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1.
Bull Acad Natl Med ; 205(7): 732-736, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252480

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of this century, three coronaviruses (CoVs) have caused severe human respiratory diseases, including severe respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which outbroke in 2002-2003, 2012 and 2019-2020, respectively. These viruses are three different species belonging to Coronaviridae family, Betacoronavirus genus. Discovery of closely-related CoVs in bats indicates that bats are natural reservoirs of these viruses. How and when the bat CoVs cross-species barriers to infect humans are largely understudied. This article provides an overview of the distribution, genetic evolution and interspecies transmission of bat coronaviruses in China, particularly focusing on bat SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs). Our studies showed that SARS-related CoVs are highly prevalent in horseshoe bats and some of them use the same receptor as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 and have wide cell tissue tropism. However, these bat viruses seem to be low pathogenic in human ACE2 transgenic mice compared with the SARS-CoV-2. These results imply that these bat CoVs have potential interspecies transmission to other animals and humans. Our work highlights the necessity of preparedness for future emerging infectious diseases caused by these CoVs.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009501, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175434

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein mediates infection of cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is also the viral receptor of SARS-CoV (SARS-CoV-1), a related coronavirus that emerged in 2002-2003. Horseshoe bats (genus Rhinolophus) are presumed to be the original reservoir of both viruses, and a SARS-like coronavirus, RaTG13, closely related to SARS-CoV-2, has been identified in one horseshoe-bat species. Here we characterize the ability of the S-protein receptor-binding domains (RBDs) of SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, pangolin coronavirus (PgCoV), RaTG13, and LyRa11, a bat virus similar to SARS-CoV-1, to bind a range of ACE2 orthologs. We observed that the PgCoV RBD bound human ACE2 at least as efficiently as the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, and that both RBDs bound pangolin ACE2 efficiently. We also observed a high level of variability in binding to closely related horseshoe-bat ACE2 orthologs consistent with the heterogeneity of their RBD-binding regions. However five consensus horseshoe-bat ACE2 residues enhanced ACE2 binding to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses by an enzymatically inactive immunoadhesin form of human ACE2 (hACE2-NN-Fc). Two of these mutations impaired neutralization of SARS-CoV-1 pseudoviruses. An hACE2-NN-Fc variant bearing all five mutations neutralized both SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and infectious virus more efficiently than wild-type hACE2-NN-Fc. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-1 and -2 originate from distinct bat species, and identify a more potently neutralizing form of soluble ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Binding/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 221-236, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169480

ABSTRACT

A mysterious outbreak of atypical pneumonia in late 2019 was traced to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan of China. Within a few weeks, a novel coronavirus tentatively named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was announced by the World Health Organization. We performed bioinformatics analysis on a virus genome from a patient with 2019-nCoV infection and compared it with other related coronavirus genomes. Overall, the genome of 2019-nCoV has 89% nucleotide identity with bat SARS-like-CoVZXC21 and 82% with that of human SARS-CoV. The phylogenetic trees of their orf1a/b, Spike, Envelope, Membrane and Nucleoprotein also clustered closely with those of the bat, civet and human SARS coronaviruses. However, the external subdomain of Spike's receptor binding domain of 2019-nCoV shares only 40% amino acid identity with other SARS-related coronaviruses. Remarkably, its orf3b encodes a completely novel short protein. Furthermore, its new orf8 likely encodes a secreted protein with an alpha-helix, following with a beta-sheet(s) containing six strands. Learning from the roles of civet in SARS and camel in MERS, hunting for the animal source of 2019-nCoV and its more ancestral virus would be important for understanding the origin and evolution of this novel lineage B betacoronavirus. These findings provide the basis for starting further studies on the pathogenesis, and optimizing the design of diagnostic, antiviral and vaccination strategies for this emerging infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Travel , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Front Genet ; 12: 571707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116662

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), and since its first report, it has become a major public health concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to SARS-CoV and SARS-related bat coronaviruses, and it has been described to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor. Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in domestic and wildlife animals, measured by RT-qPCR, has been confirmed in different countries, especially from the Felidae family. In silico analysis of the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the cellular receptor ACE2 in various animal species has suggested that wild felids and domestic cats could be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 based on this interaction. Here, we performed a protein-protein molecular docking analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the ACE2 receptor from different animals to elucidate the potential of those species as intermediate hosts or susceptible animals for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Compared to human ACE2, we found that ACE2 receptors from domestic cats and tigers could efficiently interact with RBD of SARS CoV-2 Spike protein. However, dog, ferret, and hamster ACE2 receptor interaction with SARS-CoV-2 S protein RBD was not predicted as favorable, demonstrating a potential differentiated susceptibility in the evaluated species.

