Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 34
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and cardiovascular damage is commonly observed in affected patients. We sought to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac injury and hypertension during the current coronavirus pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical data of 366 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients were analyzed. The clinical signs and laboratory findings were extracted from electronic medical records. Two independent, experienced clinicians reviewed and analyzed the data. RESULTS: Cardiac injury was found in 11.19% (30/268) of enrolled patients. 93.33% (28/30) of cardiac injury cases were in the severe group. The laboratory findings indicated that white blood cells, neutrophils, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase were positively associated with cardiac injury marker. Compared with healthy controls, the 190 patients without prior hypertension have higher AngⅡ level, of which 16 (8.42%) patients had a rise in blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, with a significantly increased level of the cTnI, procalcitonin, angiotensin-II (AngⅡ) than those normal blood pressure ones. Multivariate analysis indicated that elevated age, cTnI, the history of hypertension, and diabetes were independent predictors for illness severity. The predictive model, based on the four parameters and gender, has a good ability to identify the clinical severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients (area under the curve: 0.932, sensitivity: 98.67%, specificity: 75.68%). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, sometimes accompanied by elevated cTnI, may occur in COVID-19 patients and become a sequela. Enhancing Ang II signaling, driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection, might play an important role in the renin-angiotensin system, and consequently lead to the development of hypertension in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3289-3302, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The full spectrum of neurological sequelae in COVID-19 is beginning to emerge. SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to cause both direct and indirect brain vascular endothelial damage through infection and inflammation that may result in long-term neurological signs and symptoms. We sought to illuminate persistent neuro-ophthalmological deficits that may be seen following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) due to COVID-19. METHODS: We identified three individuals with PRES due to COVID-19 in our hospital system. One patient was identified on presentation to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic. The other patients were identified through internal records search. These cases were compared to published reports of PRES in COVID-19 identified through systematic literature search of PubMed/LitCOVID. RESULTS: All three patients were hospitalized with severe COVID-19 and developed altered mental status with new onset seizures that led to the recognition of PRES through diagnostic imaging. During recovery, two patients had persistent visual dysfunction including visual field deficits. One patient also experienced hallucinatory palinopsia and visual hallucinations. Literature search identified 32 other cases of PRES in the context of COVID-19. Visual disturbances were described in 14 cases (40%), with only seven cases (50%) reporting full recovery by the time of publication. CONCLUSIONS: As we learn about enduring neurological complications of COVID-19, it is possible that complications may be underrecognized and underreported. Understanding the range of complications can help in postcare evaluation and management changes in the critical care setting to potentially allow intervention before persistent deficits occur due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Critical Care , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders/etiology
3.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537606

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

4.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 27(3): 652-664, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This article provides an overview of a diverse group of primary headache disorders that are categorized in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (ICHD-3), as "other primary headache disorders." This article provides clinicians with a distilled understanding of the diagnoses and their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Cough-induced headache requires neuroimaging to exclude posterior fossa pathology and recently has been reported as a common symptom in patients with CSF-venous fistula. Clinical overlap is observed between patients with primary exercise headache and primary headache associated with sexual activity. Patients with recurrent thunderclap headache associated with sexual activity should be presumed to have reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome until proven otherwise. De novo external-pressure headache is a common sequela among health care workers using personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic. New daily persistent headache is an important mimicker of chronic migraine or chronic tension-type headache and is distinguished by a daily-from-onset progression of persistent headache; a treatment-refractory course is often observed, and early involvement of a multidisciplinary team, including a psychotherapist, is advised. SUMMARY: Patients with primary headache disorders that are classified as "other primary headache disorders" have presentations with unique diagnostic and management considerations. The disorders are highly recognizable, and an appreciation of the diagnoses will aid clinicians in providing safe and effective care for patients presenting with headache.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cough/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/etiology , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Sexual Behavior/physiology
5.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 44, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261276

