optimal operating point for the Fever-7 score yielded a sensitivity of 82% with a specificity of 71%. Multivariate analysis showed that Fever-7 was a robust marker of viral infection independently of age, sex, major comorbidities and disease severity at presentation (OR [CI95%], 3.73 [2.14-6.51], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Fever-7 is a promising host immune mRNA signature for the early identification of a respiratory viral infection in the community.


Subject(s)
RNA, Messenger/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cathepsin B/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Early Warning Score , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/genetics , gamma Catenin/genetics
9.
Blood Adv ; 5(7): 1903-1914, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263006

ABSTRACT

Data are limited regarding risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and the significance of virologic documentation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing allogeneic HCT (4/2008-9/2018) with HCoV (OC43/NL63/HKU1/229E) detected by polymerase chain reaction during conditioning or post-HCT. Risk factors for all manifestations of LRTI and progression to LRTI among those presenting with HCoV upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were analyzed by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Mortality rates following HCoV LRTI were compared according to virologic documentation by BAL. A total of 297 patients (61 children and 236 adults) developed HCoV infection as follows: 254 had URTI alone, 18 presented with LRTI, and 25 progressed from URTI to LRTI (median, 16 days; range, 2-62 days). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that male sex, higher immunodeficiency scoring index, albumin <3 g/dL, glucose >150 mg/dL, and presence of respiratory copathogens were associated with occurrence of LRTI. Hyperglycemia with steroid use was associated with progression to LRTI (P < .01) in Cox models. LRTI with HCoV detected in BAL was associated with higher mortality than LRTI without documented detection in BAL (P < .01). In conclusion, we identified factors associated with HCoV LRTI, some of which are less commonly appreciated to be risk factors for LRTI with other respiratory viruses in HCT recipients. The association of hyperglycemia with LRTI might provide an intervention opportunity to reduce the risk of LRTI.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons , United States , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4392-4398, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263103

ABSTRACT

With the arrival of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil in February 2020, several preventive measures were taken by the population aiming to avoid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection including the use of masks, social distancing, and frequent hand washing then, these measures may have contributed to preventing infection also by other respiratory viruses. Our goal was to determine the frequencies of Influenza A and B viruses (FLUAV/FLUBV), human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), Enterovirus 68 (EV-68), and rhinovirus (RV) besides SARS-CoV-2 among hospitalized patients suspect of COVID-19 with cases of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) in the period of March to December 2020 and to detect possible coinfections among them. Nucleic acid detection was performed using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in respiratory samples using naso-oropharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage. A total of 418 samples of the 987 analyzed (42.3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 16 (1.62%) samples were positive for FLUAV, no sample was positive for FLUBV or EV-68, 67 (6.78%) samples were positive for HAdV-C, 55 samples were positive for RV 1/2 (26.3%) and 37 for RV 2/2 (13.6%). Coinfections were also detected, including a triple coinfection with SARS-CoV-2, FLUAV, and HAdV-C. In the present work, a very low frequency of FLUV was reported among hospitalized patients with ARDS compared to the past years, probably due to preventive measures taken to avoid COVID-19 and the high influenza vaccination coverage in the region in which this study was performed.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Adenoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Common Cold/prevention & control , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Masks , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
11.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(3): 509-521, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for adults with chronic and acute illnesses informs health and economic policy for pandemic recovery. Our primary aim was to compare HRQoL of 3 illness groups of outpatient adults: those with diabetes, those who survived a hospitalization for COVID-19, and those who had a respiratory virus not COVID-19. The secondary aim was to compare the group domain summary scores to the referent general population. METHODS: We identified the 3 groups from the electronic medical record and invited them to complete the SF-36 survey. Analysis of variance and post hoc testing was used for univariate analyses followed by linear regression. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-two adults completed the survey. The groups differed least for physical functioning and most for emotional/mental health. The hospitalized group had the greatest limitation in role due to emotional issues. All groups had significantly lower social functioning scores than the general population. Linear regression showed lower HRQoL domain score in role limitations due to emotional issues adjusted for age, race, and gender for the hospitalized group. CONCLUSION: SF-36 scores show the decrease in HRQoL that outpatient adults have suffered, mostly in the emotional domain, regardless of illness group during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Quality of Life , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitalization , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides a critical host-immunological challenge. AIM: We explore the effect of host-genetic variation in interferon-lambda-3 rs12979860, Tolloid Like-1 (TLL1) rs17047200 and Discoidin domain receptor 1(DDR1) rs4618569 on host response to respiratory viral infections and disease severity that may probe the mechanistic approach of allelic variation in virus-induced inflammatory responses. METHODS: 141 COVID-19 positive patients and 100 healthy controls were tested for interferon-lambda-3 rs12979860, TLL1 rs17047200 and DDR1 rs4618569 polymorphism by TaqMan probe-based genotyping. Different genotypes were assessed regarding the COVID-19 severity and prognosis. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the studied cases and control group with regard to the presence of comorbidities, total leucocytic count, lymphocytic count, CRP, serum LDH, ferritin and D-dimer (p < 0.01). The CC genotype of rs12979860 cytokine, the AA genotype of TLL1 rs17047200 and the AA genotype of the rs4618569 variant of DDR1 showed a higher incidence of COVID-19 compared to the others. There were significant differences between the rs4618569 variant of DDR and the outcome of the disease, with the highest mortality in AG genotype 29 (60.4%) in comparison to 16 (33.3%) and 3 (6.2%) in the AA and GG genotypes, respectively (p = 0.007*), suggesting that the A allele is associated with a poor outcome in the disease. CONCLUSION: Among people who carry C and A alleles of SNPs IFN-λ rs12979860 and TLL1 rs17047200, respectively, the AG genotype of the DDR1 rs4618569 variant is correlated with a COVID-19 poor outcome. In those patients, the use of anti-IFN-λ 3, TLL1 and DDR1 therapy may be promising for personalized translational clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Discoidin Domain Receptor 1/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Interferons/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases/genetics , Alleles , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
13.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(12): 1886-1892, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255446