5.
Front Public Health ; 8: 608765, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110360

ABSTRACT

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in China in December 2019 and spread worldwide, causing more than 1.3 million deaths in 11 months. Similar to the human SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 shares strong sequence homologies with a sarbecovirus circulating in Rhinolophus affinis bats. Because bats are expected to be able to transmit their coronaviruses to intermediate animal hosts that in turn are a source of viruses able to cross species barriers and infect humans (so-called spillover model), the identification of an intermediate animal reservoir was the subject of intense researches. It was claimed that a reptile (Ophiophagus hannah) was the intermediate host. This hypothesis was quickly ruled out and replaced by the pangolin (Manis javanica) hypothesis. Yet, pangolin was also recently exonerated from SARS-CoV-2 transmission to humans, leaving other animal species as presumed guilty. Guided by the spillover model, several laboratories investigated in silico the species polymorphism of the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to find the best fits with the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding site. Following the same strategy, we used multi-sequence alignment, 3-D structure analysis, and electrostatic potential surface generation of ACE2 variants to predict their binding capacity to SARS-CoV-2. We report evidence that such simple in silico investigation is a powerful tool to quickly screen which species are potentially susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. However, possible receptor binding does not necessarily lead to successful replication in host. Therefore, we also discuss here the limitations of these in silico approaches in our quest on the origins of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Host Specificity/genetics , Receptors, Angiotensin/genetics , Replication Origin , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , China , Chiroptera/virology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Ophiophagus hannah/virology , Pandemics , Pangolins/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
7.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(1): e14-e23, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported from China in January, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is efficiently transmitted from person to person and, in 2 months, has caused more than 82 000 laboratory-confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 2800 deaths in 46 countries. The total number of cases and deaths has surpassed that of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Although both COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) manifest as pneumonia, COVID-19 is associated with apparently more efficient transmission, fewer cases of diarrhoea, increased mental confusion, and a lower crude fatality rate. However, the underlying virus-host interactive characteristics conferring these observations on transmissibility and clinical manifestations of COVID-19 remain unknown. METHODS: We systematically investigated the cellular susceptibility, species tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage of SARS-CoV-2 and compared findings with those for SARS-CoV. We compared SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in different cell lines with one-way ANOVA. For the area under the curve comparison between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in Calu3 (pulmonary) and Caco2 (intestinal) cells, we used Student's t test. We analysed cell damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV with one-way ANOVA. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 infected and replicated to comparable levels in human Caco2 cells and Calu3 cells over a period of 120 h (p=0·52). By contrast, SARS-CoV infected and replicated more efficiently in Caco2 cells than in Calu3 cells under the same multiplicity of infection (p=0·0098). SARS-CoV-2, but not SARS-CoV, replicated modestly in U251 (neuronal) cells (p=0·036). For animal species cell tropism, both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 replicated in non-human primate, cat, rabbit, and pig cells. SARS-CoV, but not SARS-CoV-2, infected and replicated in Rhinolophus sinicus bat kidney cells. SARS-CoV-2 consistently induced significantly delayed and milder levels of cell damage than did SARS-CoV in non-human primate cells (VeroE6, p=0·016; FRhK4, p=0·0004). INTERPRETATION: As far as we know, our study presents the first quantitative data for tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage of SARS-CoV-2. These data provide novel insights into the lower incidence of diarrhoea, decreased disease severity, and reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, with respect to the pathogenesis and high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 compared with SARS-CoV. FUNDING: May Tam Mak Mei Yin, The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Richard Yu and Carol Yu, Michael Seak-Kan Tong, Respiratory Viral Research Foundation, Hui Ming, Hui Hoy and Chow Sin Lan Charity Fund, Chan Yin Chuen Memorial Charitable Foundation, Marina Man-Wai Lee, The Hong Kong Hainan Commercial Association South China Microbiology Research Fund, The Jessie & George Ho Charitable Foundation, Perfect Shape Medical, The Consultancy Service for Enhancing Laboratory Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Research Capability on Antimicrobial Resistance for the Department of Health of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, The Theme-Based Research Scheme of the Research Grants Council, Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen, and The High Level-Hospital Program, Health Commission of Guangdong Province, China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Diarrhea , Humans , Kinetics , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Tropism
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085056

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic and is posing a serious challenge to mankind. As per the current scenario, there is an urgent need for antiviral that could act as a protective and therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2. Previous studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is much similar to the SARS-CoV bat that occurred in 2002-03. Since it is a zoonotic virus, the exact source is still unknown, but it is believed bats may be the primary reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 through which it has been transferred to humans. In this review, we have tried to summarize some of the approaches that could be effective against SARS-CoV-2. Firstly, plants or plant-based products have been effective against different viral diseases, and secondly, plants or plant-based natural products have the minimum adverse effect. We have also highlighted a few vitamins and minerals that could be beneficial against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nutrients/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Humans
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 972, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075220

ABSTRACT

Among the many questions unanswered for the COVID-19 pandemic are the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the potential role of intermediate animal host(s) in the early animal-to-human transmission. The discovery of RaTG13 bat coronavirus in China suggested a high probability of a bat origin. Here we report molecular and serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses (SC2r-CoVs) actively circulating in bats in Southeast Asia. Whole genome sequences were obtained from five independent bats (Rhinolophus acuminatus) in a Thai cave yielding a single isolate (named RacCS203) which is most related to the RmYN02 isolate found in Rhinolophus malayanus in Yunnan, China. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were also detected in bats of the same colony and in a pangolin at a wildlife checkpoint in Southern Thailand. Antisera raised against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of RmYN02 was able to cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2 despite the fact that the RBD of RacCS203 or RmYN02 failed to bind ACE2. Although the origin of the virus remains unresolved, our study extended the geographic distribution of genetically diverse SC2r-CoVs from Japan and China to Thailand over a 4800-km range. Cross-border surveillance is urgently needed to find the immediate progenitor virus of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Pangolins/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Asia, Southeastern , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/blood , Geography , Neutralization Tests , Phylogeny , Protein Domains , Receptors, Cell Surface/chemistry , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism
10.
Indian J Nephrol ; 30(3): 161-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073615

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus (SARS-CoV-2), a beta coronavirus, mainly involves the respiratory tract, and the clinical features simulate to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) of the past. The genome of the SARS-CoV-2, isolated from a cluster-patient with a typical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan, had 89% nucleotide identitical with bat SARS-like-CoVZXC21 and 82% with that of human SARS-CoV. It enters the respiratory tract through angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors on alveoli. It may induce lung injury through direct cytopathic effect, involving effector T cells or causing sepsis and inducing cytokine storm. With a similar mechanism, it can cause acute kidney injury (AKI). The overall incidence of AKI is 5.1%, and AKI is an independent risk factor for mortality. The hazard ratio of death increases with the increasing severity of AKI. Management of COVID-19 with AKI is primarily supportive care, and at present, there are no evidence based effective antivirals for the treatment.

11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(1): 62-83, 2021 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066194

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, and subfamily Coronavirinae. SARS-CoV-2 entry to cellsis initiated by the binding of the viral spike protein (S) to its cellular receptor. The roles of S protein in receptor binding and membrane fusion makes it a prominent target for vaccine development. SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence analysis has shown that this virus belongs to the beta-coronavirus genus, which includes Bat SARS-like coronavirus, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. A vaccine should induce a balanced immune response to elicit protective immunity. In this review, we compare and contrast these three important CoV diseases and how they inform on vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Humans , Phylogeny , Pneumonia/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041615

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the Beta-coronavirus genus. It is 96.2% homologous to bat CoV RaTG13 and 88% homologous to two bat SARS-like coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 is the infectious agent responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first reported in the Hubei province of Wuhan, China, at the beginning of December 2019. Human transmission from COVID-19 patients or incubation carriers occurs via coughing, sneezing, speaking, discharge from the nose, or fecal contamination. Various strains of the virus have been reported around the world, with different virulence and behavior. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 shares certain epitopes with some taxonomically related viruses, with tropism for the most common synanthropic animals. By elucidating the immunological properties of the circulating SARS-CoV-2, a partial protection due to human-animal interactions could be supposed in some situations. In addition, differential epitopes could be used for the differential diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There have been cases of transmission from people with COVID-19 to pets such as cats and dogs. In addition, wild felines were infected. All These animals were either asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic and recovered spontaneously. Experimental studies showed cats and ferrets to be more susceptible to COVID-19. COVID-19 positive dogs and felines do not transmit the infection to humans. In contrast, minks at farms were severely infected from people with COVID-19. A SARS-Cov-2 variant in the Danish farmed mink that had been previously infected by COVID-19 positive workers, spread to mink workers causing the first case of animal-to-human infection transmission that causes a moderate decreased sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. Thus, more investigations are necessary. It remains important to understand the risk that people with COVID-19 pose to their pets, as well as wild or farm animals so effective recommendations and risk management measures against COVID-19 can be made. A One Health unit that facilitates collaboration between public health and veterinary services is recommended.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1702, 2021 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035943