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), first broke out in Wuhan, China, in 2019. SARS-CoV-2 develops many types of mutations (such as B.1.1.7), making diagnosis and treatment challenging. Although we now have a preliminary understanding of COVID-19, including pathological changes, clinical manifestations, and treatment measures, we also face new difficulties. The biggest problem is that most COVID-19 patients might face sequelae (e.g., fatigue, sleep disturbance, pulmonary fibrosis) during the recovery phase. We aimed to test six Chinese patent medicines to treat three major abnormal symptoms in COVID-19 patients during the recovery phase, including cardiopulmonary function, sleep disturbance, and digestive function. We launched the "three syndromes and six Chinese patent medicines" randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial on April 10, 2020. The results showed that Jinshuibao tablets and Shengmaiyin oral liquid significantly improved the cardiopulmonary function of recovering COVID-19 patients. Shumian capsules, but not Xiaoyao capsules, significantly improved patients' sleep disorders. This might be because the indication of Xiaoyao capsules is liver qi stagnation rather than psychological or emotional problems. Xiangsha Liujun pills and Ludangshen oral liquid significantly improved digestive function. Our research provides a guideline for treating COVID-19 sequelae in patients during the recovery period based on high-quality evidence.

6.
J Proteome Res ; 20(7): 3463-3474, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253876

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a worldwide health crisis. So far, most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this infectious disease. Little attention has been given to the disease sequelae in patients recovering from COVID-19, and nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying these sequelae. Herein, we profiled the serum proteome of a cohort of COVID-19 patients in the disease onset and recovery stages. Based on the close integration of our proteomic analysis with clinical data, we propose that COVID-19 is associated with prolonged disorders in cholesterol metabolism and myocardium, even in the recovery stage. We identify potential biomarkers for these disorders. Moreover, severely affected patients presented more serious disturbances in these pathways. Our findings potentially support clinical decision-making to improve the prognosis and treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Cholesterol , Humans , Myocardium , Pandemics , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 12(Suppl 2): 234-239, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240096

ABSTRACT

Multiple studies have reported the increased risk of pulmonary complications and mortality in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative COVID-19 infection. With several reports of long-term sequelae in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection, this survey was conducted to collect the opinions of anesthesiologists regarding modifications to pre-anesthesia checkup (PAC) when COVID-19 survivors are posted for elective surgeries. We designed, validated and distributed a detailed online questionnaire, about various modifications in PAC in different patient populations like asymptomatic patients, patients with mild, moderate or severe hypoxia, significant cardiac complaints during COVID-19 and also geriatric, pediatric and pregnant patients with a history of COVID-19. We received 154 responses. Majority of responders agree that 0-2 weeks from the date of negative for SARS-CoV-2, is the ideal duration for all elective surgeries. Greater than 50% responders agree that a fresh PAC evaluation should be done for such patients which should include documentation of current functional status, fresh chest X-ray, electrocardiogram and coagulation profile. All patients who had hypoxia or cardiac symptoms during COVID-19 infection and even recovered asymptomatic geriatric patients should undergo cardiorespiratory evaluation with investigations such as HRCT chest, ABG, PFT, echocardiography and troponin I levels. Patients' PAC should be individualized, factoring in the severity of COVID-19 infection, post recovery functional status, associated co-morbidities and the urgency as well as the risk of surgical intervention. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13193-021-01347-z.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25609, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236276

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study is the protocol for a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicine on COVID-19 survivors with psychological sequelae. Currently, there are many COVID-19 survivors with psychological sequelae as COVID-19 has widely spread all over the world. However, there is no critically appraised evidence of the benefit of herbal medicine for COVID-19 survivors with psychological sequelae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We will search 11 electronic databases from inception to December, 2022: 4 English databases, MEDLINE, PubMed, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); 3 Chinese databases, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal database, and the Wan Fang database; and 4 Korean databases, the Oriental Medical Advanced Searching Integrated System, the Korean Studies Information Service System, the National Digital Science Links, and the Research Information Sharing Service. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs for all formations of TRADITIONAL herbal medicine versus conventional drug, placebo, and no treatment for COVID-19 survivors. We will only include the COVID-19 survivors with psychiatric symptoms lasting at least 1 month, regardless of their race, sex, and age. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The findings will provide evidence and treatment directions for clinicians. This protocol does not need ethical approval because it will be based on published research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020210592.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Mental Disorders/virology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
9.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231052