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in children before and during the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the relationship to public health measures instituted by the Victorian government. METHODS: Retrospective audit of respiratory viruses at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Melbourne from January 2015 up to week 47, 2020 in children under 18 years of age. The proportion of positive cases in weeks 1-47 in 2015-2019 (period 1) were compared to weeks 1-47, 2020 (period 2), and reviewed in the context of public health restrictions in Victoria. RESULTS: An annual average of 4636 tests were performed in period 1 compared to 3659 tests in period 2. Proportions of positive influenza A virus, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus were significantly reduced in period 2 compared to period 1: 77.3, 89.4, 68.6 and 66.9% reductions, respectively (all P < 0.001). From week 12-47, 2020, 28 893 SARS-CoV-2 tests were performed with a 0.64% positivity rate. Influenza viruses were not detected after week 17, RSV was not detected after week 35. CONCLUSIONS: Strict public health measures and border closures were successful in eliminating community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Melbourne. This was associated with a significant reduction in other respiratory virus infections in children. Identifying sustainable and effective ongoing public health interventions to reduce transmission of RSV and influenza could result in reduced morbidity and mortality in children and requires further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Public Health , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(5): 385-388, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the reference laboratory method to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection then requires equipment and is time-consuming. There is a crucial demand for rapid techniques such as antigen detection test. Considering the different diagnostic accuracy of tests with other respiratory viruses in adults and children, SARS-CoV-2 antigen test must be evaluated specifically in children. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device (Abbott) as a point-of-care test for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to RT-qPCR in a pediatric population. RESULTS: Four hundred forty nasopharyngeal swabs were tested. Amongst the 18 positive RT-qPCR samples, 14 were detected by the rapid antigen test, given an overall sensitivity of 77.7%. All the samples detected positive with the antigen rapid test were also positive with RT-qPCR. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device is lower in children than in adults. Nevertheless, considering the good values of specificity, negative and positive predictive values this test could be used as a frontline test to obtain quick results, although the negative values with COVID-19 high clinical suspicion should be confirmed using RT-qPCR.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Point-of-Care Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2021: 6651045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232376

