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1.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(26): 447-453, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of declining numbers of patients presenting with myocardial infarction was reported from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic onward. It was thought that measures introduced to stem the pandemic, such as the lockdown, contributed to this development. However, the data on hospital admissions, delay times, and mortality are not consistent. METHODS: Our systematic literature review and meta-analysis embraced studies reporting the number of hospital admissions of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and/or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) during lockdown episodes. We also collected data on patient- and system-related delay times and on mortality. RESULTS: Data from 27 studies on a total of 81 163 patients were included in our meta-analysis. We found that the number of hospital admissions of patients with myocardial infarction was significantly lower during the lockdown than before the pandemic (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.516 [0.403; 0.660], I2 = 98%). This was true both for patients with STEMI (IRR = 0.620 [0.514; 0.746], I2 = 96%) and for patients with NSTEMI (IRR = 0.454 [0.354; 0.584], I2 = 96%). However, we found no significant difference in the time from hospital admission to cardiac catheterization, or in mortality, in relation to the time from symptom onset to first medical contact. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have shown that the lockdown due to COVID-19 was associated with a marked decline in the number of hospital admissions of patients with myocardial infarction. As no significant effect on delay times or mortality was observed, it seems that timely medical care continued to be delivered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 35: 100824, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in the time from the symptoms onset to first medical contact and to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) has been observed in countries with high-incidence of COVID-19 cases. We aimed to verify if there was any change in the patient delay and in the EMS response times up to the pPCI for STEMI patients in Swiss Ticino Canton. METHODS: We assessed STEMI management including time from symptoms onset to EMS call, time of EMS response, time to pPCI in Swiss Canton Ticino. Data were retrieved from the Acute-Coronary-Syndrome-Ticino-Registry. We considered the patients included in the registry from March to May 2020 (pandemic period) and then from June to August 2020 (post-pandemic period) in whom a pPCI was performed. We compared these patients to those undergoing a pPCI in the same months in the year 2016-2019. RESULTS: During the pandemic period, the time from symptoms onset to pPCI significantly increased compared to non-pandemic periods. This was due to a significant prolongation of the time from symptoms onset to EMS call, that nearly tripled. In contrast, after the pandemic period, there was a significantly shorter time from symptom onset to EMS call compared to non-pandemic years, whereas all other times remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Patients delay the call to EMS despite symptoms of myocardial infarction during the COVID-19 pandemic also in a region with a relatively low incidence of COVID-19.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e019635, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249490

ABSTRACT

Background Public health emergencies may significantly impact emergency medical services responses to cardiovascular emergencies. We compared emergency medical services responses to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic to 2018 to 2019 and evaluated the impact of California's March 19, 2020 stay-at-home order. Methods and Results We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using Los Angeles County emergency medical services registry data for adult patients with paramedic provider impression (PI) of OHCA or STEMI from February through May in 2018 to 2020. After March 19, 2020, weekly counts for PI-OHCA were higher (173 versus 135; incidence rate ratios, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19‒1.37; P<0.001) while PI-STEMI were lower (57 versus 65; incidence rate ratios, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78‒0.97; P=0.02) compared with 2018 and 2019. After adjusting for seasonal variation in PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI, the increase in PI-OHCA observed after March 19, 2020 remained significant (P=0.02). The proportion of PI-OHCA who received defibrillation (16% versus 23%; risk difference [RD], -6.91%; 95% CI, -9.55% to -4.26%; P<0.001) and had return of spontaneous circulation (17% versus 29%; RD, -11.98%; 95% CI, -14.76% to -9.18%; P<0.001) were lower after March 19 in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019. There was also a significant increase in dead on arrival emergency medical services responses in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019, starting around the time of the stay-at-home order (P<0.001). Conclusions Paramedics in Los Angeles County, CA responded to increased PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI following the stay-at-home order. The increased PI-OHCA was not fully explained by the reduction in PI-STEMI. Field defibrillation and return of spontaneous circulation were lower. It is critical that public health messaging stress that emergency care should not be delayed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Electric Countershock , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Incidence , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Registries , Return of Spontaneous Circulation , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
EuroIntervention ; 16(17): 1426-1433, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194745

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess clinical and prognosis differences in patients with COVID-19 and STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a nationwide registry of consecutive patients managed within 42 specific STEMI care networks, we compared patient and procedure characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in two different cohorts, according to whether or not they had COVID-19. Among 1,010 consecutive STEMI patients, 91 were identified as having COVID-19 (9.0%). With the exception of smoking status (more frequent in non-COVID-19 patients) and previous coronary artery disease (more frequent in COVID-19 patients), clinical characteristics were similar between the groups, but COVID-19 patients had more heart failure on arrival (31.9% vs 18.4%, p=0.002). Mechanical thrombectomy (44% vs 33.5%, p=0.046) and GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor administration (20.9% vs 11.2%, p=0.007) were more frequent in COVID-19 patients, who had an increased in-hospital mortality (23.1% vs 5.7%, p<0.0001), that remained consistent after adjustment for age, sex, Killip class and ischaemic time (OR 4.85, 95% CI: 2.04-11.51; p<0.001). COVID-19 patients had an increase of stent thrombosis (3.3% vs 0.8%, p=0.020) and cardiogenic shock development after PCI (9.9% vs 3.8%, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a significant increase in in-hospital mortality, stent thrombosis and cardiogenic shock development after PCI in patients with STEMI and COVID-19 in comparison with contemporaneous non-COVID-19 STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Treatment Outcome
5.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 340-351, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systems of care have been challenged to control progression of the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether this has been associated with delayed reperfusion and worse outcomes in French patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. AIM: To compare the rate of STEMI admissions, treatment delays, and outcomes between the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in France and the equivalent period in 2019. METHODS: In this nationwide French survey, data from consecutive STEMI patients from 65 centres referred for urgent revascularization between 1 March and 31 May 2020, and between 1 March and 31 May 2019, were analysed. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital death or non-fatal mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS: A total of 6306 patients were included. During the pandemic peak, a 13.9±6.6% (P=0.003) decrease in STEMI admissions per week was observed. Delays between symptom onset and percutaneous coronary intervention were longer in 2020 versus 2019 (270 [interquartile range 150-705] vs 245 [140-646]min; P=0.013), driven by the increase in time from symptom onset to first medical contact (121 [60-360] vs 150 [62-420]min; P=0.002). During 2020, a greater number of mechanical complications was observed (0.9% vs 1.7%; P=0.029) leading to a significant difference in the primary outcome (112 patients [5.6%] in 2019 vs 129 [7.6%] in 2020; P=0.018). No significant difference was observed in rates of orotracheal intubation, in-hospital cardiac arrest, ventricular arrhythmias and cardiogenic shock. CONCLUSIONS: During the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in France, there was a decrease in STEMI admissions, associated with longer ischaemic time, exclusively driven by an increase in patient-related delays and an increase in mechanical complications. These findings suggest the need to encourage the population to seek medical help in case of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Stents , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
6.
Medeni Med J ; 36(1): 63-68, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173031

ABSTRACT

Myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is defined as having a stenosis of less than 50% or no stenosis in coronary angiography in a patient diagnosed with myocardial infarction. Because of its thrombogenic predisposition in COVID-19, the diagnosis of MINOCA syndrome is rarely thought in the patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial Infarction on electrocardiogram. In this case report, we discuss a 47-year-old male patient diagnosed with MINOCA who was followed up with respiratory failure due to COVID-19 viral pneumonia in intensive care unit. His 12-lead electrocardiogram showed "inferior STEMI". A 30-40% stenosis was also shown in the midportion of left anterior descending artery in emergency coronary angiography. The patient had a normal computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and was discharged with a full recovery. MINOCA may be triggered by hyperinflammation or various processes due to COVID-19. To explain these processes associated with MINOCA syndrome, further clinical trials are needed.