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

10.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14358, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217168

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As patients recover from COVID-19, some continue to report persisting symptoms weeks to months after acute infection. These effects have been referred to as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). We report the case of a 38-year-old woman suffering from PASC symptoms following acute COVID-19 in October 2020. During her acute infection phase, she had a home recovery and reported her predominant symptoms as fatigue, headaches, body pain, and shortness of breath. After most of her symptoms were resolved, she continued to have periodic episodes of fatigue and headaches, along with random shortness of breath while at rest and during activities for months beyond the acute phase of the illness. She also noted the presence of "brain fog," as if lacking the same clarity that she had prior to her illness. These symptoms persisted for three months before the patient underwent enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy in one-hour sessions, three times per week. This therapy was chosen based on the mechanism of action of EECP benefiting patients with ischemic cardiovascular diseases. After one week, her "brain fog" had improved, with shortness of breath improving after 1.5 weeks. The patient reported returning to pre-COVID health and fitness after approximately five weeks of EECP treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of using EECP for post-COVID shortness of breath, fatigue, and "brain fog."

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211815

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus infection has consistently shown an association with neurological anomalies in patients, in addition to its usual respiratory distress syndrome. Multi-organ dysfunctions including neurological sequelae during COVID-19 persist even after declining viral load. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 gene product, Spike, is able to modify the host exosomal cargo, which gets transported to distant uninfected tissues and organs and can initiate a catastrophic immune cascade within Central Nervous System (CNS). SARS-CoV-2 Spike transfected cells release a significant amount of exosomes loaded with microRNAs such as miR-148a and miR-590. microRNAs gets internalized by human microglia and suppress target gene expression of USP33 (Ubiquitin Specific peptidase 33) and downstream IRF9 levels. Cellular levels of USP33 regulate the turnover time of IRF9 via deubiquitylation. Our results also demonstrate that absorption of modified exosomes effectively regulate the major pro-inflammatory gene expression profile of TNFα, NF-κB and IFN-ß. These results uncover a bystander pathway of SARS-CoV-2 mediated CNS damage through hyperactivation of human microglia. Our results also attempt to explain the extra-pulmonary dysfunctions observed in COVID-19 cases when active replication of virus is not supported. Since Spike gene and mRNAs have been extensively picked up for vaccine development; the knowledge of host immune response against spike gene and protein holds a great significance. Our study therefore provides novel and relevant insights regarding the impact of Spike gene on shuttling of host microRNAs via exosomes to trigger the neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Interferon-beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Microglia/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Stability , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
12.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 31, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant number of COVID-19 patients have been treated using invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The ability to evaluate functional status of COVID-19 survivors early on at ICU and hospital discharge may enable identification of patients who may need medical and rehabilitation interventions. METHODS: The modified "Mental Status", ICU Mobility, and Barthel Index scores at ICU and hospital discharge were tabulated for 118 COVID-19 survivors treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). These functional scores were compared with pre-admission functional status, discharge durable medical equipment, discharge medical follow-up recommendation, duration on IMV, duration post-IMV, demographics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, and vital signs at ICU and hospital discharge. RESULTS: The majority of COVID-19 IMV patients were not functionally independent at hospital discharge (22% discharged with cane or rolling walker, 49% discharged with durable medical equipment, and 14% admitted to a rehabilitation facility), although 94% of these patients were functionally independent prior to COVID-19 illness. Half of the patients were discharged with supplemental oxygen equipment. The most prevalent medical follow-up recommendations were cardiology, vascular medicine, pulmonology, endocrinology, and neurology with many patients receiving multiple medical follow-up recommendations. Functional status improved from ICU discharge to hospital discharge (p < 0.001). Worse functional status at hospital discharge was associated with longer IMV duration, older age, male sex, higher number of comorbidities, and the presence of pre-existing comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and immunosuppression (p < 0.05, ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of IMV COVID-19 survivors were not functionally independent at discharge and required significant follow-up medical care. The COVID-19 circumstance has placed constraints on access to in-hospital rehabilitation. These findings underscore the need for prospective studies to ascertain the short- and long-term sequela in COVID-19 survivors.