ABSTRACT

The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in upper and lower respiratory specimens and coinfection with other respiratory pathogens in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was investigated. Study subjects (N = 342) were retrospectively enrolled after being confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive, and their nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), oropharyngeal swab (OPS), and sputum specimens were restored for SARS-CoV-2 retesting and respiratory pathogen detection. The majority of the subjects (96.5%, N = 330) were confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive using NPS/OPS specimens. Among the COVID-19 patients (N = 342), 7.9% (N = 27) and 0.9% (N = 3) were coinfected with respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respectively, yielding an 8.8% (N = 30) overall respiratory pathogen coinfection rate. Of the respiratory virus coinfection cases (N = 27), 92.6% (N = 25) were coinfected with a single respiratory virus and 7.4% (N = 2) with two viruses (metapneumovirus/adenovirus and rhinovirus/bocavirus). No triple coinfections of other respiratory viruses or bacteria with SARS-CoV-2 were detected. Respiratory viruses coinfected in the patients with COVID-19 were as follows: rhinovirus (N = 7, 2.1%), respiratory syncytial virus A and B (N = 6, 1.8%), non-SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses (229E, NL63, and OC43, N = 5, 1.5%), metapneumovirus (N = 4, 1.2%), influenza A (N = 3, 0.9%), adenovirus (N = 3, 0.9%), and bocavirus (N = 1, 0.3%). In conclusion, the diagnostic value of utilizing NPS/OPS specimens is excellent, and, as the first report in Korea, coinfection with respiratory pathogens was detected at a rate of 8.8% in patients with COVID-19.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e649-e651, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232189

ABSTRACT

Our Australian hospital tested almost 22 000 symptomatic people over 11 weeks for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Following travel bans and physical distancing, SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses diagnoses fell dramatically. Increasing rhinovirus diagnoses as social control measures were relaxed may indirectly indicate an elevated risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resurgence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Australia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Prevalence , Public Health
17.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 45, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematological comparison of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and other viral pneumonias can provide insights into COVID-19 treatment. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control single-center study, we compared the data of 126 patients with viral pneumonia during different outbreaks [severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, influenza A (H1N1) in 2009, human adenovirus type 7 in 2018, and COVID-19 in 2020]. RESULTS: One of the COVID-19 characteristics was a continuous decline in the hemoglobin level. The neutrophil count was related to the aggravation of COVID-19 and SARS. Thrombocytopenia occurred in patients with SARS and severe COVID-19 even at the recovery stage. Lymphocytes were related to the entire course of adenovirus infection, recovery of COVID-19, and disease development of SARS. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic changes in hematological counts could provide a reference for the pathogenesis and prognosis of pneumonia caused by respiratory viruses in clinics.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/blood , COVID-19/blood , Influenza, Human/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Adenovirus Infections, Human/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Young Adult
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 624704, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211844

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), identified for the first time in Wuhan, China, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which moved from epidemic status to becoming a pandemic. Since its discovery in December 2019, there have been countless cases of mortality and morbidity due to this virus. Several compounds such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and remdesivir have been tested as potential therapies; however, no effective treatment is currently recommended by regulatory agencies. Some studies on respiratory non-enveloped viruses such as adenoviruses and rhinovirus and some respiratory enveloped viruses including human respiratory syncytial viruses, influenza A, parainfluenza, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 have shown the antiviral activity of cardiac glycosides, correlating their effect with Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) modulation. Cardiac glycosides are secondary metabolites used to treat patients with cardiac insufficiency because they are the most potent inotropic agents. The effects of cardiac glycosides on NKA are dependent on cell type, exposure time, and drug concentration. They may also cause blockage of Na+ and K+ ionic transport or trigger signaling pathways. The antiviral activity of cardiac glycosides is related to cell signaling activation through NKA inhibition. Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) seems to be an essential transcription factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. NFκB inhibition by cardiac glycosides interferes directly with SARS-CoV-2 yield and inflammatory cytokine production. Interestingly, the antiviral effect of cardiac glycosides is associated with tyrosine kinase (Src) activation, and NFκB appears to be regulated by Src. Src is one of the main signaling targets of the NKA α-subunit, modulating other signaling factors that may also impair viral infection. These data suggest that Src-NFκB signaling modulated by NKA plays a crucial role in the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, we discuss the antiviral effects of cardiac glycosides on different respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2 pathology, cell signaling pathways, and NKA as a possible molecular target for the treatment of COVID-19.

20.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(10): 930-941, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211155

ABSTRACT

Bacterial coinfections increase the severity of respiratory viral infections and were frequent causes of mortality in influenza pandemics but have not been well characterized in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this review was to identify the frequency and microbial etiologies of bacterial coinfections that are present upon admission to the hospital and that occur during hospitalization for COVID-19. We found that bacterial coinfections were present in <4% of patients upon admission and the yield of routine diagnostic tests for pneumonia was low. When bacterial coinfections did occur, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens and atypical bacteria were rare. Although uncommon upon admission, bacterial infections frequently occurred in patients with prolonged hospitalization, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp., and S. aureus were common pathogens. Antibacterial therapy and diagnostic testing for bacterial infections are unnecessary upon admission in most patients hospitalized with COVID-19, but clinicians should be vigilant for nosocomial bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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