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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and cardiovascular damage is commonly observed in affected patients. We sought to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac injury and hypertension during the current coronavirus pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical data of 366 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients were analyzed. The clinical signs and laboratory findings were extracted from electronic medical records. Two independent, experienced clinicians reviewed and analyzed the data. RESULTS: Cardiac injury was found in 11.19% (30/268) of enrolled patients. 93.33% (28/30) of cardiac injury cases were in the severe group. The laboratory findings indicated that white blood cells, neutrophils, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase were positively associated with cardiac injury marker. Compared with healthy controls, the 190 patients without prior hypertension have higher AngⅡ level, of which 16 (8.42%) patients had a rise in blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, with a significantly increased level of the cTnI, procalcitonin, angiotensin-II (AngⅡ) than those normal blood pressure ones. Multivariate analysis indicated that elevated age, cTnI, the history of hypertension, and diabetes were independent predictors for illness severity. The predictive model, based on the four parameters and gender, has a good ability to identify the clinical severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients (area under the curve: 0.932, sensitivity: 98.67%, specificity: 75.68%). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, sometimes accompanied by elevated cTnI, may occur in COVID-19 patients and become a sequela. Enhancing Ang II signaling, driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection, might play an important role in the renin-angiotensin system, and consequently lead to the development of hypertension in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3289-3302, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The full spectrum of neurological sequelae in COVID-19 is beginning to emerge. SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to cause both direct and indirect brain vascular endothelial damage through infection and inflammation that may result in long-term neurological signs and symptoms. We sought to illuminate persistent neuro-ophthalmological deficits that may be seen following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) due to COVID-19. METHODS: We identified three individuals with PRES due to COVID-19 in our hospital system. One patient was identified on presentation to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic. The other patients were identified through internal records search. These cases were compared to published reports of PRES in COVID-19 identified through systematic literature search of PubMed/LitCOVID. RESULTS: All three patients were hospitalized with severe COVID-19 and developed altered mental status with new onset seizures that led to the recognition of PRES through diagnostic imaging. During recovery, two patients had persistent visual dysfunction including visual field deficits. One patient also experienced hallucinatory palinopsia and visual hallucinations. Literature search identified 32 other cases of PRES in the context of COVID-19. Visual disturbances were described in 14 cases (40%), with only seven cases (50%) reporting full recovery by the time of publication. CONCLUSIONS: As we learn about enduring neurological complications of COVID-19, it is possible that complications may be underrecognized and underreported. Understanding the range of complications can help in postcare evaluation and management changes in the critical care setting to potentially allow intervention before persistent deficits occur due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Critical Care , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders/etiology
3.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 27(3): 652-664, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This article provides an overview of a diverse group of primary headache disorders that are categorized in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (ICHD-3), as "other primary headache disorders." This article provides clinicians with a distilled understanding of the diagnoses and their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Cough-induced headache requires neuroimaging to exclude posterior fossa pathology and recently has been reported as a common symptom in patients with CSF-venous fistula. Clinical overlap is observed between patients with primary exercise headache and primary headache associated with sexual activity. Patients with recurrent thunderclap headache associated with sexual activity should be presumed to have reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome until proven otherwise. De novo external-pressure headache is a common sequela among health care workers using personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic. New daily persistent headache is an important mimicker of chronic migraine or chronic tension-type headache and is distinguished by a daily-from-onset progression of persistent headache; a treatment-refractory course is often observed, and early involvement of a multidisciplinary team, including a psychotherapist, is advised. SUMMARY: Patients with primary headache disorders that are classified as "other primary headache disorders" have presentations with unique diagnostic and management considerations. The disorders are highly recognizable, and an appreciation of the diagnoses will aid clinicians in providing safe and effective care for patients presenting with headache.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cough/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/etiology , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Sexual Behavior/physiology
4.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 44, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261276

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), first broke out in Wuhan, China, in 2019. SARS-CoV-2 develops many types of mutations (such as B.1.1.7), making diagnosis and treatment challenging. Although we now have a preliminary understanding of COVID-19, including pathological changes, clinical manifestations, and treatment measures, we also face new difficulties. The biggest problem is that most COVID-19 patients might face sequelae (e.g., fatigue, sleep disturbance, pulmonary fibrosis) during the recovery phase. We aimed to test six Chinese patent medicines to treat three major abnormal symptoms in COVID-19 patients during the recovery phase, including cardiopulmonary function, sleep disturbance, and digestive function. We launched the "three syndromes and six Chinese patent medicines" randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial on April 10, 2020. The results showed that Jinshuibao tablets and Shengmaiyin oral liquid significantly improved the cardiopulmonary function of recovering COVID-19 patients. Shumian capsules, but not Xiaoyao capsules, significantly improved patients' sleep disorders. This might be because the indication of Xiaoyao capsules is liver qi stagnation rather than psychological or emotional problems. Xiangsha Liujun pills and Ludangshen oral liquid significantly improved digestive function. Our research provides a guideline for treating COVID-19 sequelae in patients during the recovery period based on high-quality evidence.

5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(20): 2576-2585, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256683

ABSTRACT

Starting from December 2019 the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extended in the entire world giving origin to a pandemic. Although the respiratory system is the main apparatus involved by the infection, several other organs may suffer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related injuries. The human tissues expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are all possible targets of viral damage. In fact myocarditis, meningo-encephalitis, acute kidney injury and other complications have been described with regard to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The liver has a central role in the body homeostasis contributing to detoxification, catabolism and also synthesis of important factor such as plasma proteins. ACE2 is significantly expressed just by cholangiocytes within the liver, however transaminases are increased in more than one third of COVID-19 patients, at hospital admission. The reasons for liver impairment in the course of this infection are not completely clear at present and multiple factors such as: Direct viral effect, release of cytokines, ischemic damage, use of hepatotoxic drugs, sepsis, and others, may contribute to damage. While COVID-19 seems to elicit just a transient alteration of liver function tests in subjects with normal hepatic function, of concern, more severe sequelae are frequently observed in patients with a reduced hepatic reserve. In this review we report data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in subjects with normal or diseased liver. In addition the risks of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed patients (either transplanted or suffering for autoimmune liver diseases) are also described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Liver , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Proteome Res ; 20(7): 3463-3474, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253876

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a worldwide health crisis. So far, most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this infectious disease. Little attention has been given to the disease sequelae in patients recovering from COVID-19, and nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying these sequelae. Herein, we profiled the serum proteome of a cohort of COVID-19 patients in the disease onset and recovery stages. Based on the close integration of our proteomic analysis with clinical data, we propose that COVID-19 is associated with prolonged disorders in cholesterol metabolism and myocardium, even in the recovery stage. We identify potential biomarkers for these disorders. Moreover, severely affected patients presented more serious disturbances in these pathways. Our findings potentially support clinical decision-making to improve the prognosis and treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Cholesterol , Humans , Myocardium , Pandemics , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 12(Suppl 2): 234-239, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240096

ABSTRACT

Multiple studies have reported the increased risk of pulmonary complications and mortality in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative COVID-19 infection. With several reports of long-term sequelae in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection, this survey was conducted to collect the opinions of anesthesiologists regarding modifications to pre-anesthesia checkup (PAC) when COVID-19 survivors are posted for elective surgeries. We designed, validated and distributed a detailed online questionnaire, about various modifications in PAC in different patient populations like asymptomatic patients, patients with mild, moderate or severe hypoxia, significant cardiac complaints during COVID-19 and also geriatric, pediatric and pregnant patients with a history of COVID-19. We received 154 responses. Majority of responders agree that 0-2 weeks from the date of negative for SARS-CoV-2, is the ideal duration for all elective surgeries. Greater than 50% responders agree that a fresh PAC evaluation should be done for such patients which should include documentation of current functional status, fresh chest X-ray, electrocardiogram and coagulation profile. All patients who had hypoxia or cardiac symptoms during COVID-19 infection and even recovered asymptomatic geriatric patients should undergo cardiorespiratory evaluation with investigations such as HRCT chest, ABG, PFT, echocardiography and troponin I levels. Patients' PAC should be individualized, factoring in the severity of COVID-19 infection, post recovery functional status, associated co-morbidities and the urgency as well as the risk of surgical intervention. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13193-021-01347-z.

8.
BMJ ; 373: n1098, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the excess risk and relative hazards for developing incident clinical sequelae after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults aged 18-65. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three merged data sources from a large United States health plan: a large national administrative claims database, an outpatient laboratory testing database, and an inpatient hospital admissions database. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 18-65 with continuous enrollment in the health plan from January 2019 to the date of a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Three comparator groups, matched by propensity score, to individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2: a 2020 comparator group, an historical 2019 comparator group, and an historical comparator group with viral lower respiratory tract illness. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: More than 50 clinical sequelae after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection (defined as the date of first SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (index date) plus 21 days) were identified using ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) codes. Excess risk in the four months after acute infection and hazard ratios with Bonferroni corrected 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: 14% of adults aged ≤65 who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (27 074 of 193 113) had at least one new type of clinical sequelae that required medical care after the acute phase of the illness, which was 4.95% higher than in the 2020 comparator group. The risk for specific new sequelae attributable to SARS-Cov-2 infection after the acute phase, including chronic respiratory failure, cardiac arrythmia, hypercoagulability, encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, amnesia (memory difficulty), diabetes, liver test abnormalities, myocarditis, anxiety, and fatigue, was significantly greater than in the three comparator groups (2020, 2019, and viral lower respiratory tract illness groups) (all P<0.001). Significant risk differences because of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranged from 0.02 to 2.26 per 100 people (all P<0.001), and hazard ratios ranged from 1.24 to 25.65 compared with the 2020 comparator group. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the excess risk of developing new clinical sequelae after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including specific types of sequelae less commonly seen in other viral illnesses. Although individuals who were older, had pre-existing conditions, and were admitted to hospital because of covid-19 were at greatest excess risk, younger adults (aged ≤50), those with no pre-existing conditions, or those not admitted to hospital for covid-19 also had an increased risk of developing new clinical sequelae. The greater risk for incident sequelae after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection is relevant for healthcare planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211815

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus infection has consistently shown an association with neurological anomalies in patients, in addition to its usual respiratory distress syndrome. Multi-organ dysfunctions including neurological sequelae during COVID-19 persist even after declining viral load. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 gene product, Spike, is able to modify the host exosomal cargo, which gets transported to distant uninfected tissues and organs and can initiate a catastrophic immune cascade within Central Nervous System (CNS). SARS-CoV-2 Spike transfected cells release a significant amount of exosomes loaded with microRNAs such as miR-148a and miR-590. microRNAs gets internalized by human microglia and suppress target gene expression of USP33 (Ubiquitin Specific peptidase 33) and downstream IRF9 levels. Cellular levels of USP33 regulate the turnover time of IRF9 via deubiquitylation. Our results also demonstrate that absorption of modified exosomes effectively regulate the major pro-inflammatory gene expression profile of TNFα, NF-κB and IFN-ß. These results uncover a bystander pathway of SARS-CoV-2 mediated CNS damage through hyperactivation of human microglia. Our results also attempt to explain the extra-pulmonary dysfunctions observed in COVID-19 cases when active replication of virus is not supported. Since Spike gene and mRNAs have been extensively picked up for vaccine development; the knowledge of host immune response against spike gene and protein holds a great significance. Our study therefore provides novel and relevant insights regarding the impact of Spike gene on shuttling of host microRNAs via exosomes to trigger the neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Interferon-beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Microglia/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Stability , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931169, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Retinal sequelae have been reported in patients who have had COVID-19. This is a case report of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN), presenting with low visual acuity in the left eye, 14 days after the first symptoms of COVID-19 infection. CASE REPORT A 71-year-old woman presented for ophthalmological evaluation complaining of low visual acuity in the left eye, 14 days after the first symptoms of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 was confirmed by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. The left eye examination showed visual acuity of 0.5 logMAR, fundoscopy showed foveal pigment mobilization, fluorescein angiography revealed a hypofluorescent fovea surrounded by irregular hyperfluorescent defects, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed central foveal thinning with disrupted interdigitation and ellipsoid zones. Given the clinical and imaging findings, the diagnosis of AMN was finalized. AMN usually resolves without specific treatment. CONCLUSIONS This case report shows that patients with COVID-19 can develop retinal involvement. AMN can be due to a viral infection, including COVID-19, and usually resolves without specific treatment. In the present case, there was no improvement in the patient's clinical condition in a 2-month follow-up to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Visual Acuity , White Dot Syndromes , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Visual Acuity/physiology , White Dot Syndromes/virology
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208383

ABSTRACT

A 9-day-old girl presented during the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in wide-complex tachycardia with acute, symptomatic COVID-19 infection. Because the potential cardiac complications of COVID-19 were unknown at the time of her presentation, we chose to avoid the potential risks of haemodynamic collapse associated with afterload reduction from adenosine. Instead, a transoesophageal pacing catheter was placed. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with an aberrated QRS morphology was diagnosed and the catheter was used to pace-terminate tachycardia. This presentation illustrates that the haemodynamic consequences of a concurrent infection with largely unknown neonatal sequelae present a potentially high-risk situation for pharmacologic conversion. Oesophageal cannulation can be used to diagnose and terminate infantile SVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fever , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/virology
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250708, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has caused more than 2.2 million deaths worldwide. We summarize the reported pathologic findings on biopsy and autopsy in patients with severe/fatal COVID-19 and documented the presence and/or effect of SARS-CoV-2 in all organs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic search of the PubMed, Embase, MedRxiv, Lilacs and Epistemonikos databases from January to August 2020 for all case reports and case series that reported histopathologic findings of COVID-19 infection at autopsy or tissue biopsy was performed. 603 COVID-19 cases from 75 of 451 screened studies met inclusion criteria. The most common pathologic findings were lungs: diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (92%) and superimposed acute bronchopneumonia (27%); liver: hepatitis (21%), heart: myocarditis (11.4%). Vasculitis was common only in skin biopsies (25%). Microthrombi were described in the placenta (57.9%), lung (38%), kidney (20%), Central Nervous System (CNS) (18%), and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (2%). Injury of endothelial cells was common in the lung (18%) and heart (4%). Hemodynamic changes such as necrosis due to hypoxia/hypoperfusion, edema and congestion were common in kidney (53%), liver (48%), CNS (31%) and GI tract (18%). SARS-CoV-2 viral particles were demonstrated within organ-specific cells in the trachea, lung, liver, large intestine, kidney, CNS either by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, or immunohistochemistry. Additional tissues were positive by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests only. The included studies were from numerous countries, some were not peer reviewed, and some studies were performed by subspecialists, resulting in variable and inconsistent reporting or over statement of the reported findings. CONCLUSIONS: The main pathologic findings of severe/fatal COVID-19 infection are DAD, changes related to coagulopathy and/or hemodynamic compromise. In addition, according to the observed organ damage myocarditis may be associated with sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Autopsy/methods , Biopsy/methods , Central Nervous System/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Heart/virology , Humans , Kidney/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Staining and Labeling/methods , Trachea/virology
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217498, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196364

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a known neurological complication in patients with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, AIS has not been described as a late sequelae in patients without respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Objective: To assess AIS experienced by adults 50 years or younger in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series prospectively identified consecutive male patients who received care for AIS from public health hospitals in Singapore between May 21, 2020, and October 14, 2020. All of these patients had laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 serological (antibodies) test result. These patients were individuals from South Asian countries (India and Bangladesh) who were working in Singapore and living in dormitories. The total number of COVID-19 cases (54 485) in the worker dormitory population was the population at risk. Patients with ongoing respiratory symptoms or positive SARS-CoV-2 serological test results confirmed through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swabs were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, and laboratory findings were retrieved from the electronic medical records of each participating hospital. The incidence rate of AIS in the case series was compared with that of a historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched national cohort. Results: A total of 18 male patients, with a median (range) age of 41 (35-50) years and South Asian ethnicity, were included. The median (range) time from a positive serological test result to AIS was 54.5 (0-130) days. The median (range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 5 (1-25). Ten patients (56%) presented with a large vessel occlusion, of whom 6 patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis and/or endovascular therapy. Only 3 patients (17%) had a possible cardiac source of embolus. The estimated annual incidence rate of AIS was 82.6 cases per 100 000 people in this study compared with 38.2 cases per 100 000 people in the historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched cohort (rate ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series suggests that the risk for AIS is higher in adults 50 years or younger during the convalescent period of a COVID-19 infection without respiratory symptoms. Acute ischemic stroke could be part of the next wave of complications of COVID-19, and stroke units should be on alert and use serological testing, especially in younger patients or in the absence of traditional risk factors.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Convalescence , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Singapore/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
15.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 219-225, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195364

ABSTRACT

Study design Literature review. OBJECTIVES: Describe the implications of post-COVID syndrome due to neurological sequelae including treatment and the differences that may exist between this group of patients and those who present these events not associated with COVID-19. METHODS: A non-systematic review of the literature was carried out in PubMed and Science Direct databases, using the keywords "Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome"; "Neurological complications"; "Neurologic Manifestations" "COVID-19″ and "Rehabilitation", as well as synonyms, which were combined with the operators "AND" and "OR". RESULTS: The COVID-19 viral caustive agent, SARS-CoV-2, has a high affinity for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor on type II pneumocytes. This receptor is also expressed in neurons and glial cells. Based on the foregoing and other not so clear mechanisms, it is stated that SARS-CoV-2 has tropism for the nervous system, being evident through the neurological manifestations observed in patients with mild, moderate and severe phenotype of the disease such as anosmia, ageusia, headache, cerebrovascular accidents, Guillain-Barré syndrome, seizures, and encephalopathy. This can generate severe sequelae and even fatal outcomes in those affected. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological complications caused by COVID-19 are frequent and represent a risk that compromises the functional capacity and the life of patients. The suspicion of these conditions, the strict control of metabolic alterations and cardiovascular risk factors, the effective and safe treatment of these entities, are a current challenge throughout the pandemic. The rehabilitation process in these patients is a challenge. This is due to the limitations generated by multi-organ damage, as well as risk of brain death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/rehabilitation , Syndrome
16.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 632673, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170101

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the globe causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Because it affects the respiratory system, common symptoms are cough and breathing difficulties with fever and fatigue. Also, some cases progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The acute phase of COVID-19 has been also related to nervous system symptoms, including loss of taste and smell as well as encephalitis and cerebrovascular disorders. However, it remains unclear if neurological complications are due to the direct viral infection of the nervous system, or they appear as a consequence of the immune reaction against the virus in patients who presented pre-existing deficits or had a certain detrimental immune response. Importantly, the medium and long-term consequences of the infection by SARS-CoV-2 in the nervous system remain at present unknown. This review article aims to give an overview of the current neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19, as well as attempting to provide an insight beyond the acute affectation.

17.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 31, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant number of COVID-19 patients have been treated using invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The ability to evaluate functional status of COVID-19 survivors early on at ICU and hospital discharge may enable identification of patients who may need medical and rehabilitation interventions. METHODS: The modified "Mental Status", ICU Mobility, and Barthel Index scores at ICU and hospital discharge were tabulated for 118 COVID-19 survivors treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). These functional scores were compared with pre-admission functional status, discharge durable medical equipment, discharge medical follow-up recommendation, duration on IMV, duration post-IMV, demographics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, and vital signs at ICU and hospital discharge. RESULTS: The majority of COVID-19 IMV patients were not functionally independent at hospital discharge (22% discharged with cane or rolling walker, 49% discharged with durable medical equipment, and 14% admitted to a rehabilitation facility), although 94% of these patients were functionally independent prior to COVID-19 illness. Half of the patients were discharged with supplemental oxygen equipment. The most prevalent medical follow-up recommendations were cardiology, vascular medicine, pulmonology, endocrinology, and neurology with many patients receiving multiple medical follow-up recommendations. Functional status improved from ICU discharge to hospital discharge (p < 0.001). Worse functional status at hospital discharge was associated with longer IMV duration, older age, male sex, higher number of comorbidities, and the presence of pre-existing comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and immunosuppression (p < 0.05, ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of IMV COVID-19 survivors were not functionally independent at discharge and required significant follow-up medical care. The COVID-19 circumstance has placed constraints on access to in-hospital rehabilitation. These findings underscore the need for prospective studies to ascertain the short- and long-term sequela in COVID-19 survivors.

18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 31, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a significant number of mortalities worldwide. COVID-19 poses a serious threat to human life. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are diverse and severe and 20% of infected patients are reported to be in a critical condition. A loss in lung function and pulmonary fibrosis are the main manifestations of patients with the severe form of the disease. The lung function is affected, even after recovery, thereby greatly affecting the psychology and well-being of patients, and significantly reducing their quality of life. METHODS: Participants must meet the following simultaneous inclusion criteria: over 18 years of age, should have recovered from severe or critical COVID-19 cases, should exhibit pulmonary fibrosis after recovery, and should exhibit Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome as indicated in the system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The eligible candidates will be randomized into treatment or control groups. The treatment group will receive modern medicine (pirfenidone) plus TCM whereas the control group will be administered modern medicine plus TCM placebo. The lung function index will be continuously surveyed and recorded. By comparing the treatment effect between the two groups, the study intend to explore whether TCM can improve the effectiveness of modern medicine in patients with pulmonary fibrosis arising as a sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection. DISCUSSION: Pulmonary fibrosis is one of fatal sequelae for some severe or critical COVID-19 cases, some studies reveal that pirfenidone lead to a delay in the decline of forced expiratory vital capacity, thereby reducing the mortality partly. Additionally, although TCM has been proven to be efficacious in treating pulmonary fibrosis, its role in treating pulmonary fibrosis related COVID-19 has not been explored. Hence, a multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled, interventional, prospective clinical trial has been designed and will be conducted to determine if a new comprehensive treatment for pulmonary fibrosis related to COVID-19 is feasible and if it can improve the quality of life of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled, interventional, prospective trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000033284) on 26th May 2020 (prospective registered).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Data Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
19.
Eur Radiol ; 31(9): 7172-7183, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed and compared CT findings and longitudinal variations after discharge between severe and non-severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients who had residual pulmonary sequelae at pre-discharge. METHODS: A total of 310 patients were included and stratified into severe and non-severe COVID-19 groups. Cross-sectional CT features across different time periods (T0: pre-discharge, T1: 1-4 weeks after discharge, T2: 5-8 weeks after discharge, T3: 9-12 weeks after discharge, T4: > 12 weeks after discharge) were compared, and the longitudinal variations of CT findings were analyzed and compared in both groups. RESULTS: The cumulative absorption rate of fibrosis-like findings in the severe and non-severe groups at T4 was 24.3% (17/70) and 52.0% (53/102), respectively. In both groups, ground-glass opacity (GGO) with consolidation showed a clear decreasing trend at T1, after which they maintained similar lower levels. The GGO in the severe group showed an increasing trend first at T1 and then decreasing at T4; however, the incidence decreased gradually in the non-severe group. Most fibrosis-like findings showed a tendency to decrease rapidly and then remained stable. Bronchial dilatation in the severe group persisted at an intermediate level. CONCLUSIONS: After discharge, the characteristics and changing trends of pulmonary sequelae caused by COVID-19 were significantly different between the two groups. Pulmonary sequelae were more serious and recovery was slower in patients with severe/critical disease than in patients with moderate disease. A portion of the fibrosis-like findings were completely absorbed in patients with moderate and severe/critical diseases. KEY POINTS: • Lung sequelae were more serious and recovery was slower in severe/critical COVID-19 patients. • Complete absorption of fibrosis-like findings after a short-term follow-up was observed in at least 17/70 (24.3%) of COVID-19 patients with severe/critical disease and 53/102 (52.0%) of COVID-19 patients with moderate disease. • The most common fibrosis-like findings was a parenchymal band; irregular interface was a nonspecific sign of COVID-19, and the percentage of bronchial dilatation in patients with severe/critical disease remained at a relatively stable medium level (range, 31.6 to 47.8%) at all stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(11): 1228-1235, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute neurological sequela in patients with COVID-19 infection include acute thromboembolic infarcts related to cytokine storm and post infectious immune activation resulting in a prothrombotic state. Radiologic imaging studies of the sinonasal tract and mastoid cavity in patients with COVID-19 infection are sparse and limited to case series. In this report, we investigate the radiologic involvement of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid cavity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records and neuroradiologic imaging in patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms to assess radiologic prevalence of sinus and mastoid disease and its correlation to upper respiratory tract symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients, 23 (42%) had partial sinus opacification, with no evidence for complete sinus opacification. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected (16/55 or 29%). An air fluid level was noted in 6/55 (11%) patients, most commonly in the maxillary sinus. Olfactory recess and mastoid opacification were uncommon. There was no evidence of bony destruction in any of the studies, Cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sore throat were not significantly associated with any radiological findings. CONCLUSION: In patients who present with acute neurological symptoms, COVID-19 infection is characterized by limited and mild mucosal disease within the sinuses, nasopharynx and mastoid cavity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mastoid/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging/methods , Neurologic Examination/methods , New York/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment/methods
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