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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 59-65, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccines are now available under emergency use authorization in the United States and have demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. Vaccine impact on asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive, asymptomatic adult patients (n = 39 156) within a large US healthcare system who underwent 48 333 preprocedural SARS-CoV-2 molecular screening tests between 17 December 2020 and 8 February 2021. The primary exposure of interest was vaccination with ≥1 dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The primary outcome was relative risk (RR) of a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test among those asymptomatic persons who had received ≥1 dose of vaccine compared with persons who had not received vaccine during the same time period. RR was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, patient residence relative to the hospital (local vs nonlocal), healthcare system regions, and repeated screenings among patients using mixed-effects log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Positive molecular tests in asymptomatic individuals were reported in 42 (1.4%) of 3006 tests and 1436 (3.2%) of 45 327 tests performed on vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, respectively (RR, .44; 95% CI, .33-.60; P < .0001). Compared with unvaccinated patients, risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among those >10 days after the first dose (RR, .21; 95% CI, .12-.37; P < .0001) and >0 days after the second dose (RR, .20; 95% CI, .09-.44; P < .0001) in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine showed a significant association with reduced risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured during preprocedural molecular screening. Results of this study demonstrate the impact of the vaccines on reduction in asymptomatic infections supplementing the randomized trial results on symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
2.
JAMA ; 325(24): 2457-2465, 2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318647

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Randomized clinical trials have provided estimates of the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, but its effect on asymptomatic infections remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among health care workers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center in Tel Aviv, Israel. Data were collected on symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections confirmed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in health care workers undergoing regular screening with nasopharyngeal swabs between December 20, 2020, and February 25, 2021. Logistic regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the incidence of infection between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated participants, controlling for demographics and the number of PCR tests performed. EXPOSURES: Vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine vs unvaccinated status was ascertained from the employee health database. Full vaccination was defined as more than 7 days after receipt of the second vaccine dose. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the regression-adjusted IRR for symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection of fully vaccinated vs unvaccinated health care workers. The secondary outcomes included IRRs for partially vaccinated health care workers (days 7-28 after first dose) and for those considered as late fully vaccinated (>21 days after second dose). RESULTS: A total of 6710 health care workers (mean [SD] age, 44.3 [12.5] years; 4465 [66.5%] women) were followed up for a median period of 63 days; 5953 health care workers (88.7%) received at least 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, 5517 (82.2%) received 2 doses, and 757 (11.3%) were not vaccinated. Vaccination was associated with older age compared with those who were not vaccinated (mean age, 44.8 vs 40.7 years, respectively) and male sex (31.4% vs 17.7%). Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 8 fully vaccinated health care workers and 38 unvaccinated health care workers (incidence rate, 4.7 vs 149.8 per 100 000 person-days, respectively, adjusted IRR, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.01-0.06]). Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 19 fully vaccinated health care workers and 17 unvaccinated health care workers (incidence rate, 11.3 vs 67.0 per 100 000 person-days, respectively, adjusted IRR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.07-0.31]). The results were qualitatively unchanged by the propensity score sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among health care workers at a single center in Tel Aviv, Israel, receipt of the BNT162b2 vaccine compared with no vaccine was associated with a significantly lower incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection more than 7 days after the second dose. Findings are limited by the observational design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Incidence , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(4): 238-251, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314849

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed form of cancer and second most deadly cancer worldwide. Introduction of better screening has improved both incidence and mortality. However, as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began, healthcare resources were shunted away from cancer screening services resulting in a sharp decrease in CRC screening and a backlog of patients awaiting screening tests. This may have significant effects on CRC cancer mortality, as delayed screening may lead to advanced cancer at diagnosis. Strategies to overcome COVID-19 related disruption include utilizing stool-based cancer tests, developing screening protocols based on individual risk factors, expanding telehealth, and increasing open access colonoscopies. In this review, we will summarize the effects of COVID-19 on CRC screening, the potential long-outcomes, and ways to adapt CRC screening during this global pandemic.