7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 247-256, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168426

ABSTRACT

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a common cardiovascular emergency for which timely reperfusion therapies are needed to minimize myocardial necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and reorganization of chest pain centers (CPC) on the practice of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and prognosis of STEMI patients. This single-center retrospective survey included all patients with STEMI admitted to our CPC from January 22, 2020 to April 30, 2020 (during COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan), compared with those admitted during the analogous period in 2019, in respect of important time points of PPCI and clinical outcomes of STEMI patients. In the present article, we observed a descending trend in STEMI hospitalization and a longer time from symptom onset to first medical contact during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the control period (4.35 h versus 2.58 h). With a median delay of 17 minutes in the door to balloon time (D2B), the proportion of in-hospital cardiogenic shock was significantly higher in the COVID-19 era group (47.6% versus 19.5%), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) tend to increase in the 6-month follow-up period (14.3% versus 2.4%). Although the reorganization of CPC may prolong the D2B time, immediate revascularization of the infarct-related artery could be offered to most patients within 90 minutes upon arrival. PPCI remained the preferred treatment for patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic in the context of timely implementation and appropriate protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , China/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
8.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13675, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150968

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause severe bilateral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to difficulty breathing requiring mechanical ventilation and ICU management. In many patients, it has been found to cause severe hypercoagulability. We present a case of COVID-19 positive patient who developed myocardial infarction (MI) despite being on multiple anticoagulants. A 51-year-old, Middle-Eastern male diabetic patient presented to the emergency room with complaints of sudden onset left leg pain, paresthesias, and swelling for one day. On physical examination, the left leg was cool to touch from forefoot to mid-calf, with noticeable mottling over the forefoot and a nonpalpable dorsalis pedis. The patient was started on therapeutic enoxaparin and diltiazem in ED. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates beginning peripherally and COVID-19 pneumonitis. The patient underwent a mechanical thrombectomy and was loaded with aspirin/clopidogrel, heparin drip, and enoxaparin. Despite being on triple anticoagulation, the patient had new-onset STEMI and elevated troponin levels. On angiography, the patient was found to have occluded mid-left anterior descending, most likely from acute on chronic thrombosis related to the patient's COVID-19 status. As flow could not be re-established, the patient was kept on long-term protective anticoagulation-triple therapy (an oral anticoagulant and dual antiplatelet therapy) and received pulmonary care for COVID-19 infection. The patient was discharged on long-term triple anticoagulation and COVID-19 precautions with scheduled retesting and follow-up.

10.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(2-3): 296-298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102303
11.
Echocardiography ; 38(3): 469-472, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088042

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemia has many other undesirable consequences apart of virus infection. Less people is hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome and the delay to seek medical attention has increased. Patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction arrive at the hospital too late to be timely treated and we have recently seen mechanical complications that were more frequent in the past decades before the use of reperfusion strategies. In this report we describe the presentation, evolution and detailed imaging evaluation of two patients with unusual presentations of cardiac rupture: left ventricular pseudoaneurysm and left ventricular intramyocardial dissecting hematoma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/etiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/diagnosis , Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(1): E022-E030, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prioritization among patients with coronary artery disease represents a difficult issue during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We present our clinical practices and patients' outcomes after elective, emergent, and urgent cardiovascular surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). We also investigated the rate of nosocomial infection of SARS-CoV-2 in health workers (HWs), including surgeons after cardiovascular procedures and percutaneous interventions (PCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed 186 cardiovascular operations and PCI between March 15 and October 15. According to the level of priority (LoP), we performed urgent and emergent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and cardiac valve repair or replacement surgery in 44 patients. In one patient with acute chordae rupture with pulmonary edema, we performed mitral valve replacement. We performed the aortic arch repair in two patients with type-I aortic dissection in urgent situations. Therefore, in 47 patients we performed cardiac operations in urgent or emergent situations. Elective CABG (N = 28) and elective cardiac valve (N = 10) surgeries were performed (total: 38). While rescue PCI was urgently performed in 47 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), it was performed in elective or emergent situations in 40 patients with myocardial ischemia. Endovascular treatment was performed in four patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and in four patients with chronic arterial occlusion, respectively. Surgical vascular repair and embolectomy were performed in patients with peripheral artery injury (N = 6) and acute arterial embolic events (N = 4), respectively. We performed thoracic computed tomography followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in patients with irregular diffuse reticular opacities with or without consolidation on chest X-ray. Blood coagulation disorders including d-dimer, thromboplastin time (TT), and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were measured prior to procedures. RESULTS: No mortality and morbidity was seen after percutaneous and surgical arterial or venous procedures. The total mortality rate was 4.1% (8 of 186 CAD patients or valve surgery) after urgent and emergent CABG (N = 4), an urgent valve replacement (N = 1), and PCI (N = 3). Low cardiac output syndrome (LOS) and major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular event (MACCE) were the mortality factors after cardiac surgery. The reasons for death after PCI were sudden cardiac arrest related to the dissection of the left main coronary artery during procedure and pneumonia due to COVID-19 (N = 2). Ground-glass opacities in combination with pulmonary consolidations were detected in seven patients. Interlobular septal and pleural thickening with patchy bronchiectasis in the bilateral lower lobe involvement was found after thoracic computed tomography in these patients. We confirmed in-hospital COVID-19 using a PCR test in two patients with STEMI prior to PCI. PT and aPTT increased, but fibrin degradation products did not in those two patients. We confirmed COVID-19 via phone call in six CABG patients and one PCI patient after discharge from the hospital. None of the patients diagnosed with COVID-19 died after being discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular surgery and PCI can safely be performed with acceptable complications and mortality rates in elective situations, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Preoperative control of OR traffic, careful evaluation of the patient's history, consultation, and precautions taken by healthcare professionals are important, during and after procedures. Also important is wearing a mask and face shield and careful disinfection of equipment and space.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures , Cross Infection/transmission , Elective Surgical Procedures , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although there are regional reports that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a reduction in acute myocardial infarction presentations and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures, little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mechanical complications resulting from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and mortality. METHODS: This single-centre retrospective cohort study analysed presentations, incidence of mechanical complications, and mortality in patients with STEMI before and after a state of emergency was declared due to the COVID-19 pandemic by the Japanese government on 7 April 2020. RESULTS: We analysed 359 patients with STEMI hospitalised before the declaration and 63 patients hospitalised after the declaration. The proportion of patients with late presentation was significantly higher after the declaration than before (25.4% vs 14.2%, p=0.03). The incidence of late presentation was significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 2.41; 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.05; p=0.001, even after adjusting for month (IRR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.13; p<0.01). Primary PCI was performed significantly less often after the declaration than before (68.3% vs 82.5%, p=0.009). The mechanical complication resulting from STEMI occurred in 13 of 359 (3.6%) patients before the declaration and 9 of 63 (14.3%) patients after the declaration (p<0.001). However, the incidence of in-hospital death (before, 6.2% vs after, 6.4%, p=0.95) was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, an increased incidence of mechanical complications resulting from STEMI was observed. Instructing people to stay at home, without effectively educating them to immediately seek medical attention when suffering symptoms of a heart attack, may worsen outcomes in patients with STEMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Heart Lung ; 50(2): 292-295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065104

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic resulted in a total reduction in the number of hospitalizations for acute coronary syndromes. A consequence of the delay in coronary revascularization has been the resurgence of structural complications of myocardial infarctions. Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) complicating late presenting acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with high mortality despite advances in both surgical repair and perioperative management. Current data suggests a declining mortality with delay in VSR repair; however, these patients may develop cardiogenic shock while waiting for surgery. Available options are limited for patients with VSR who develop right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. The survival rate is very low in patients with cardiogenic shock undergoing surgical or percutaneous VSR repair. In this study we present two late presenting ST elevation MI patients who were complicated by rapidly declining hemodynamics and impending organ failure. Both patients were bridged with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to cardiac transplant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Septal Rupture , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Septal Rupture/diagnosis , Ventricular Septal Rupture/epidemiology , Ventricular Septal Rupture/etiology
15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 333-343, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064348