13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 31, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a significant number of mortalities worldwide. COVID-19 poses a serious threat to human life. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are diverse and severe and 20% of infected patients are reported to be in a critical condition. A loss in lung function and pulmonary fibrosis are the main manifestations of patients with the severe form of the disease. The lung function is affected, even after recovery, thereby greatly affecting the psychology and well-being of patients, and significantly reducing their quality of life. METHODS: Participants must meet the following simultaneous inclusion criteria: over 18 years of age, should have recovered from severe or critical COVID-19 cases, should exhibit pulmonary fibrosis after recovery, and should exhibit Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome as indicated in the system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The eligible candidates will be randomized into treatment or control groups. The treatment group will receive modern medicine (pirfenidone) plus TCM whereas the control group will be administered modern medicine plus TCM placebo. The lung function index will be continuously surveyed and recorded. By comparing the treatment effect between the two groups, the study intend to explore whether TCM can improve the effectiveness of modern medicine in patients with pulmonary fibrosis arising as a sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection. DISCUSSION: Pulmonary fibrosis is one of fatal sequelae for some severe or critical COVID-19 cases, some studies reveal that pirfenidone lead to a delay in the decline of forced expiratory vital capacity, thereby reducing the mortality partly. Additionally, although TCM has been proven to be efficacious in treating pulmonary fibrosis, its role in treating pulmonary fibrosis related COVID-19 has not been explored. Hence, a multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled, interventional, prospective clinical trial has been designed and will be conducted to determine if a new comprehensive treatment for pulmonary fibrosis related to COVID-19 is feasible and if it can improve the quality of life of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled, interventional, prospective trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000033284) on 26th May 2020 (prospective registered).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Data Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 14, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces myocardial injury, either direct myocarditis or indirect injury due to systemic inflammatory response. Myocardial involvement has been proved to be one of the primary manifestations of COVID-19 infection, according to laboratory test, autopsy, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the middle-term outcome of cardiac involvement after the patients were discharged from the hospital is yet unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate mid-term cardiac sequelae in recovered COVID-19 patients by CMR METHODS: A total of 47 recovered COVID-19 patients were prospectively recruited and underwent CMR examination. The CMR protocol consisted of black blood fat-suppressed T2 weighted imaging, T2 star mapping, left ventricle (LV) cine imaging, pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). LGE were assessed in mixed both recovered COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. The LV and right ventricle (RV) function and LV mass were assessed and compared with healthy controls. RESULTS: A total of 44 recovered COVID-19 patients and 31 healthy controls were studied. LGE was found in 13 (30%) of COVID-19 patients. All LGE lesions were located in the mid myocardium and/or sub-epicardium with a scattered distribution. Further analysis showed that LGE-positive patients had significantly decreased LV peak global circumferential strain (GCS), RV peak GCS, RV peak global longitudinal strain (GLS) as compared to non-LGE patients (p < 0.05), while no difference was found between the non-LGE patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Myocardium injury existed in 30% of COVID-19 patients. These patients have depressed LV GCS and peak RV strains at the 3-month follow-up. CMR can monitor the COVID-19-induced myocarditis progression, and CMR strain analysis is a sensitive tool to evaluate the recovery of LV and RV dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079724