4.
Biomed Khim ; 67(3): 259-267, 2021 May.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278813

ABSTRACT

Docking and quantum-chemical methods have been used for screening of drug-like compounds from the own database of the Voronezh State University to find inhibitors the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, an important enzyme of the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the SOL program more than 42000 3D molecular structures were docked into the active site of the main protease, and more than 1000 ligands with most negative values of the SOL score were selected for further processing. For all these top ligands, the protein-ligand binding enthalpy has been calculated using the PM7 semiempirical quantum-chemical method with the COSMO implicit solvent model. 20 ligands with the most negative SOL scores and the most negative binding enthalpies have been selected for further experimental testing. The latter has been made by measurements of the inhibitory activity against the main protease and suppression of SARS-CoV-2 replication in a cell culture. The inhibitory activity \of the compounds was determined using a synthetic fluorescently labeled peptide substrate including the proteolysis site of the main protease. The antiviral activity was tested against SARS-CoV-2 virus in the Vero cell culture. Eight compounds showed inhibitory activity against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 in the submicromolar and micromolar ranges of the IC50 values. Three compounds suppressed coronavirus replication in the cell culture at the micromolar range of EC50 values and had low cytotoxicity. The found chemically diverse inhibitors can be used for optimization in order to obtain a leader compound, the basis of new direct-acting antiviral drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
5.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs ; 50(5): 525-538, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275516

ABSTRACT

The United States has greater prevalence of mental illness and substance use disorders than other developed countries, and pregnant women are disproportionately affected. The current global COVID-19 pandemic, through the exacerbation of psychological distress, unevenly affects the vulnerable population of pregnant women. Social distancing measures and widespread closures of businesses secondary to COVID-19 are likely to continue for the foreseeable future and to further magnify psychosocial risk factors. We propose the use of a social determinants of health framework to integrate behavioral health considerations into prenatal care and to guide the implementation of universal and comprehensive psychosocial assessment in pregnancy. As the most numerous and well-trusted health care professionals, nurses are ideally positioned to influence program and policy decisions at the community and regional levels and to advocate for the full integration of psychosocial screening and behavioral health into prenatal and postpartum care as core components.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnant Women , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 675038, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care services across the world have been enormously affected by the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Services in oncology have been curtailed because medical services have been focused on preventing the spread of the virus and maximizing the number of available hospital beds. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Databases such as Medline, Web of Science Core Collection (Indexes = SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A & HCI Timespan) and Scopus were searched comprehensively for articles published until January 2021. The keywords used were COVID-19 and cancer screening, Articles dealing with cancer screening in the COVID-19 pandemic were included in the review. RESULTS: The review comprised 17 publications. The impact of COVID-19 was categorized into four dimensions: a significant decline in cancer screening and pathology samples, the cancer diagnosis rate, an increase in advanced cancers, mortality rate and years of life lost (YLLs). CONCLUSION: Cancer screening programs have been clearly interrupted since the onset of the COVID-19 disease. The anticipated outcomes include delayed diagnosis and marked increases in the numbers of avoidable cancer deaths. Urgent policy interventions are needed to handle the backlog of routine diagnostic services and minimize the harmful effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients.

7.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211017070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to an unprecedented upheaval within global healthcare systems and resulted in the temporary pausing of the National Health Service (NHS) Scotland Cervical Screening Programme. With several months of backlogs in appointments, there has not only been a reduction in primary samples being taken for human papilloma virus (HPV) testing but there have also been fewer women referred to colposcopy for investigation and treatment of precancerous or cancerous changes as a result. Encouraging uptake for cervical screening was always a priority before the pandemic, but it is even more important now, considering that the fears and barriers to screening that women may have are now exacerbated by COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: This article explores the impact of the pandemic on the uptake of cervical screening within NHS Ayrshire & Arran and evaluates potential strategies to improve uptake now and in future such as self-sampling and telemedicine. METHODS: This article presents evidence-based literature and local health board data relating to cervical screening during the pandemic. RESULTS: Human papilloma virus self-sampling carried out by the woman in her home has been shown to improve uptake, especially in non-attenders, whilst maintaining a high sensitivity and, crucially, reducing the need for face-to-face contact. Increased education is key to overcoming barriers women have to screening and telemedicine can strengthen engagement with women during this time. CONCLUSION: There are lessons to be learned from the pandemic, and we must use this opportunity to improve cervical screening uptake for the future.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Papillomaviridae , Self Care , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adult , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/prevention & control , Colposcopy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Papanicolaou Test , Scotland/epidemiology , Vaginal Smears
8.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(4-5): 169-179, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236174

