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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5846-5852, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432417

ABSTRACT

Geographical variation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS--CoV--2) spread requires seroprevalence studies based on local tests, but robust validation is needed. We summarize an evaluation of antibody tests used in a serological study of SARS--CoV--2 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. We validated three different antibody assays: chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) Abbott Architect SARS--CoV--2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) CoronaPass total antibodies test, and ELISA SARS--CoV--2--IgG--EIA--BEST. Clinical sensitivity was estimated with the SARS--CoV--2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test as the gold standard using manufacturer recommended cutoff. Specificity was estimated using pre-pandemic sera samples. The median time between positive PCR test results and antibody tests was 21 weeks. Measures of concordance were calculated against the microneutralization test (MNA).Sensitivity was equal to 91.1% (95% confidence intervbal [CI]: 78.8-97.5), 90% (95% CI: 76.4-96.4), and 63.1% (95% CI [50.2-74.7]) for ELISA Coronapass, ELISA Vector-Best, and CMIA Abbott, respectively. Specificity was equal to 100% for all the tests. Comparison of receiver operating characteristics has shown lower AUC for CMIA Abbott. The cut-off SC/O ratio of 0.28 for CMIA Abbott resulted in a sensitivity of 80% at the same level of specificity. Less than 33% of the participants with positive antibody test results had neutralizing antibodies in titers 1:80 and above. Antibody assays results and MNA correlated moderately. This study encourages the use of local antibody tests and sets the reference for seroprevalence correction. Available tests' sensitivity allows detecting antibodies within the majority of PCR- positive individuals. The Abbott assay sensitivity can be improved by incorporating a new cut-off. Manufacturers' test characteristics may introduce bias into the study results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoassay , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 395-400, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374604

ABSTRACT

Data on the longevity of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited. We evaluated the detailed kinetics of antibody and T-cell responses at the acute, convalescent, and post-convalescent phases in COVID-19 patients with a wide range of severity. We enrolled patients with COVID-19 prospectively from four hospitals and one community treatment center between February 2020 and January 2021. symptom severity was classified as mild, moderate, or severe/critical. Patient blood samples were collected at 1 week (acute), 1 month (convalescent), and 2 months after symptom onset (post-convalescent). Human SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were measured using in-house-developed ELISA. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses against overlapping peptides of spike proteins and nucleoprotein were measured by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Twenty-five COVID-19 patients were analyzed (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 9; severe/critical, n = 11). IgM and IgG antibody responses peaked at 1 month after symptom onset and decreased at 2 months. IgG response levels were significantly greater in the severe/critical group compared with other groups. Interferon-γ-producing T-cell responses increased between 1 week and 1 month after symptom onset, and had a trend toward decreasing at 2 months, but did not show significant differences according to severity. Our data indicate that SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were greater in those with severe symptoms and waned after reaching a peak around 1 month after symptom onset. However, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were not significantly different according to symptom severity, and decreased slowly during the post-convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Convalescence , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
3.
Infection ; 49(5): 1039-1043, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274987