ABSTRACT

To date, there is no severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-(SARS-CoV-2)-specific prognostic biomarker available. We assessed whether SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold (Ct) value at diagnosis could predict novel CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, clinical manifestations, and six-month sequelae. Hospitalized and outpatient cases were randomly sampled from the diagnoses of March 2020 and data collected at 6 months by interview and from the regional database for COVID-19 emergency. Patients were stratified according to their RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase Ct in the nasopharyngeal swab at diagnosis as follows: Group A ≤ 20.0, 20.0 < group B ≤ 28.0, and Group C > 28.0. Disease severity was classified according to a composite scale evaluating hospital admission, worst oxygen support required, and survival. Two hundred patients were included, 27.5% in Groups A and B both, 45.0% in Group C; 90% of patients were symptomatic and 63.7% were hospitalized. The median time from COVID-19 onset to swab collection was five days. Lethality, disease severity, type, and number of signs and symptoms, as well as six-month sequelae distributed inversely among the groups with respect to SARS-CoV-2 Ct. After controlling for confounding, SARS-CoV-2 Ct at diagnosis was still associated with COVID-19-related death (p = 0.023), disease severity (p = 0.023), number of signs and symptoms (p < 0.01), and presence of six-month sequelae (p < 0.01). Early quantification of SARS-CoV-2 may be a useful predictive marker to inform differential strategies of clinical management and resource allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 208-215, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infection, but it should be considered as a systemic illness with increasing interest on the survivors' sequelae and their management. Considering multi-organ disabilities, a comprehensive rehabilitation provided in sub-acute phase could be considered a suitable setting for these patients. AIM: The aim of this article was to report the features and rehabilitative outcomes of patients requiring rehabilitation due to disabilities related to severe COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Longitudinal Observational Study. SETTING: Department of Rehabilitation in General Hospital. POPULATION: Patients showing multiple disabilities due to severe COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Thirty-nine consecutive patients were admitted to a rehabilitation ward transferred from ICU or Medical wards. Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC) were scored as disabilities measures. Data regarding comorbidity, rehabilitation course, swabs, procedures in acute phase, non-respiratory manifestations, dysphagia, mental confusion, PaO2/FiO2, oxygen supplementation have been collected to admission and discharge. For all patients a comprehensive rehabilitation treatment have been provided. RESULTS: Functional outcome is good with a statistically significant improvement in BI and FAC scores. Thirty-eight patients were discharged at their home. Mean lenght of stay (LOS) in acute wards was 46 days. Mean LOS in rehabilitation was 20 day. Eleven patients still had tracheostomy at admission, none at discharge and all dysphagic patients recovered a normal oral feeding. The change in PaO2/FiO2 and the reduction of the oxygen supplementation testify a good recovery of pulmonary function. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a consistent recovery with little caregiver burden at discharge. Fast relocation from ICU makes beds available which are very valuable during pandemic. Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment provided in sub-acute phase for patients still positive for SARS-CoV-2, would be desirable as it seems to be an effective setting. In this setting a strong medical assistance must be ensured. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: The activation of comprehensive rehabilitation settings able to assist sub-acute patients still positive would be desirable as it could be a very efficient Healthcare Systems answer to the catastrophic pandemic, decompressing acute hospital as well. Furthermore, contagious patients with swabs positivity affected by other kind of disabilities (i.e. Stroke, Femur Fracture) can be treated avoiding to lose the early rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(3): 738-745, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about long-term recovery from severe COVID-19 disease. Here, we characterize overall health, physical health, and mental health of patients 1 month after discharge for severe COVID-19. METHODS: This was a prospective single health system observational cohort study of patients ≥ 18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease who required at least 6 l of oxygen during admission, had intact baseline cognitive and functional status, and were discharged alive. Participants were enrolled between 30 and 40 days after discharge. Outcomes were elicited through validated survey instruments: the PROMIS® Dyspnea Characteristics and PROMIS® Global Health-10. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients (40.6% of eligible) were enrolled; 152 (38.3%) completed the survey. Median age was 62 years (interquartile range [IQR], 50-67); 57 (37%) were female. Overall, 113/152 (74%) participants reported shortness of breath within the prior week (median score 3 out of 10 [IQR 0-5]), vs 47/152 (31%) pre-COVID-19 infection (0, IQR 0-1), p < 0.001. Participants also rated their physical health and mental health as worse in their post-COVID state (43.8, standard deviation 9.3; mental health 47.3, SD 9.3) compared to their pre-COVID state, (54.3, SD 9.3; 54.3, SD 7.8, respectively), both p < 0.001. Physical and mental health means in the general US population are 50 (SD 10). A total of 52/148 (35.1%) patients without pre-COVID oxygen requirements needed home oxygen after hospital discharge; 20/148 (13.5%) reported still using oxygen at time of survey. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe COVID-19 disease typically experience sequelae affecting their respiratory status, physical health, and mental health for at least several weeks after hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aftercare/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/psychology
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2036142, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049543