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has taken a detrimental toll on the lives of individuals globally. In addition to the direct effect (e.g., being infected with the virus), this pandemic has negatively ravaged many industries, particularly food retail, food services, and hospitality. Given the novelty of the disease, the true impact of COVID-19 remains to be determined. Because of the nature of their work, and the characteristics of the workers, individuals in the food retail, food service, and hospitality industries are a group whose vulnerability is at its most fragile state during this pandemic. Through this qualitative study, we explored workers' perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 on their mental health and coping, including screening for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Twenty-seven individual interviews were conducted, audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four key themes emerged: being infected and infecting others, the unknown, isolation, and work and customer demands. Considering the many uncertainties of COVID-19, workers in these three industries were experiencing heightened levels of mental distress because of where they worked and the already existing disparities they faced on a daily basis before the pandemic started. Yet they remained hopeful for a better future. More studies are needed to fully understand the magnitude, short-term, and long-term effects of COVID-19. Based on this study's findings, programs are critically needed to promote positive coping behaviors among at-risk and distressed workers. Recommendations for employers, occupational health and safety professionals, and policy stakeholders to further support these service workers are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Stress , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Commerce , Female , Food Services , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
9.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011125, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, children's hospitals across the country postponed elective surgery beginning in March 2020. As projective curves flattened, administrators and surgeons sought to develop strategies to safely resume non-emergent surgery. This article reviews challenges and solutions specific to a children's hospital related to the resumption of elective pediatric surgeries. We present our tiered reentry approach for pediatric surgery as well as report early data for surgical volume and tracking COVID-19 cases during reentry. METHODS: The experience of shutdown, protocol development, and early reentry of elective pediatric surgery are reported from Levine's Children's Hospital (LCH), a free-leaning children's hospital in Charlotte, North Carolina. Data reported were obtained from de-identified hospital databases. RESULTS: Pediatric surgery experienced a dramatic decrease in case volumes at LCH during the shutdown, variable by specialty. A tiered and balanced reentry strategy was implemented with steady resumption of elective surgery following strict pre-procedural screening and testing. Early outcomes showed a steady thorough fluctuating increase in elective case volumes without evidence of a surgery-associated positive spread through periprocedural tracking. CONCLUSION: Reentry of non-emergent pediatric surgical care requires unique considerations including the impact of COVID-19 on children, each children hospital structure and resources, and preventing undue delay in intervention for age- and disease-specific pediatric conditions. A carefully balanced strategy has been critical for safe reentry following the anticipated surge. Ongoing tracking of resource utilization, operative volumes, and testing results will remain vital as community spread continues to fluctuate across the country.

10.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(11): 2389-2393, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222285

ABSTRACT

Facing the unprecedented global public health crisis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), nucleic acid tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19. The asymptomatic carriers were not suspected of playing a significant role in the ongoing pandemic, and universal nucleic acid screening in close contacts of confirmed cases and asymptomatic carriers has been carried out in many medium- and high-risk areas for the spread of the virus. Recently, anal swabs for key population screening have been shown to not only reduce missed diagnoses but also facilitate the traceability of infectious sources. As a specimen for the detection of viruses, the goal of this paper is to briefly review the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 and the necessity of using anal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 screening to minimize transmission and a threat to other people with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Feces/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Eye/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Specimen Handling
11.
JAMA ; 325(24): 2457-2465, 2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217331