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak on admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and related mortality, severity of presentation, major cardiac complications and outcome in a tertiary-care university hospital in Berlin, Germany. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a single-centre cross-sectional observational study, we included 355 patients with AMI containing ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI or NSTEMI), admitted for emergency cardiac catheterization between January and April 2020 and the equivalent time in 2019. During the early phase of the Covid-19 pandemic (e-COV) in Berlin (March and April 2020), admissions for AMI halved compared with those in the pre-Covid-19 time (January and February 2020; pre-COV) and with those in the corresponding months in 2019. However, mortality for AMI increased substantially from 5.2% pre-COV to 17.7% (P < 0.05) during e-COV. Severity of presentation for AMI was more pronounced during e-COV [increased levels of cardiac enzymes, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), an increase in the need of inotropic support by 25% (P < 0.01)], while patients' demographic and angiographic characteristics did not differ between pre-COV and e-COV. Time from symptom onset to first medical contact was prolonged in all AMI during e-COV (presentation > 72 h +21% in STEMI, p = 0.04 and presentation > 72 h in NSTEMI +22%, p = 0.02). Door to balloon time was similar in STEMI patients, while time from first medical contact to revascularization was significantly delayed in NSTEMI patients (p = 0.02). Major cardiac complications after AMI occurred significantly more often, and cardiac recovery was worse in e-COV than in pre-COV, demonstrated by a significantly lower LVEF (39 ± 16 vs. 46 ± 16, p < 0.05) at hospital discharge and substantially higher NTproBNP levels. CONCLUSIONS: The Covid-19 outbreak affects hospital admissions for acute coronary syndromes. During the first phase of the pandemia, significantly less patients with AMI were admitted, but those admitted presented with a more severe phenotype and had a higher mortality, more complications, and a worse short-term outcome. Therefore, our data indicate that Covid-19 had relevant impact on non-infectious disease states, such as acute coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Acute Disease , Aged , Berlin/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Treatment Outcome
16.
Circulation ; 143(10): 1031-1042, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is common in patients who are hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and portends poorer prognosis. However, the mechanism and the type of myocardial damage associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a systematic pathological analysis of 40 hearts from hospitalized patients dying of COVID-19 in Bergamo, Italy, to determine the pathological mechanisms of cardiac injury. We divided the hearts according to presence or absence of acute myocyte necrosis and then determined the underlying mechanisms of cardiac injury. RESULTS: Of the 40 hearts examined, 14 (35%) had evidence of myocyte necrosis, predominantly of the left ventricle. Compared with subjects without necrosis, subjects with necrosis tended to be female, have chronic kidney disease, and have shorter symptom onset to admission. The incidence of severe coronary artery disease (ie, >75% cross-sectional narrowing) was not significantly different between those with and without necrosis. Three of 14 (21.4%) subjects with myocyte necrosis showed evidence of acute myocardial infarction, defined as ≥1 cm2 area of necrosis, whereas 11 of 14 (78.6%) showed evidence of focal (>20 necrotic myocytes with an area of ≥0.05 mm2 but <1 cm2) myocyte necrosis. Cardiac thrombi were present in 11 of 14 (78.6%) cases with necrosis, with 2 of 14 (14.2%) having epicardial coronary artery thrombi, whereas 9 of 14 (64.3%) had microthrombi in myocardial capillaries, arterioles, and small muscular arteries. We compared cardiac microthrombi from COVID-19-positive autopsy cases to intramyocardial thromboemboli from COVID-19 cases as well as to aspirated thrombi obtained during primary percutaneous coronary intervention from uninfected and COVID-19-infected patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Microthrombi had significantly greater fibrin and terminal complement C5b-9 immunostaining compared with intramyocardial thromboemboli from COVID-19-negative subjects and with aspirated thrombi. There were no significant differences between the constituents of thrombi aspirated from COVID-19-positive and -negative patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The most common pathological cause of myocyte necrosis was microthrombi. Microthrombi were different in composition from intramyocardial thromboemboli from COVID-19-negative subjects and from coronary thrombi retrieved from COVID-19-positive and -negative patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Tailored antithrombotic strategies may be useful to counteract the cardiac effects of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Coronary Thrombosis/pathology , Coronary Thrombosis/virology , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Coronary Vessels/virology , Female , Heart/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027929

ABSTRACT

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is one of the important clinical procedures that have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to assess the incidence and impact of COVID-19 on in-hospital clinical outcome of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients managed with PPCI. This observational retrospective study was conducted on consecutive STEMI patients who presented to the International Cardiac Center (ICC) hospital, Alexandria, Egypt between 1 February and 31 October 2020. A group of STEMI patients presented during the same period in 2019 was also assessed (control group) and data was used for comparison. The inclusion criteria were established diagnosis of STEMI requiring PPCI.A total of 634 patients were included in the study. During the COVID-19 period, the number of PPCI procedures was reduced by 25.7% compared with previous year (mean 30.0 ± 4.01 vs. 40.4 ± 5.3 case/month) and the time from first medical contact to Needle (FMC-to-N) was longer (125.0 ± 53.6 vs. 52.6 ± 22.8 min, p = 0.001). Also, during COVID-19, the in-hospital mortality was higher (7.4 vs. 4.6%, p = 0.036) as was the incidence of re-infarction (12.2 vs. 7.7%, p = 0.041) and the need for revascularization (15.9 vs. 10.7%, p = 0.046). The incidence of heart failure, stroke, and bleeding was not different between groups, but hospital stay was longer during COVID-19 (6.85 ± 4.22 vs. 3.5 ± 2.3 day, p = 0.0025). Conclusion: At the ICC, COVID-19 pandemic contributed significantly to the PPCI management of STEMI patients with decreased number and delayed procedures. COVID-19 was also associated with higher in-hospital mortality, rate of re-infarction, need for revascularization, and longer hospital stay.

18.
J Clin Med ; 10(1)2020 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024592

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents several challenges for managing patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Modified treatment algorithms have been proposed for the pandemic. We assessed new algorithms proposed by The European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) on patients with ACS admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 period group (CPG) consisted of patients admitted into a high-volume centre in Prague between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020 (n = 181). The reference group (RG) included patients who had been admitted between 1 October 2018 and 31 January 2020 (n = 834). The proportions of patients with different types of ACS admitted before and during the pandemic did not differ significantly: in all ACS patients, KILLIP III-IV class was present in 13.9% in RG and in 9.4% of patients in CPG (p = 0.082). In NSTE-ACS patients, the ejection fraction was lower in the CPG than in the RG (44.7% vs. 50.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). The time from symptom onset to first medical contact did not differ between CPG and RG patients in the respective NSTE-ACS and STEMI groups. The time to early invasive treatment in NSTE-ACS patients and the time to reperfusion in STEMI patients were not significantly different between the RG and the CPG. In-hospital mortality did not differ between the groups in NSTE-ACS patients (odds ratio in the CPG 0.853, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.247 to 2.951; p = 0.960) nor in STEMI patients (odds ratio in CPG 1.248, 95% CI 0.566 to 2.749; p = 0.735). Modified treatment strategies for ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic did not cause treatment delays. Hospital mortality did not differ.

19.
J Med Syst ; 45(1): 9, 2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009163

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2), has compromised health care systems and normal management of patients with cardiovascular diseases [1-3]. Patients with non-communicable diseases, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are vulnerable to this stress [4, 5]. Acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the most critical type of AMI, is associated with high mortality even with modern medicine [6-8]. Timely reperfusion therapy is critical for STEMI patients because a short ischemia time is associated with better clinical outcomes and lower acute and long -term mortality [9-12]. The COVID-19 pandemic placed the management of STEMI patients in a difficult situation due to the need to balance timely reperfusion therapy and maintaining strict infection control practices [13, 14]. Telemedicine, which is used to deliver health care services using information or communication technology, provides an opportunity to carry out the evaluation, diagnosis, and even monitor the patients after discharge when social distancing is needed [15]. In this article, we reported our preliminary experience with the usefulness of telemedicine in managing STEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also provided a review of this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Care/methods , Risk Assessment , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis
20.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20448, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004917

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute coronary syndromes and on the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact among patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as well as to investigate whether there were patient-related reasons related to COVID-19 for delaying first medical contact. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the Geneva University Hospitals for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) during the first COVID-19 wave were compared with a control group consisting of all ACS patients who underwent PCI during the same period in 2019 and those treated in the period immediately preceding the pandemic. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact in the setting of STEMI between the COVID-19 period and the control period. Secondary outcome measures were the difference in ACS incidence and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients’ decisions to call the emergency services, assessed using a questionnaire. Delay from symptom onset to first medical contact was longer among patients suffering from STEMI in the COVID-19 period compared with the control period (112 min vs 60 min, p = 0.049). The incidence rate of ACS was lower during the COVID-19 period (incidence rate ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.449–0.905). ACS patients delayed their call to the emergency services mainly because of fear of contracting or spreading COVID-19 following hospital admission, as well as of adding burden to the healthcare system. CONCLUSION: We observed prolonged delays from symptom onset to first medical contact and a decline in overall ACS incidence during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a higher threshold to call for help among ACS patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood
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