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although plenty of data exist regarding clinical manifestations, course, case fatality rate, and risk factors associated with mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), long-term respiratory and functional sequelae in survivors of COVID-19 are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of lung function anomalies, exercise function impairment, and psychological sequelae among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 4 months after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study at an academic hospital in Northern Italy was conducted among a consecutive series of patients aged 18 years and older (or their caregivers) who had received a confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection severe enough to require hospital admission from March 1 to June 29, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, bronchial swab, serological testing, or suggestive computed tomography results. Exposure: Severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of the study was to describe the proportion of patients with a diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (Dlco) less than 80% of expected value. Secondary outcomes included proportion of patients with severe lung function impairment (defined as Dlco <60% expected value); proportion of patients with posttraumatic stress symptoms (measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised total score); proportion of patients with functional impairment (assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] score and 2-minute walking test); and identification of factors associated with Dlco reduction and psychological or functional sequelae. Results: Among 767 patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, 494 (64.4%) refused to participate, and 35 (4.6%) died during follow-up. A total of 238 patients (31.0%) (median [interquartile range] age, 61 [50-71] years; 142 [59.7%] men; median [interquartile range] comorbidities, 2 [1-3]) consented to participate to the study. Of these, 219 patients were able to complete both pulmonary function tests and Dlco measurement. Dlco was reduced to less than 80% of the estimated value in 113 patients (51.6%) and less than 60% in 34 patients (15.5%). The SPPB score was suggested limited mobility (score <11) in 53 patients (22.3%). Patients with SPPB scores within reference range underwent a 2-minute walk test, which was outside reference ranges of expected performance for age and sex in 75 patients (40.5%); thus, a total of 128 patients (53.8%) had functional impairment. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were reported in a total of 41 patients (17.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that at 4 months after discharge, respiratory, physical, and psychological sequelae were common among patients who had been hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Physical Functional Performance , Respiration Disorders/virology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/virology , Time Factors
19.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 64(2): 68-75, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033583

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been spreading worldwide since December 2019. Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with Kawasaki disease (KD)-like hyperinflammatory illness have been reported in Europe and the United States during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic with or without shock and cardiac dysfunction. These patients tested positive for the polymerase chain reaction or antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 or had a history of recent exposure to COVID-19. Clinicians managing such patients coined new terms for this new illness, such as COVID-19-associated hyperinflammatory response syndrome, pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19, or COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The pathogenesis of MIS-C is unclear; however, it appears similar to that of cytokine storm syndrome. MIS-C shows clinical features similar to KD, but differences between them exist with respect to age, sex, and racial distributions and proportions of patients with shock or cardiac dysfunction. Recommended treatments for MIS-C include intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, and inotropic or vasopressor support. For refractory patients, monoclonal antibody to interleukin-6 receptor (tocilizumab), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra), or monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor (infliximab) may be recommended. Patients with coronary aneurysms require aspirin or anticoagulant therapy. The prognosis of MIS-C seemed favorable without sequelae in most patients despite a reported mortality rate of approximately 1.5%.

20.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 31(1): 1-5, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006309

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to multi-system dysfunction with emerging evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial injury is an important effector of the virus. Potential therapies that address vascular system dysfunction and its sequelae may have an important role in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection and its long-lasting effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vascular Diseases/therapy , Vascular Diseases/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL