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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(6): 579-583, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534552

ABSTRACT

The Okinawa prefecture confirmed 142 cases of coronavirus disease from February 14 to May 2020. Among them, 78 were the first cases of a household with 174 household contacts. Of the 174 contacts, 21 contracted the disease, indicating a secondary attack rate of 12.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6-17.9%). No significant differences were observed in the demographics and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test results between the first cases that became the sources of infection to the household members. The secondary attack rates with respect to the various characteristics of the household members were significantly different: aged >69 years (40.9% [95% CI 20.7-63.6%]) and those with underlying diseases (36.0% [95% CI 18.0-57.5%]). When the period from the onset to isolation of the first household case was within 3 days, the secondary attack rate was low (4.5% [95% CI 0.1-22.8%]). Among the 21 secondary cases, 11 (52.4%) developed within 5 days of symptom onset in the first case within the same household. This indicates that secondary infection within the household occurred immediately after symptom onset in the first case. Therefore, isolation of a suspected patient can help reduce secondary household infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Characteristics , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Japan/epidemiology
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): 1805-1813, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evidence base for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is nascent. We sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 transmission within US households and estimate the household secondary infection rate (SIR) to inform strategies to reduce transmission. METHODS: We recruited patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their household contacts in Utah and Wisconsin during 22 March 2020-25 April 2020. We interviewed patients and all household contacts to obtain demographics and medical histories. At the initial household visit, 14 days later, and when a household contact became newly symptomatic, we collected respiratory swabs from patients and household contacts for testing by SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and sera for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We estimated SIR and odds ratios (ORs) to assess risk factors for secondary infection, defined by a positive rRT-PCR or ELISA test. RESULTS: Thirty-two (55%) of 58 households secondary infection among household contacts. The SIR was 29% (n = 55/188; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) overall, 42% among children (aged <18 years) of the COVID-19 patient and 33% among spouses/partners. Household contacts to COVID-19 patients with immunocompromised conditions and household contacts who themselves had diabetes mellitus had increased odds of infection with ORs 15.9 (95% CI, 2.4-106.9) and 7.1 (95% CI: 1.2-42.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial evidence of secondary infections among household contacts. People with COVID-19, particularly those with immunocompromising conditions or those with household contacts with diabetes, should take care to promptly self-isolate to prevent household transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin
3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(9): 1046-1052, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368877

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during 2 nosocomial outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with regard to the possibility of airborne transmission. DESIGN: Contact investigations with active case finding were used to assess the pattern of spread from 2 COVID-19 index patients. SETTING: A community hospital and university medical center in the United States, in February and March, 2020, early in the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS: Two index patients and 421 exposed healthcare workers. METHODS: Exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) were identified by analyzing the electronic medical record (EMR) and conducting active case finding in combination with structured interviews. Healthcare coworkers (HCWs) were tested for COVID-19 by obtaining oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens, and RT-PCR testing was used to detect SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Two separate index patients were admitted in February and March 2020, without initial suspicion for COVID-19 and without contact or droplet precautions in place; both patients underwent several aerosol-generating procedures in this context. In total, 421 HCWs were exposed in total, and the results of the case contact investigations identified 8 secondary infections in HCWs. In all 8 cases, the HCWs had close contact with the index patients without sufficient personal protective equipment. Importantly, despite multiple aerosol-generating procedures, there was no evidence of airborne transmission. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that, at least in a healthcare setting, most SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(11): 4185-4191, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343547

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory infections are very common and they are frequently eliminated from the body without any detrimental consequences. Secondary serious bacterial infection has been an apprehension expressed by health care providers, and this fear has been exacerbated in the era of Covid-19. Several published studies have shown an association between Covid-19 illness and secondary bacterial infection. However, the proposed mechanism by which a virus can develop a secondary bacterial infection is not well delineated. The aim of this commentary is to update the current evidence of the risk of bacterial infection in patients with Covid-19. We present several clinical studies related to the topic as well as a brief review of the potential pathophysiology of secondary infections that could present with Covid-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Bacteria , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 307-315, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323440