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can transmit efficiently in humans, but it is less clear which other mammals are at risk of being infected. SARS-CoV-2 encodes a Spike (S) protein that binds to human ACE2 receptor to mediate cell entry. A species with a human-like ACE2 receptor could therefore be at risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2. We compared between 132 mammalian ACE2 genes and between 17 coronavirus S proteins. We showed that while global similarities reflected by whole ACE2 gene alignments are poor predictors of high-risk mammals, local similarities at key S protein-binding sites highlight several high-risk mammals that share good ACE2 homology with human. Bats are likely reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2, but there are other high-risk mammals that share better ACE2 homologies with human. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are closely related to bat coronavirus. Yet, among host-specific coronaviruses infecting high-risk mammals, key ACE2-binding sites on S proteins share highest similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and Pangolin-CoV and between SARS-CoV and Civet-CoV. These results suggest that direct coronavirus transmission from bat to human is unlikely, and that rapid adaptation of a bat SARS-like coronavirus in different high-risk intermediate hosts could have allowed it to acquire distinct high binding potential between S protein and human-like ACE2 receptors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/classification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/genetics , Humans , Mammals , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
J Virol ; 94(20)2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024213

ABSTRACT

The Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus), reservoir host of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), carries many bat SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs) with high genetic diversity, particularly in the spike gene. Despite these variations, some bat SARSr-CoVs can utilize the orthologs of the human SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), for entry. It is speculated that the interaction between bat ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike proteins drives diversity. Here, we identified a series of R. sinicus ACE2 variants with some polymorphic sites involved in the interaction with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Pseudoviruses or SARSr-CoVs carrying different spike proteins showed different infection efficiencies in cells transiently expressing bat ACE2 variants. Consistent results were observed by binding affinity assays between SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV spike proteins and receptor molecules from bats and humans. All tested bat SARSr-CoV spike proteins had a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to bat ACE2, although they showed a 10-fold lower binding affinity to human ACE2 compared with that of their SARS-CoV counterpart. Structure modeling revealed that the difference in binding affinity between spike and ACE2 might be caused by the alteration of some key residues in the interface of these two molecules. Molecular evolution analysis indicates that some key residues were under positive selection. These results suggest that the SARSr-CoV spike protein and R. sinicus ACE2 may have coevolved over time and experienced selection pressure from each other, triggering the evolutionary arms race dynamics.IMPORTANCE Evolutionary arms race dynamics shape the diversity of viruses and their receptors. Identification of key residues which are involved in interspecies transmission is important to predict potential pathogen spillover from wildlife to humans. Previously, we have identified genetically diverse SARSr-CoVs in Chinese horseshoe bats. Here, we show the highly polymorphic ACE2 in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. These ACE2 variants support SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV infection but with different binding affinities to different spike proteins. The higher binding affinity of SARSr-CoV spike to human ACE2 suggests that these viruses have the capacity for spillover to humans. The positive selection of residues at the interface between ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike protein suggests long-term and ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between them. Continued surveillance of this group of viruses in bats is necessary for the prevention of the next SARS-like disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Coevolution , Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Binding Sites , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Clin Chem ; 66(4): 549-555, 2020 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus of zoonotic origin (2019-nCoV) has recently been identified in patients with acute respiratory disease. This virus is genetically similar to SARS coronavirus and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. The outbreak was initially detected in Wuhan, a major city of China, but has subsequently been detected in other provinces of China. Travel-associated cases have also been reported in a few other countries. Outbreaks in health care workers indicate human-to-human transmission. Molecular tests for rapid detection of this virus are urgently needed for early identification of infected patients. METHODS: We developed two 1-step quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR assays to detect two different regions (ORF1b and N) of the viral genome. The primer and probe sets were designed to react with this novel coronavirus and its closely related viruses, such as SARS coronavirus. These assays were evaluated using a panel of positive and negative controls. In addition, respiratory specimens from two 2019-nCoV-infected patients were tested. RESULTS: Using RNA extracted from cells infected by SARS coronavirus as a positive control, these assays were shown to have a dynamic range of at least seven orders of magnitude (2x10-4-2000 TCID50/reaction). Using DNA plasmids as positive standards, the detection limits of these assays were found to be below 10 copies per reaction. All negative control samples were negative in the assays. Samples from two 2019-nCoV-infected patients were positive in the tests. CONCLUSIONS: The established assays can achieve a rapid detection of 2019n-CoV in human samples, thereby allowing early identification of patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(32): 3490-3500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unusual pneumonia outbreak that originated in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019 was found to be caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19. METHODS: In this work, we have performed an in silico design and prediction of potential siRNAs based on genetic diversity and recombination patterns, targeting various genes of SARS-CoV-2 for antiviral therapeutics. We performed extensive sequence analysis to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships, and to identify the possible source of virus reservoirs and recombination patterns, and the evolution of the virus as well as we designed the siRNAs which can be used as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationships indicated high sequence identity and closed clusters with many types of coronavirus. In our analysis, the full-genome of SARS-CoV-2 showed the highest sequence (nucleotide) identity with SARS-bat-ZC45 (87.7%). The overall sequence identity ranged from 74.3% to 87.7% with selected SARS viruses. The recombination analysis indicated the bat SARS virus is a potential recombinant and serves as a major and minor parent. We have predicted 442 siRNAs and finally selected only 19 functional, and potential siRNAs. CONCLUSION: The siRNAs were predicted and selected based on their greater potency and specificity. The predicted siRNAs need to be validated experimentally for their effective binding and antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Phylogeny , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006147