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The CoSHeP study provides novel data on SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rates in healthcare professionals (HP) at risk at the University Hospital Bonn, a maximum healthcare provider in a region of 900.000 inhabitants. METHODS: Single-center, longitudinal observational study investigating rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion in HP at 2 time-points. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured with Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. RESULTS: Overall, 150 HP were included. Median age was 35 (range: 19-68). Main operational areas were intensive care unit (53%, n = 80), emergency room (31%, n = 46), and infectious disease department (16%, n = 24). SARS-CoV-2-IgG was detected in 5 participants (3%) at inclusion in May/June 2020, and in another 11 participants at follow-up (December 2020/ January 2021). Of the 16 seropositive participants, 14 had already known their SARS-CoV-2 infection because they had performed a PCR-test previously triggered by symptoms. Trailing chains of infection by self-assessment, 31% (n = 5) of infections were acquired through private contacts, 25% (n = 4) most likely through semi-private contacts during work. 13% (n = 2) were assumed to result through contact with contagious patients, further trailing was unsuccessful in 31% (n = 5). All five participants positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG at inclusion remained positive with a median of 7 months after infection. DISCUSSION: Frontline HP caring for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Noteworthy, based upon identified chains of infection most of the infections were acquired in private environment and semi-private contacts during work. The low rate of infection through infectious patients reveals that professional hygiene standards are effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections in HP. Persisting SARS-CoV-2-IgG might indicate longer lasting immunity supporting prioritization of negative HP for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroconversion
4.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 166, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether methotrexate treatment may affect the susceptibility to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Clinical assessment of symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in an initial case series of four families and confirmatory case series of seven families, within which one family member developed coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and exposed another family member receiving methotrexate treatment; experimental part with methotrexate treatment of mice and organoids followed by the assessment of mRNA and protein expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2. RESULTS: In the initial case series, three of four women on a joint ski trip developed COVID-19, while the fourth woman, under treatment with methotrexate, remained virus-free. Two of the three diseased women infected their husbands, while the third husband treated with methotrexate remained virus-free. In addition, 7 other families were identified in a follow-up case series, in which one member developed COVID-19, while the other, receiving methotrexate, remained healthy. Experimentally, when mice were treated with methotrexate, ACE2 expression significantly decreased in the lung, in the intestinal epithelium, and in intestinal organoids. CONCLUSION: These clinical and experimental data indicate that methotrexate has certain protective effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection via downregulating ACE2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Methotrexate , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Dent Res ; 100(11): 1220-1227, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255788

ABSTRACT

Dental care professionals (DCPs) are thought to be at enhanced risk of occupational exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, robust data to support this from large-scale seroepidemiological studies are lacking. We report a longitudinal seroprevalence analysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, with baseline sampling prior to large-scale practice reopening in July 2020 and follow-up postimplementation of new public health guidance on infection prevention control (IPC) and enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE). In total, 1,507 West Midlands DCPs were recruited into this study in June 2020. Baseline seroprevalence was determined using a combined IgGAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the cohort followed longitudinally for 6 mo until January/February 2021 through the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the United Kingdom and vaccination commencement. Baseline seroprevalence was 16.3%, compared to estimates in the regional population of 6% to 7%. Seropositivity was retained in over 70% of participants at 3- and 6-mo follow-up and conferred a 75% reduced risk of infection. Nonwhite ethnicity and living in areas of greater deprivation were associated with increased baseline seroprevalence. During follow-up, no polymerase chain reaction-proven infections occurred in individuals with a baseline anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level greater than 147.6 IU/ml with respect to the World Health Organization international standard 20-136. After vaccination, antibody responses were more rapid and of higher magnitude in those individuals who were seropositive at baseline. Natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 prior to enhanced PPE was significantly higher in DCPs than the regional population. Natural infection leads to a serological response that remains detectable in over 70% of individuals 6 mo after initial sampling and 9 mo from the peak of the first wave of the pandemic. This response is associated with protection from future infection. Even if serological responses wane, a single dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech 162b vaccine is associated with an antibody response indicative of immunological memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Dental Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5846-5852, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252012

ABSTRACT

Geographical variation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS--CoV--2) spread requires seroprevalence studies based on local tests, but robust validation is needed. We summarize an evaluation of antibody tests used in a serological study of SARS--CoV--2 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. We validated three different antibody assays: chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) Abbott Architect SARS--CoV--2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) CoronaPass total antibodies test, and ELISA SARS--CoV--2--IgG--EIA--BEST. Clinical sensitivity was estimated with the SARS--CoV--2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test as the gold standard using manufacturer recommended cutoff. Specificity was estimated using pre-pandemic sera samples. The median time between positive PCR test results and antibody tests was 21 weeks. Measures of concordance were calculated against the microneutralization test (MNA).Sensitivity was equal to 91.1% (95% confidence intervbal [CI]: 78.8-97.5), 90% (95% CI: 76.4-96.4), and 63.1% (95% CI [50.2-74.7]) for ELISA Coronapass, ELISA Vector-Best, and CMIA Abbott, respectively. Specificity was equal to 100% for all the tests. Comparison of receiver operating characteristics has shown lower AUC for CMIA Abbott. The cut-off SC/O ratio of 0.28 for CMIA Abbott resulted in a sensitivity of 80% at the same level of specificity. Less than 33% of the participants with positive antibody test results had neutralizing antibodies in titers 1:80 and above. Antibody assays results and MNA correlated moderately. This study encourages the use of local antibody tests and sets the reference for seroprevalence correction. Available tests' sensitivity allows detecting antibodies within the majority of PCR- positive individuals. The Abbott assay sensitivity can be improved by incorporating a new cut-off. Manufacturers' test characteristics may introduce bias into the study results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoassay , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(596)2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225692

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become critically ill primarily around the time of activation of the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide evidence that antibodies play a role in the worsening of disease at the time of seroconversion. We show that early-phase severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces excessive inflammatory responses by human alveolar macrophages. We identified that this excessive inflammatory response is dependent on two antibody features that are specific for patients with severe COVID-19. First, inflammation is driven by high titers of anti-spike IgG, a hallmark of severe disease. Second, we found that anti-spike IgG from patients with severe COVID-19 is intrinsically more proinflammatory because of different glycosylation, particularly low fucosylation, of the antibody Fc tail. Low fucosylation of anti-spike IgG was normalized in a few weeks after initial infection with SARS-CoV-2, indicating that the increased antibody-dependent inflammation mainly occurs at the time of seroconversion. We identified Fcγ receptor (FcγR) IIa and FcγRIII as the two primary IgG receptors that are responsible for the induction of key COVID-19-associated cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. In addition, we show that anti-spike IgG-activated human macrophages can subsequently break pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity and induce microvascular thrombosis in vitro. Last, we demonstrate that the inflammatory response induced by anti-spike IgG can be specifically counteracted by fostamatinib, an FDA- and EMA-approved therapeutic small-molecule inhibitor of Syk kinase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Glycosylation , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 580147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211807

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is widely spread and remains a global pandemic. Limited evidence on the systematic evaluation of the impact of treatment regimens on antibody responses exists. Our study aimed to analyze the role of antibody response on prognosis and determine factors influencing the IgG antibodies' seroconversion. A total of 1,111 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms admitted to Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan were retrospectively analyzed. A serologic SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibody test was performed on all the patients 21 days after the onset of symptoms. Patient clinical characteristics were compared. In the study, 42 patients progressed to critical illness, with 6 mortalities reported while 1,069 patients reported mild to moderate disease. Advanced age (P = 0.028), gasping (P < 0.001), dyspnea (P = 0.024), and IgG negativity (P = 0.006) were associated with progression to critical illness. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with IgG antibody was 6.45% (95% CI 1.12-22.84%) and 36.36% (95% CI 12.36-68.38%) in patients with no IgG antibody (P = 0.003). Symptomatic patients were more likely to develop IgG antibody responses than asymptomatic patients. Using univariable analysis, fever (P < 0.001), gasping (P = 0.048), cancer (P < 0.001), cephalosporin (P = 0.015), and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (P = 0.021) were associated with IgG response. In the multivariable analysis, fever, cancer, cephalosporins, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine correlated independently with IgG response. We determined that the absence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgG in the convalescent stage had a specific predictive role in critical illness progression. Importantly, risk factors affecting seropositivity were identified, and the effect of antimalarial drugs on antibody response was determined.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antimalarials/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cephalosporins/adverse effects , China , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Convalescence , Female , Fever/complications , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Serologic Tests
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 350, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as a rapidly spreading infection. Today it is relatively easy to isolate Covid-19 symptomatic cases, while remains problematic to control the disease spread by infected but symptom-free individuals. The control of this possible path of contagion requires drastic measures of social distancing, which imply the suspension of most activities and generate economic and social issues. This study is aimed at estimating the percentage of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a geographic area with relatively low incidence of Covid-19. METHODS: Blood serum samples from 388 healthy volunteers were analyzed for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG by using an ELISA assay based on recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. RESULTS: We found that 7 out of 388 healthy volunteers, who declared no symptoms of Covid-19, like fever, cough, fatigue etc., in the preceding 5 months, have bona fide serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, that is 1.8% of the asymptomatic population (95% confidence interval: 0.69-2.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated range of asymptomatic individuals with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG should be between 26,565 and 112, 350. In the same geographic area, there are 4665 symptomatic diagnosed cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125483