ABSTRACT

Steroids are expected to be effective in the treatment of cytokine release syndrome, which is considered to be associated with severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the use of steroids and its effects. We conducted a retrospective chart review and an analysis of 226 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Patients were divided into those who received steroids (steroid group) and those who did not (no steroid group). Inverse probability weighted analysis was performed to assess the effect of steroids on in-hospital mortality. The steroid group had higher rates of preexisting hypertension and peripheral vascular disease as well as higher lactate dehydrogenase levels, d-dimer levels, and inflammatory markers than the no steroid group (all P <0.05). The steroid group had significantly higher rates of multifocal pneumonia than the no steroid group at admission (75.4% vs. 50.3%, P = 0.001). Notably, the steroid group had higher rates of developing bacterial infection (25% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.041) and fungal infection (12.7% versus 0.7%, P <0.001) during the hospital course than the no steroid group. After adjustment, it was observed that steroids did not decrease or increase in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.02 [0.60-1.73, P = 0.94]). There was an increase in bacterial and fungal infections with steroid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Steroids/therapeutic use
6.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 22(10): 1315-1324, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current pandemic of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The progression of COVID-19 is related to an excessive host inflammatory immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is considered a major cause of disease severity and death. Dysregulated immune response produces huge amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines called "cytokine storm". Moreover, the activation of microthrombi formation plays an important role in multiple organ failure. METHODS: Keeping into consideration the potent anti-inflammatory activity of black seed and its major constituent Thymoquinone (TQ), we hypothesize their potential implication in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus electronic databases using the terms, including black seed, N. sativa, thymoquinone, SARSCoV- 2, COVID-19 and inflammatory immune response. RESULTS: Various studies confirmed that Black seed and TQ reduced the thrombus formation, the expression of tissue factor and the immune activation. Furthermore, TQ demonstrated the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that may be effective in controlling the secondary infections in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Keeping into consideration the multi-targeting nature of the black seed and TQ, they may be used as a potential therapeutic formulation or as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Benzoquinones , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seeds
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12703, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275958

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections are a potentially fatal complication of influenza infection. We aimed to define the impact of secondary bacterial infections on the clinical course and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by comparison with influenza patients. COVID-19 (n = 642) and influenza (n = 742) patients, admitted to a large tertiary center in Israel and for whom blood or sputum culture had been taken were selected for this study. Bacterial culture results, clinical parameters, and death rates were compared. COVID-19 patients had higher rates of bacterial infections than influenza patients (12.6% vs. 8.7%). Notably, the time from admission to bacterial growth was longer in COVID-19 compared to influenza patients (4 (1-8) vs. 1 (1-3) days). Late infections (> 48 h after admission) with gram-positive bacteria were more common in COVID-19 patients (28% vs. 9.5%). Secondary infection was associated with a higher risk of death in both patient groups 2.7-fold (1.22-5.83) for COVID-19, and 3.09-fold (1.11-7.38) for Influenza). The association with death remained significant upon adjustment to age and clinical parameters in COVID-19 but not in influenza infection. Secondary bacterial infection is a notable complication associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 than influenza patients. Careful surveillance and prompt antibiotic treatment may benefit selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(1): 105-108, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272568

ABSTRACT

Cases of co-infection and secondary infection emerging during the current Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic are a major public health concern. Such cases may result from immunodysregulation induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Pandemic preparedness must include identification of disease natural history and common secondary infections to implement clinical solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/microbiology , Lymphopenia/virology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Public Health , Superinfection/immunology , Superinfection/microbiology , Superinfection/virology
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e995-e1003, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Clinical characteristics regarding secondary infections in patients with COVID-19 have been reported, but detailed microbiology, risk factors, and outcomes of secondary bloodstream infections (sBSIs) in patients with severe COVID-19 have not been well described. METHODS: We performed a multicenter case-control study including all hospitalized patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 and blood cultures drawn from 1 March 2020 to 7 May 2020 at 3 academic medical centers in New Jersey. Data collection included demographics, clinical and microbiologic variables, and patient outcomes. Risk factors and outcomes were compared between cases (sBSI) and controls (no sBSI). RESULTS: A total of 375 hospitalized patients were included. There were 128 sBSIs during the hospitalization. For the first set of positive blood cultures, 117 (91.4%) were bacterial and 7 (5.5%) were fungal. Those with sBSI were more likely to have altered mental status, lower mean percentage oxygen saturation on room air, have septic shock, and be admitted to the intensive care unit compared with controls. In-hospital mortality was higher in those with an sBSI versus controls (53.1% vs 32.8%, P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 and sBSI had a more severe initial presentation, prolonged hospital course, and worse clinical outcomes. To maintain antimicrobial stewardship principles, further prospective studies are necessary to better characterize risk factors and prediction modeling to better understand when to suspect and empirically treat for sBSIs in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Sepsis , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Euro Surveill ; 26(23)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266639

ABSTRACT

We describe four secondary fungal infections caused by Mucorales species in COVID-19 patients. Three COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in ICU, one outside ICU. All were men aged > 50 years, three died. Clinical presentations included pulmonary, rhino-orbital cerebral and disseminated infection. Infections occurred in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. CAM is an emerging disease and our observations underscore the need to be aware of invasive mucormycosis, including in COVID-19 patients without (poorly controlled) diabetes mellitus and outside ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Public Health ; 195: 132-134, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to trace contacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalised patients and determine the risk factors of infection in urban areas. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of contacts identified from index cases. METHODS: A contact tracing study was carried out in the Northern Metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain, during the inter-epidemic lapse of May to July 2020, a period of low SARS-CoV-2 incidence. Index cases were notified from the referral hospital. Contacts were traced and followed up for 14 days. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on day 0 and day 14 for contacts. RESULTS: In total, 368 contacts were identified from 81 index cases (median of seven contacts per index case), from which 308 were traced successfully. The median age of contacts was 28 years, 62% (223 of 368) were men. During the follow-up period, 100 contacts tested positive for COVID-19 (32.5% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 27.3-38.0]), with a secondary infection rate of 48.3% (95% CI = 40.8-55.9) among housemates. Clusters of index and respective contacts tended to aggregate within disadvantaged neighbourhoods (P < 0.001), and non-national index cases (N = 28, 34.1%) resulted in higher secondary infection rates compared with nationals (51.0% [95% CI = 41.0-60.9] vs 22.3% [95% CI = 16.8-28.8]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged communities experience a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 and may act as infection reservoirs. Contact tracing with a cross-cutting approach among these communities is required, especially during inter-epidemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Epidemics/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0001021, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262384

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first described in Wuhan, China. A subset of COVID-19 patients has been reported to have acquired secondary infections by microbial pathogens, such as opportunistic fungal pathogens from the genus Aspergillus. To gain insight into COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), we analyzed the genomes and characterized the phenotypic profiles of four CAPA isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from patients treated in the area of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. By examining the mutational spectrum of single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertion-deletion polymorphisms, and copy number variants among 206 genes known to modulate A. fumigatus virulence, we found that CAPA isolate genomes do not exhibit significant differences from the genome of the Af293 reference strain. By examining a number of factors, including virulence in an invertebrate moth model, growth in the presence of osmotic, cell wall, and oxidative stressors, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and the MIC of antifungal drugs, we found that CAPA isolates were generally, but not always, similar to A. fumigatus reference strains Af293 and CEA17. Notably, CAPA isolate D had more putative loss-of-function mutations in genes known to increase virulence when deleted. Moreover, CAPA isolate D was significantly more virulent than the other three CAPA isolates and the A. fumigatus reference strains Af293 and CEA17, but similarly virulent to two other clinical strains of A. fumigatus. These findings expand our understanding of the genomic and phenotypic characteristics of isolates that cause CAPA. IMPORTANCE The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has already killed millions of people. COVID-19 patient outcome can be further complicated by secondary infections, such as COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). CAPA is caused by Aspergillus fungal pathogens, but there is little information about the genomic and phenotypic characteristics of CAPA isolates. We conducted genome sequencing and extensive phenotyping of four CAPA isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from Germany. We found that CAPA isolates were often, but not always, similar to other reference strains of A. fumigatus across 206 genetic determinants of infection-relevant phenotypes, including virulence. For example, CAPA isolate D was more virulent than other CAPA isolates and reference strains in an invertebrate model of fungal disease, but similarly virulent to two other clinical strains. These results expand our understanding of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Genomics , Phenotype , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Aged , Antifungal Agents , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus/classification , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Metabolism/genetics , Virulence/genetics
13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 1893-1903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256162

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients need hospitalization which increases their risk of acquiring secondary bacterial and fungal infections. The practice of empiric antimicrobial prescription, due to limited diagnostic capabilities of many hospitals, has the potential to escalate an already worrisome antimicrobial resistance (AMR) situation in India. This study reports the prevalence and profiles of secondary infections (SIs) and clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of secondary infections in patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs) and wards of ten hospitals of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) AMR surveillance network, between June and August 2020, was undertaken. The demographic data, time of infection after admission, microbiological and antimicrobial resistance data of secondary infections, and clinical outcome data of the admitted COVID-19 patients were collated. RESULTS: Out of 17,534 admitted patients, 3.6% of patients developed secondary bacterial or fungal infections. The mortality among patients who developed secondary infections was 56.7% against an overall mortality of 10.6% in total admitted COVID-19 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 78% of patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (29%) was the predominant pathogen, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (21%). Thirty-five percent of patients reported polymicrobial infections, including fungal infections. High levels of carbapenem resistance was seen in A. baumannii (92.6%) followed by K. pneumoniae (72.8%). CONCLUSION: Predominance of Gram-negative pathogens in COVID-19 patients coupled with high rates of resistance to higher generation antimicrobials is an alarming finding. A high rate of mortality in patients with secondary infections warrants extra caution to improve the infection control practices and practice of antimicrobial stewardship interventions not only to save patient lives but also prevent selection of drug-resistant infections, to which the current situation is very conducive.

14.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(8): e354-e365, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microbiological characterisation of co-infections and secondary infections in patients with COVID-19 is lacking, and antimicrobial use is high. We aimed to describe microbiologically confirmed co-infections and secondary infections, and antimicrobial use, in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study recruiting inpatients from 260 hospitals in England, Scotland, and Wales, conducted by the ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium. Patients with a confirmed or clinician-defined high likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible for inclusion in the ISARIC WHO CCP-UK study. For this specific study, we excluded patients with a recorded negative SARS-CoV-2 test result and those without a recorded outcome at 28 days after admission. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic, and outcome data were collected using a prespecified case report form. Organisms considered clinically insignificant were excluded. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 48 902 patients admitted to hospital between Feb 6 and June 8, 2020. The median patient age was 74 years (IQR 59-84) and 20 786 (42·6%) of 48 765 patients were female. Microbiological investigations were recorded for 8649 (17·7%) of 48 902 patients, with clinically significant COVID-19-related respiratory or bloodstream culture results recorded for 1107 patients. 762 (70·6%) of 1080 infections were secondary, occurring more than 2 days after hospital admission. Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens causing respiratory co-infections (diagnosed ≤2 days after admission), with Enterobacteriaceae and S aureus most common in secondary respiratory infections. Bloodstream infections were most frequently caused by Escherichia coli and S aureus. Among patients with available data, 13 390 (37·0%) of 36 145 had received antimicrobials in the community for this illness episode before hospital admission and 39 258 (85·2%) of 46 061 patients with inpatient antimicrobial data received one or more antimicrobials at some point during their admission (highest for patients in critical care). We identified frequent use of broad-spectrum agents and use of carbapenems rather than carbapenem-sparing alternatives. INTERPRETATION: In patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, microbiologically confirmed bacterial infections are rare, and more likely to be secondary infections. Gram-negative organisms and S aureus are the predominant pathogens. The frequency and nature of antimicrobial use are concerning, but tractable targets for stewardship interventions exist. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, EU Platform for European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at University of Liverpool, and NIHR HPRU in Respiratory Infections at Imperial College London.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , World Health Organization
15.
IDCases ; 25: e01172, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252965

ABSTRACT

Among the secondary fungal infections in Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) infection, Aspergillosis has been reported more often than Mucormycosis. Disseminated mucormycosis is almost always a disease of severely immunosuppressed hosts. We report a young obese Asian male who was admitted with an acute anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory infarct and severe COVID-19 pneumonitis to the intensive care unit (ICU). He had a complicated stay with recurrent episodes of vasoplegic shock and multi-organ dysfunction. At autopsy, he was confirmed to have disseminated mucormycosis. We believe this to be the first documented case of disseminated mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host with COVID-19 infection. The lack of sensitive non-invasive modalities and biomarkers to diagnose mucormycosis, along with the extremely high mortality in untreated cases, present a unique challenge to clinicians dealing with critically ill patients with COVID-19.

16.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(4): 357-364, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246818

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There likely are several predisposing factors to secondary infections in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some of which may be preventable. The aim of this review is to explore the literature, summarize potential predisposing factors to secondary infections and their incidence. It also summarizes a variety of healthcare scenarios in which different kinds of secondary infections occur. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from immune dysregulation, severe resource limitations in healthcare settings have made COVID-19 units conducive to a variety of secondary infections. Long-term effect of excess antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients is yet to be studied. Very few studies have assessed secondary infections as the primary outcome measure making it difficult to know the true incidence. Mortality attributable to secondary infections in COVID-19 patients is also unclear. SUMMARY: Incidence of secondary infections in COVID-19 patients is likely higher than what is reported in the literature. Well designed studies are needed to understand the incidence and impact of secondary infections in this patient population. Many of these may be preventable especially now, as personal protective equipment and other healthcare resources are recovering. Infection prevention and control (IPC) and antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASP) must reassess current situation to correct any breaches that could potentially cause more harm in these already vulnerable patients as we brace for a future surge with another pandemic wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , SARS-CoV-2 , Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Coinfection/etiology , Disease Management , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Mortality , Standard of Care
17.
Infection ; 49(5): 935-943, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237568

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the world. Differentiation between pure viral COVID-19 pneumonia and secondary infection can be challenging. In patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) on admission physicians often decide to prescribe antibiotic therapy. However, overuse of anti-infective therapy in the pandemic should be avoided to prevent increasing antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin (PCT) and CRP have proven useful in other lower respiratory tract infections and might help to differentiate between pure viral or secondary infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients admitted with COVID-19 between 6th March and 30th October 2020. Patient background, clinical course, laboratory findings with focus on PCT and CRP levels and microbiology results were evaluated. Patients with and without secondary bacterial infection in relation to PCT and CRP were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the best discriminating cut-off value of PCT and CRP with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity was calculated. RESULTS: Out of 99 inpatients (52 ICU, 47 Non-ICU) with COVID-19, 32 (32%) presented with secondary bacterial infection during hospitalization. Patients with secondary bacterial infection had higher PCT (0.4 versus 0.1 ng/mL; p = 0.016) and CRP (131 versus 73 mg/L; p = 0.001) levels at admission and during the hospital stay (2.9 versus 0.1 ng/mL; p < 0.001 resp. 293 versus 94 mg/L; p < 0.001). The majority of patients on general ward had no secondary bacterial infection (93%). More than half of patients admitted to the ICU developed secondary bacterial infection (56%). ROC analysis of highest PCT resp. CRP and secondary infection yielded AUCs of 0.88 (p < 0.001) resp. 0.86 (p < 0.001) for the entire cohort. With a PCT cut-off value at 0.55 ng/mL, the sensitivity was 91% with a specificity of 81%; a CRP cut-off value at 172 mg/L yielded a sensitivity of 81% with a specificity of 76%. CONCLUSION: PCT and CRP measurement on admission and during the course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 may be helpful in identifying secondary bacterial infections and guiding the use of antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Procalcitonin , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Res Sq ; 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237030

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lead to worse clinical outcomes and increased mortality following viral respiratory infections including in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using a combination of tracheal aspirate bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) we assessed lower respiratory tract immune responses and microbiome dynamics in 28 COVID-19 patients, 15 of whom developed VAP, and eight critically ill uninfected controls. Two days before VAP onset we observed a transcriptional signature of bacterial infection. Two weeks prior to VAP onset, following intubation, we observed a striking impairment in immune signaling in COVID-19 patients who developed VAP. Longitudinal metatranscriptomic analysis revealed disruption of lung microbiome community composition in patients with VAP, providing a connection between dysregulated immune signaling and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. These findings suggest that COVID-19 patients who develop VAP have impaired antibacterial immune defense detectable weeks before secondary infection onset.

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