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Randomized clinical trials have provided estimates of the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, but its effect on asymptomatic infections remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among health care workers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center in Tel Aviv, Israel. Data were collected on symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections confirmed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in health care workers undergoing regular screening with nasopharyngeal swabs between December 20, 2020, and February 25, 2021. Logistic regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the incidence of infection between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated participants, controlling for demographics and the number of PCR tests performed. EXPOSURES: Vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine vs unvaccinated status was ascertained from the employee health database. Full vaccination was defined as more than 7 days after receipt of the second vaccine dose. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the regression-adjusted IRR for symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection of fully vaccinated vs unvaccinated health care workers. The secondary outcomes included IRRs for partially vaccinated health care workers (days 7-28 after first dose) and for those considered as late fully vaccinated (>21 days after second dose). RESULTS: A total of 6710 health care workers (mean [SD] age, 44.3 [12.5] years; 4465 [66.5%] women) were followed up for a median period of 63 days; 5953 health care workers (88.7%) received at least 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, 5517 (82.2%) received 2 doses, and 757 (11.3%) were not vaccinated. Vaccination was associated with older age compared with those who were not vaccinated (mean age, 44.8 vs 40.7 years, respectively) and male sex (31.4% vs 17.7%). Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 8 fully vaccinated health care workers and 38 unvaccinated health care workers (incidence rate, 4.7 vs 149.8 per 100 000 person-days, respectively, adjusted IRR, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.01-0.06]). Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 19 fully vaccinated health care workers and 17 unvaccinated health care workers (incidence rate, 11.3 vs 67.0 per 100 000 person-days, respectively, adjusted IRR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.07-0.31]). The results were qualitatively unchanged by the propensity score sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among health care workers at a single center in Tel Aviv, Israel, receipt of the BNT162b2 vaccine compared with no vaccine was associated with a significantly lower incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection more than 7 days after the second dose. Findings are limited by the observational design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Incidence , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-15, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216503

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. Since then, the search for a vaccine or drug for COVID-19 treatment has started worldwide. In this regard, a fast approach is the repurposing of drugs, primarily antiviral drugs. Herein, we performed a virtual screening using 22 antiviral drugs retrieved from the DrugBank repository, azithromycin (antibiotic), ivermectin (antinematode), and seven non-structural proteins (Nsps) of SARS-CoV-2, which are considered important targets for drugs, via molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Drug-receptor binding energy was employed as the main descriptor. Based on the results, paritaprevir was predicted as a promising multi-target drug that favorably bound to all tested Nsps, mainly adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) (-36.2 kcal mol-1) and coronavirus main proteinase (Mpro) (-32.2 kcal mol-1). Moreover, the results suggest that simeprevir is a strong inhibitor of Mpro (-37.2 kcal mol-1), which is an interesting finding because Mpro plays an important role in viral replication. In addition to drug-receptor affinity, hot spot residues were characterized to facilitate the design of new drug derivatives with improved biological responses.

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 201-204, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213273

ABSTRACT

Screening, testing and contact tracing plays a pivotal role in control of the COVID-19 pandemic. To enable this it is necessary to increase the testing capacity. This study compared a SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test (RAT) and RT-PCR in 842 asymptomatic individuals from Tarapacá, Chile. A sensitivity of 69.86%, specificity of 99.61%, PPV of 94.44% and NPP of 97.22% with Ct values (Ct > 27) that were significantly higher among individuals with false-negative RAT were reported. These results support the fact that RAT might have a significant impact on the identification of asymptomatic carriers in areas that lack suitable laboratories to perform SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR diagnostics, or the results take more than 24-48 h, as well as zones with high traffic of individuals such as border/customs, airports, interregional bus, train stations or in any mass testing campaign requiring rapid results.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 518-521, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206773