ABSTRACT

Discovery of bats with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (CoVs) raised the specter of potential future outbreaks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-like disease in humans, which largely went unheeded. Nevertheless, the novel SARS-CoV-2 of bat ancestral origin emerged to infect humans in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and then became a global pandemic. Less than 5 months after its emergence, millions of people worldwide have been infected asymptomatically or symptomatically and at least 360,000 have died. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in severely affected patients includes atypical pneumonia characterized by a dry cough, persistent fever, and progressive dyspnea and hypoxia, sometimes accompanied by diarrhea and often followed by multiple organ failure, especially of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In this minireview, we focus on two endemic respiratory CoV infections of livestock: bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). Both animal respiratory CoVs share some common features with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. BCoV has a broad host range including wild ruminants and a zoonotic potential. BCoV also has a dual tropism for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. These aspects, their interspecies transmission, and certain factors that impact disease severity in cattle parallel related facets of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 in humans. PRCV has a tissue tropism for the upper and lower respiratory tracts and a cellular tropism for type 1 and 2 pneumocytes in lung but is generally a mild infection unless complicated by other exacerbating factors, such as bacterial or viral coinfections and immunosuppression (corticosteroids).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/growth & development , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/growth & development , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Tropism
18.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004764

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2/nCoV-19, emerged in Wuhan, China, and has been responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. The evolutionary origins of the virus remain elusive and understanding its complex mutational signatures could guide vaccine design and development. As part of the international "CoronaHack" in April 2020, we employed a collection of contemporary methodologies to compare the genomic sequences of coronaviruses isolated from human (SARS-CoV-2; n = 163), bat (bat-CoV; n = 215) and pangolin (pangolin-CoV; n = 7) available in public repositories. We have also noted the pangolin-CoV isolate MP789 to bare stronger resemblance to SARS-CoV-2 than other pangolin-CoV. Following de novo gene annotation prediction, analyses of gene-gene similarity network, codon usage bias and variant discovery were undertaken. Strong host-associated divergences were noted in ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8 and S, and in codon usage bias profiles. Last, we have characterised several high impact variants (in-frame insertion/deletion or stop gain) in bat-CoV and pangolin-CoV populations, some of which are found in the same amino acid position and may be highlighting loci of potential functional relevance.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Pangolins/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus/classification , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Host Specificity , Humans , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment
19.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 51(7): 650-658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967444

ABSTRACT

The causative agent of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 possesses RNA as a genetic material with 79% of the match with the bat SARS-CoV genome, which became epidemic in 2002. The SARS-CoV-2 peripheral Spike-Fc protein binds specifically to the ACE2 receptors present on bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar pneumocytes to downmodulates its expression which leads to severe acute respiratory failure. The disease is super infectious from human to human and the symptoms are similar to flu. The old aged and immunocompromised population are severely affected, and healthcare providers globally applied various strategies for treatment including the repurposing of drugs including antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine and anti-viral drugs.Herein, we described the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, immune responses, possible drug targets, vaccines under the trials and correlated the possibility of trained immunity induced by BCG vaccination over control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The countries with constraint BCG vaccination policy are struggling badly compared to countries with BCG vaccination policy. The BCG vaccination policy supports either lowering the total number of COVID-19 cases or the increasing recovery rate.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
20.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(2): 559-571, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932488

ABSTRACT

Since emerging coronaviruses have always become a human health concern globally especially severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and a novel coronavirus was introduced in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 (called SARS-CoV-2), many researchers focused on its epidemics, virological and clinical features. SARS-CoV-2 is classified as Betacoronaviruses genus and Sarbecovirus subgenus (lineage B). The virus shows a great similarity with SARS-CoV and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. In this study, we evaluate SARS-CoV-2 virus phylogeny and evolution by using current virus and related sequences.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , COVID-19/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology
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