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1.
J Dent Res ; 100(11): 1220-1227, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255788

ABSTRACT

Dental care professionals (DCPs) are thought to be at enhanced risk of occupational exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, robust data to support this from large-scale seroepidemiological studies are lacking. We report a longitudinal seroprevalence analysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, with baseline sampling prior to large-scale practice reopening in July 2020 and follow-up postimplementation of new public health guidance on infection prevention control (IPC) and enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE). In total, 1,507 West Midlands DCPs were recruited into this study in June 2020. Baseline seroprevalence was determined using a combined IgGAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the cohort followed longitudinally for 6 mo until January/February 2021 through the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the United Kingdom and vaccination commencement. Baseline seroprevalence was 16.3%, compared to estimates in the regional population of 6% to 7%. Seropositivity was retained in over 70% of participants at 3- and 6-mo follow-up and conferred a 75% reduced risk of infection. Nonwhite ethnicity and living in areas of greater deprivation were associated with increased baseline seroprevalence. During follow-up, no polymerase chain reaction-proven infections occurred in individuals with a baseline anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level greater than 147.6 IU/ml with respect to the World Health Organization international standard 20-136. After vaccination, antibody responses were more rapid and of higher magnitude in those individuals who were seropositive at baseline. Natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 prior to enhanced PPE was significantly higher in DCPs than the regional population. Natural infection leads to a serological response that remains detectable in over 70% of individuals 6 mo after initial sampling and 9 mo from the peak of the first wave of the pandemic. This response is associated with protection from future infection. Even if serological responses wane, a single dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech 162b vaccine is associated with an antibody response indicative of immunological memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Dental Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(8): 4677-4682, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213522

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected persons could be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients can transmit SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to study the humoral immune response in Saudis who are Covid-19 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. We created three types of enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs) to reveal IgG and IgM antibodies (Abs) against SARS-CoV-2. The developed ELISAs were designed to detect Abs against SARS-CoV-2 N, S and N + S proteins. A number of Covid-19 symptomatic (1 5 3) and asymptomatic (84) RT-PCR-confirmed patient sera were used to evaluate the ELISAs and to determine the IgG and IgM antibody profile in those patients. The sensitivity and specificity of these ELISAs were evaluated using pre-Covid-19 pandemic serum samples. The results revealed the existence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM Abs in Covid-19 symptomatic and asymptomatic Saudi persons. The use of SARS-CoV-2 N and S proteins in the same ELISA greatly increased the detectability of infection. In conclusion, the Covid-19 symptomatic and asymptomatic Saudi persons demonstrated both IgG and IgM antibody profile with higher titer in symptomatic patients. The use of N + S proteins as antibody capture antigens greatly increased the ELISA sensitivity.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 350, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as a rapidly spreading infection. Today it is relatively easy to isolate Covid-19 symptomatic cases, while remains problematic to control the disease spread by infected but symptom-free individuals. The control of this possible path of contagion requires drastic measures of social distancing, which imply the suspension of most activities and generate economic and social issues. This study is aimed at estimating the percentage of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a geographic area with relatively low incidence of Covid-19. METHODS: Blood serum samples from 388 healthy volunteers were analyzed for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG by using an ELISA assay based on recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. RESULTS: We found that 7 out of 388 healthy volunteers, who declared no symptoms of Covid-19, like fever, cough, fatigue etc., in the preceding 5 months, have bona fide serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, that is 1.8% of the asymptomatic population (95% confidence interval: 0.69-2.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated range of asymptomatic individuals with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG should be between 26,565 and 112, 350. In the same geographic area, there are 4665 symptomatic diagnosed cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(1): 13-18, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal observation of the detection of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 using antibody kits during the clinical course of COVID-19 is not yet fully investigated. OBJECTIVES: To understand the significance of the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, particularly IgG, using a rapid antibody kit, during the clinical course of COVID-19 patients with different severities. METHODS: Sixty-three serum samples from 18 patients (5 asymptomatic and 13 symptomatic patients) were retrospectively examined using a commercial SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibody kit. PCR positivity of patient samples was also examined as a marker of current SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: IgG antibodies were detected in all cases in this study. The IgG detection rates reached 100.0% in samples collected on day 13 or later. IgG seropositivity after an initial negative status was observed in 13 patients (3/5 asymptomatic and 10/13 symptomatic cases). Interestingly, the persistence of both PCR and IgG positivity was detected in seven cases, of which three were asymptomatic. The longest overlap duration of the PCR and IgG positivity was 17 days in asymptomatic status. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG production can be detected in all infected individuals, using a rapid antibody kit, irrespective of clinical status. However, these findings suggest that, in some infected individuals, particularly those with asymptomatic status, the presence of virus-specific IgG antibodies does not imply prompt viral clearance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
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