ABSTRACT

At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rampaging around the world. However, asymptomatic carriers intensified the difficulty of prevention and management. Here we reported the screening, clinical features, and treatment process of a family cluster involving three COVID-19 patients. The discovery of the first asymptomatic carrier in this family cluster depends on the repeated and comprehensive epidemiological investigation by disease control experts. In addition, the combination of multiple detection methods can help clinicians find asymptomatic carriers as early as possible. In conclusion, the prevention and control experience of this family cluster showed that comprehensive rigorous epidemiological investigation and combination of multiple detection methods were of great value for the detection of hidden asymptomatic carriers.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cluster Analysis , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
PeerJ ; 9: e11037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was associated with high risk of mental health problems among frontline nurses. This study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms (depression hereafter) and its impact on quality of life (QOL) in otorhinolaryngology (ENT) nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: An online study was conducted between March 15 and March 20, 2020. Depression and QOL were assessed using standardized instruments. RESULTS: A total of 1,757 participants were recruited. The prevalence of depression was 33.75% (95% CI: 31.59%-35.97%). Results emerging from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that direct care of COVID-19 patients (OR: 1.441, 95% CI: 1.031-2.013, P = 0.032), and current smoking (OR: 2.880, 95% CI: 1.018-8.979, P = 0.048) were significantly associated with depression. After controlling for covariates, ENT nurses with depression had a lower overall QOL compared to those without depression (F(1, 1757)= 536.80, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Depression was common among ENT nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Considering the negative impact of depression on QOL and care quality, regular screening for depression should be conducted in ENT nurses and treatment should be provided.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 709, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the Chinese city of Wuhan reported a novel pneumonia caused by COVID-19. While the COVID-19 pandemic has been increasingly affecting the world, the occurrence of disasters resulted in complex emergencies. The present review is aimed to identify the literature focused on health system response to coincidence of COVID-19 and disasters as well as describing their finding, implications and lessons-learned. METHODS: This study was conducted and reported based on PRISMA guideline. The databases of Web of Sciences, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and World Health Organization Library were searched. The inclusion criteria were all forms of published articles which investigated the coincidence of disasters and COVID-19 pandemic. Using the title and abstract screening, the selections of studies were performed by two researchers. Once, the relevant papers were finalized, the analysis was done in two parts of descriptive analysis and implications for health systems. RESULTS: Out of 1245 studies generated by initial search, a number of 13 articles was selected for final analysis. Earthquake was the most frequent disaster which its coincidence with COVID-19 was studied by researchers (31%). The implications of researchers for healthcare system were explained in three sections of climatic events, earthquakes and all hazard approach in relation to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Extracting the lessons learned from the regions affected by disasters at the time of COVID-19 pandemic can be helpful for healthcare professionals and policy-makers to improve their preparedness and response during disasters and a serious pandemic such as COVID-19. Further research is needed to identify the factors which strengthen the preparedness of health system for the dual risk of natural hazards and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Health Care Sector , Health Care Sector/organization & administration , Humans
17.
Ultrasound J ; 13(1): 19, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of lung ultrasound (LUS) in evaluating the mid- and long-term prognoses of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is not yet known. The objectives of this study were to evaluate associations between LUS signs at the time of screening and clinical outcomes 1 month after LUS and to assess LUS signs at the time of presentation with known risk factors for COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of data prospectively collected 1 month after LUS screening of 447 adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Sonographic examination was performed in screening tents with the participants seated. The LUS signs (B-lines > 2, coalescent B-lines, and subpleural consolidations) were captured in six areas of each hemithorax and a LUS aeration score was calculated; in addition, the categories of disease probability based on patterns of LUS findings (high-probability, intermediate-probability, alternate, and low-probability patterns) were evaluated. The LUS signs at patients' initial evaluation were related to the following outcomes: symptomatology, the need for hospitalization or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and COVID-19-related death. RESULTS: According to the evaluations performed 1 month after LUS screening, 36 patients were hospitalised, eight of whom required intensive care unit (ICU) admission and three of whom died. The presence of coalescent B-lines was associated with the need for hospitalization (p = 0.008). The presence of subpleural consolidations was associated with dyspnoea (p < 0.0001), cough (p = 0.003), the need for hospitalization (p < 0.0001), the need for ICU admission (p < 0.0001), and death (p = 0.002). A higher aeration score was associated with dyspnoea (p < 0.0001), the need for hospitalization (p < 0.0001), the need for ICU admission (p < 0.0001), and death (p = 0.003). In addition, patients with a high-probability LUS pattern had a higher aeration score (p < 0.0001) and more dyspnoea (p = 0.024) and more often required hospitalization (p < 0.0001) and ICU admission (p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, LUS signs were related to respiratory symptoms 1 month after LUS screening. Strong relationships were identified between LUS signs and the need for hospitalization and death.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2114, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174670

ABSTRACT

Lack of detailed knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been hampering the development of treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report that RNA triggers the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, N. By analyzing all 29 proteins of SARS-CoV-2, we find that only N is predicted as an LLPS protein. We further confirm the LLPS of N during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the 100,849 genome variants of SARS-CoV-2 in the GISAID database, we identify that ~37% (36,941) of the genomes contain a specific trio-nucleotide polymorphism (GGG-to-AAC) in the coding sequence of N, which leads to the amino acid substitutions, R203K/G204R. Interestingly, NR203K/G204R exhibits a higher propensity to undergo LLPS and a greater effect on IFN inhibition. By screening the chemicals known to interfere with N-RNA binding in other viruses, we find that (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), a polyphenol from green tea, disrupts the LLPS of N and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, our study reveals that targeting N-RNA condensation with GCG could be a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/pharmacology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Liquid-Liquid Extraction , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
19.
Nature ; 594(7861): 88-93, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171428

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease with unique characteristics that include lung thrombosis1, frequent diarrhoea2, abnormal activation of the inflammatory response3 and rapid deterioration of lung function consistent with alveolar oedema4. The pathological substrate for these findings remains unknown. Here we show that the lungs of patients with COVID-19 contain infected pneumocytes with abnormal morphology and frequent multinucleation. The generation of these syncytia results from activation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at the cell plasma membrane level. On the basis of these observations, we performed two high-content microscopy-based screenings with more than 3,000 approved drugs to search for inhibitors of spike-driven syncytia. We converged on the identification of 83 drugs that inhibited spike-mediated cell fusion, several of which belonged to defined pharmacological classes. We focused our attention on effective drugs that also protected against virus replication and associated cytopathicity. One of the most effective molecules was the antihelminthic drug niclosamide, which markedly blunted calcium oscillations and membrane conductance in spike-expressing cells by suppressing the activity of TMEM16F (also known as anoctamin 6), a calcium-activated ion channel and scramblase that is responsible for exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for COVID-19 disease pathogenesis and support the repurposing of niclosamide for therapy.


Subject(s)
Anoctamins/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Fusion , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Giant Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Anoctamins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Cell Line , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Giant Cells/metabolism , Giant Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(6): 1573-1579, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that needs continuous medical care. During COVID-19, delivering medical service was negatively affected. AIMS: To describe the impact of COVID-19 on psoriasis healthcare delivery, management, and practice. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 dermatologists using a validated online questionnaire. The survey evaluated the effect of COVID-19 on the decisions, prescription patterns, appointments rescheduling, and healthcare delivery for psoriasis patients by dermatologists. The questionnaire was developed and validated with a reliability score >0.7. RESULTS: During the pandemic, most dermatologists delayed initiating biological/immunosuppressive therapy for psoriasis unless urgently needed by the patient. For patients already receiving biologics or immunosuppressive treatment, most dermatologists favored continuation of therapy. Almost half (44.2%) of participants do not perform SARS-CoV-2 PCR screening before initiating biologics/immunosuppressive therapy. Dermatologists also reported an increased prescription of topical medications (79.2%), natural sunlight (28.4%), acitretin (26.9%), and home UVB (21.3%). Opinions regarding the use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 treatment/prophylaxis for psoriasis patients were controversial. Intervals between face-to-face follow-up visits were prolonged by 71.6% of dermatologists. More than half of participants reported that their patients discontinued treatment without medical consultation. More than three fourth of responders either agreed or strongly agreed that COVID-19 negatively affected psoriasis patients. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on psoriasis management and healthcare delivery. Dermatologists are cautious about using biologics and immunosuppressive drugs during the pandemic, making case-by-case decisions. Psoriasis patients need compliance monitoring, and psychological support during the pandemic, which can be facilitated by teledermatology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psoriasis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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