ABSTRACT

Several hundred millions of people have been diagnosed of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing millions of deaths and a high socioeconomic burden. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, induces both specific T- and B-cell responses, being antibodies against the virus detected a few days after infection. Passive immunization with hyperimmune plasma from convalescent patients has been proposed as a potentially useful treatment for COVID-19. Using an in-house quantitative ELISA test, we found that plasma from 177 convalescent donors contained IgG antibodies specific to the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, although at very different concentrations which correlated with previous disease severity and gender. Anti-RBD IgG plasma concentrations significantly correlated with the plasma viral neutralizing activity (VN) against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Similar results were found using an independent cohort of serum from 168 convalescent health workers. These results validate an in-house RBD IgG ELISA test in a large cohort of COVID-19 convalescent patients and indicate that plasma from all convalescent donors does not contain a high enough amount of anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD neutralizing IgG to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. The use of quantitative anti-RBD IgG detection systems might help to predict the efficacy of the passive immunization using plasma from patients recovered from SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085161

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/transmission , Immunoglobulins/blood , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Spain , Zoonoses/virology
12.
Pathology ; 52(7): 764-769, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041681

ABSTRACT

Many unanswered questions remain regarding the role of SARS-CoV-2 serological assays in this unfolding COVID-19 pandemic. These include their utility for the diagnosis of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, past infection or exposure, correlation with immunity and the effective duration of immunity. This study examined the performance of three laboratory based serological assays, EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA/IgG, MAGLUMI 2000 Plus 2019-nCov IgM/IgG and EDI Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) IgM/IgG immunoassays. We evaluated 138 samples from a reference non-infected population and 71 samples from a cohort of 37 patients with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed positive by RT-PCR. The samples were collected at various intervals of 0-45 days post symptoms onset (PSO). Specificity and sensitivity of these assays was 60.9%/71.4% (IgA) and 94.2%/63.3% (IgG) for EUROIMMUN; 98.5%/18.4% (IgM) and 97.8%/53.1% (IgG) for MAGLUMI; and 94.9%/22.5% (IgM) and 93.5%/57.1% (IgG) for EDI, respectively. When samples collected ≥14 days PSO were considered, the sensitivities were 100.0 and 100.0%; 31.0 and 82.8%; 34.5 and 57.1%, respectively. Using estimated population prevalence of 0.1, 1, and 10%, the positive predictive value of all assays remained low. The EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA lacked specificity for acute diagnosis and all IgM assays offered poor diagnostic utility. Seroconversion can be delayed although all patients had seroconverted at 28 days in our cohort with the EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Despite this, with specificity of only 94% this assay would not be satisfactory for seroprevalence studies in the general Australian population given this is likely to be currently <1%.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Australia , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
EBioMedicine ; 62: 103101, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable high-throughput serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are urgently needed for the effective containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it is of crucial importance to understand the strength and duration of immunity after infection, and to make informed decisions concerning the activation or discontinuation of physical distancing restrictions. METHODS: In 184 serum samples from 130 COVID-19 patients and 54 SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects, the analytical and clinical performances of four commercially available chemiluminescent assays (Abbott SARS-Cov-2 IgG, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2, Ortho SARS-CoV-2 total and IgG) and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Diesse ENZY-WELL SARS-CoV-2 IgG) were evaluated and compared with the neutralization activity achieved using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). FINDINGS: Precision results ranged from 0.9% to 11.8% for all assays. Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated linearity of results at concentrations within the cut-off value. Overall, sensitivity ranged from 78.5 to 87.7%, and specificity, from 97.6 to 100%. On limiting the analysis to samples collected 12 days after onset of symptoms, the sensitivity of all assays increased, the highest value (95.2%) being obtained with VITRO Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total and Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The strongest PRNT50 correlation with antibody levels was obtained with ENZY-Well SARS-CoV-2 IgG (R2adj = 0.569). INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed that all immunoassays had an excellent specificity, whereas sensitivity varied across immunoassays, depending strongly on the time interval between symptoms onset and sample collection. Further studies should be conducted to achieve a stronger correlation between antibody measurement and PRNT50 in order to obtain useful information for providing a better management of COVID-19 patients, effective passive antibody therapy, and developing a vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(7): 1459-1463, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the frontline during the pandemic of COVID-19 globally. According to the WHO situation report at April 17, there were 22, 073 HCWs contracted the infection. Whether the infection control policy and practice in the hospital setting can protect the HCWs is an important issue. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional serology study in a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan to explore the sero-prevalence rate among HCWs. The participants are enrolled on a voluntary basis. A structured questionnaire was collected to gather the epidemiology character and risk factors for potential exposure. ELISA tests as Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Abbott) and Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay (Roche) were used to detect antibody responses. If any of the tests was positive, a western blot assay was used for confirmation. RESULTS: There were 194 HCWs participated during July 1 to Aug. 31, 2020. The mean age was 36.3 ± 10.4. More than half of the participants had possible hospital associated risk for COVID-19 exposure (110/192, 57.3%) and 64 had possible community risk for COVID-19 exposure (64/194, 33.0%). There was only one participant had positive test by Architect IgG test and confirmed to be negative for seasonal coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 antibody. (Mikrogen Diagnostik, Germany). CONCLUSION: The cross-sectional serology study in a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan revealed no HCWs had positive serology response to SARS-CoV-2. We believe that the infection control policy and practice in the hospital and in the community are both important to prevent the disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology
15.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 597529, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has emerged at the end of 2019. Aside from the detection of viral genome with specific RT-PCR, there is a growing need for reliable determination of the serological status. We aimed at evaluating five SARS-CoV-2 serology assays. METHODS: An in-house immunofluorescence assay (IFA), two ELISA kits (EUROIMMUN® ELISA SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NovaLisa® SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM) and two lateral flow assays (T-Tek® SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Antibody Test Kit and Sure Bio-tech® SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibody Rapid Test) were compared on 40 serums from RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and 10 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative subjects as controls. RESULTS: Control subjects tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with all five systems. Estimated sensitivities varied from 35.5 to 71.0% for IgG detection and from 19.4 to 64.5% for IgM detection. For IgG, in-house IFA, EuroImmun, T-Tek and NovaLisa displayed 50-72.5% agreement with other systems except IFA vs EuroImmun and T-Tek vs NovaLisa. Intermethod agreement for IgM determination was between 30 and 72.5%. DISCUSSION: The overall intermethod agreement was moderate. This inconsistency could be explained by the diversity of assay methods, antigens used and immunoglobulin isotype tested. Estimated sensitivities were low, highlighting the limited value of antibody detection in CoVID-19. CONCLUSION: Comparison of five systems for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies showed limited sensitivity and overall concordance. The place and indications of serological status assessment with currently available tools in the CoVID-19 pandemic need further evaluations.

16.
Am J Pathol ; 191(1): 90-107, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938719

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma has emerged as a promising therapy and has been granted Emergency Use Authorization by the US Food and Drug Administration for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We recently reported results from interim analysis of a propensity score-matched study suggesting that early treatment of COVID-19 patients with convalescent plasma containing high-titer anti-spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG significantly decreases mortality. We herein present results from a 60-day follow-up of a cohort of 351 transfused hospitalized patients. Prospective determination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay anti-RBD IgG titer facilitated selection and transfusion of the highest titer units available. Retrospective analysis by the Ortho VITROS IgG assay revealed a median signal/cutoff ratio of 24.0 for transfused units, a value far exceeding the recent US Food and Drug Administration-required cutoff of 12.0 for designation of high-titer convalescent plasma. With respect to altering mortality, our analysis identified an optimal window of 44 hours after hospitalization for transfusing COVID-19 patients with high-titer convalescent plasma. In the aggregate, the analysis confirms and extends our previous preliminary finding that transfusion of COVID-19 patients soon after hospitalization with high-titer anti-spike protein RBD IgG present in convalescent plasma significantly reduces mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240782, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To fight the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown has been decreed in many countries worldwide. The impact of pregnancy as a severity risk factor is still debated, but strict lockdown measures have been recommended for pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the seroprevalence and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a maternity ward in an area that has been significantly affected by the virus. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study at the Antoine Béclère Hospital maternity ward (Paris area, France) from May 4 (one week before the end of lockdown) to May 31, 2020 (three weeks after the end of lockdown). All patients admitted to the delivery room during this period were offered a SARS-CoV-2 serology test as well concomitant SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on one nasopharyngeal sample. RESULTS: A total of 249 women were included. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 8%. The RT-PCR positive rate was 0.5%. 47.4% of the SARS-CoV-2-IgG-positive pregnant women never experienced any symptoms. A history of symptoms during the epidemic, such as fever (15.8%), myalgia (36.8%) and anosmia (31.6%), was suggestive of previous infection. CONCLUSIONS: Three weeks after the end of French lockdown, SARS-CoV-2 infections were scarce in our region. A very high proportion of SARS-CoV-2-IgG-negative pregnant women, which is comparable to that of the general population, must be taken into consideration in the event of a resurgence of the pandemic. The traces of a past active circulation of the virus in this fragile population during the spring wave should encourage public health authorities to take specific measures for this independent at-risk group, in order to reduce viral circulation in pregnant patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Parturition , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics/prevention & control , Paris/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874430

ABSTRACT

We investigated immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among a group of convalescent, potential blood donors in Germany who had PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sixty days after onset of symptoms, 13/78 (17%) study participants had borderline or negative results to an ELISA detecting IgG against the S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed participants with PCR-confirmed infection who had strong antibody responses (ratio >3) as positive controls and participants without symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and without household contact with infected patients as negative controls. Using interferon-γ ELISpot, we observed that 78% of PCR-positive volunteers with undetectable antibodies showed T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2. We observed a similar frequency (80%) of T-cell immunity in convalescent donors with strong antibody responses but did not detect immunity in negative controls. We concluded that, in convalescent patients with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG, immunity may be mediated through T cells.


Subject(s)
Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 570543, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-858827

ABSTRACT

A vast majority of COVID-19 cases present with mild or moderate symptoms. The study region is in an urban and well-defined environment in a low-incidence region in Northern Germany. In the present study, we explored the dynamics of the antibody response with respect to onset, level and duration in patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA were detected by automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients monitored by the Health Protection Authority. This explorative monocentric study shows IgA and IgG antibody profiles from 118 patients with self-reported mild to moderate, or no COVID-19 related symptoms after laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2. We found that 21.7% and 18.1% of patients were seronegative for IgA or IgG, respectively. Clinically, most of the seronegative patients showed no to only moderate symptoms. With regard to antibody profiling 82% of all patients developed sustainable antibodies (IgG) and 78% (IgA) 3 weeks or later after the infection. Our data indicate that antibody-positivity is a useful indicator of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Negative antibodies do not rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection. Future studies are needed to determine the functionality of the antibodies in terms of neutralization capacity leading to personal protection and prevention ability to transmit the virus as well as to protect after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(1): 13-18, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal observation of the detection of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 using antibody kits during the clinical course of COVID-19 is not yet fully investigated. OBJECTIVES: To understand the significance of the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, particularly IgG, using a rapid antibody kit, during the clinical course of COVID-19 patients with different severities. METHODS: Sixty-three serum samples from 18 patients (5 asymptomatic and 13 symptomatic patients) were retrospectively examined using a commercial SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibody kit. PCR positivity of patient samples was also examined as a marker of current SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: IgG antibodies were detected in all cases in this study. The IgG detection rates reached 100.0% in samples collected on day 13 or later. IgG seropositivity after an initial negative status was observed in 13 patients (3/5 asymptomatic and 10/13 symptomatic cases). Interestingly, the persistence of both PCR and IgG positivity was detected in seven cases, of which three were asymptomatic. The longest overlap duration of the PCR and IgG positivity was 17 days in asymptomatic status. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG production can be detected in all infected individuals, using a rapid antibody kit, irrespective of clinical status. However, these findings suggest that, in some infected individuals, particularly those with asymptomatic status, the presence of virus-specific IgG antibodies does not imply prompt viral clearance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
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