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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 632965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575687

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is raising with a second wave threatening many countries. Therefore, it is important to understand COVID-19 characteristics across different countries. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 525 hospitalized symptomatic COVID-19 patients, from the central federal hospital in Dubai-UAE during period of March to August 2020. Results: UAE's COVID-19 patients were relatively young; mean (SD) of the age 49(15) years, 130 (25%) were older than 60 and 4 (<1%) were younger than 18 years old. Majority were male(47; 78%). The mean (SD) BMI was 29 (6) kg/m2. While the source of contracting COVID-19 was not known in 369 (70%) of patients, 29 (6%) reported travel to overseas-country and 127 (24%) reported contact with another COVID-19 case/s. At least one comorbidity was present in 284 (54%) of patients and 241 (46%) had none. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (177; 34%) and hypertension (166; 32%). The mean (SD) of symptoms duration was 6 (3) days. The most common symptoms at hospitalization were fever (340; 65%), cough (296; 56%), and shortness of breath (SOB) (243; 46%). Most of the laboratory values were within normal range, but (184; 35%) of patients had lymphopenia, 43 (8%) had neutrophilia, and 116 (22%) had prolong international normalized ratio (INR), and 317 (60%) had high D-dimer. Chest x ray findings of consolidation was present in 334 (64%) of patients and CT scan ground glass appearance was present in 354 (68%). Acute cardiac injury occurred in 124 (24%), acute kidney injury in 111 (21%), liver injury in 101 (19%), ARDS in 155 (30%), acidosis in 118 (22%), and septic shock in 93 (18%). Consequently, 150 (29%) required ICU admission with 103 (20%) needed mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the special profile of COVID-19 in UAE. Patients were young with diabetes and/or hypertension and associated with severe infection as shown by various clinical and laboratory data necessitating ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(3): 114-117, 2021 08 13.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574083

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several case series of ACS have been reported in COVID 19 patients. We aim to study its incidence, characteristics, and three-month prognosis. To put this incidence in perspective we compared it with the incidence of in-hospital ACS during the same period of 2019. METHODS: Observational multicenter cohort study of 3,108 COVID-19 patients admitted to two hospitals in Madrid between March 1st and May 15th, 2020. Ten patients suffered an ACS while being hospitalized for COVID 19 and were followed for three months. The ACS incidence in hospitalized patients during the same period of 2019 was also studied. RESULTS: The incidence of ACS in COVID-19 patients was 3.31 ‰, significantly higher than in the 2019 period, 1.01 ‰ (p = 0.013). COVID-19 patients that suffered and ACS frequently had a severe infection, presented with STEMI (80%), and had multivessel disease (67%). Mortality rate (30%) and hospital readmissions at three months (20%) were very high. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 patients develop ACS more frequently than expected. Although the overall incidence was low, it carried a poor immediate and three-month prognosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Causality , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans
3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3487-3496, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Black individuals have been disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether there are any biological factors that predispose Black patients to COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To compare in-hospital morbidity, mortality, and inflammatory marker levels between Black and White hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed data for Black and White patients aged ≥18 years hospitalized with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test between March 1, 2020, and August 4, 2020. MAIN MEASURES: The exposure was self-identified race documented in the medical record. The primary outcome of was in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit admission, hospital morbidities, and inflammatory marker levels. KEY RESULTS: A total of 1,424 Black and White patients were identified. The mean ± SD age was 56.1 ± 17.4 years, and 663 (44.5%) were female. There were 683 (48.0%) Black and 741 (52.0%) White patients. In the univariate analysis, Black patients had longer hospital stays (8.1 ± 10.2 vs. 6.7 ± 8.3 days, p = 0.011) and tended to have higher rates of in-hospital death (11.0% vs. 7.3%), myocardial infarction (6.9% vs. 4.5%), pulmonary embolism (PE; 5.0% vs. 2.3%), and acute kidney injury (AKI; 39.4% vs. 23.1%) than White patients (p <0.05). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, only PE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.07, 95% CI, 1.13-3.79) and AKI (aOR 2.16, 95% CI, 1.57-2.97) were statistically significantly associated with Black race. In comparison with White patients, Black patients had statistically significantly higher peak plasma D-dimer (standardized ß = 0.10), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (standardized ß = 0.13), ferritin (standardized ß = 0.09), and lactate dehydrogenase (standardized ß = 0.11), after adjusting for potential confounders (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Black hospitalized COVID-19 patients had increased risks of developing PE and AKI and higher inflammatory marker levels compared with White patients. This observation may be explained by differences in the prevalence and severity of underlying comorbidities and other unmeasured biologic risk factors between Black and White patients. Future research is needed to investigate the mechanism of these observed differences in outcomes of severe COVID-19 infection in Black versus White patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI59-SI67, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with RA treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with RA. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark between 1 March and 12 August 2020. The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals. Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA treated and non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, HCQ or glucocorticoids, respectively. Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD sp - individudals. RESULTS: Patients with IRD (n = 58 052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.86] with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29 440, HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.64). There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization associated with TNF-inhibitor, HCQ nor glucocorticoid use. COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.53) for a severe outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with IRD were more likely to be admitted with COVID-19 than the general population, and COVID-19 admitted patients with RA could be at higher risk of a severe outcome. Treatment with specific DMARDs did not affect the risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/virology
5.
Res Sq ; 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431218

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease and mortality include advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.1 Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities converge to enable severe infection is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19.1-7 Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.8.

6.
Virol J ; 18(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion particles composed of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 incorporated onto murine leukemia virus capsids and a modified minimal murine leukemia virus genome encoding firefly luciferase. This assay design is intended for use in laboratories with biocontainment level 2 and therefore circumvents the need for the biocontainment level 3 that would be required for replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus. To validate the pseudovirion assay, we set up comparisons with other available antibody tests including those from Abbott, Euroimmun and Siemens, using archived, known samples. RESULTS: 11 out of 12 SARS-CoV-2-infected patient serum samples showed neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2-spike pseudotyped MLV viruses, with neutralizing titers-50 (NT50) that ranged from 1:25 to 1:1,417. Five historical samples from patients hospitalized for severe influenza infection in 2016 tested negative in the neutralization assay (NT50 < 25). Three serum samples with high neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2/MLV pseudoviruses showed no detectable neutralizing activity (NT50 < 25) against SARS-CoV-1/MLV pseudovirions. We also compared the semiquantitative Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, which measures binding of IgG to recombinantly expressed receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with the neutralization titers obtained in the pseudovirion assay and the results show high concordance between the two tests (R2 = 0.9344). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 spike/MLV pseudovirions provide a practical means of assessing neutralizing activity of antibodies in serum or plasma from infected patients under laboratory conditions consistent with biocontainment level 2. This assay offers promise also in evaluating immunogenicity of spike glycoprotein-based candidate vaccines in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukemia/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice
8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

9.
Cytometry A ; 97(9): 887-890, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384155

ABSTRACT

In patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the development of cytokine storm induces extensive lung damage, and monocytes play a role in this pathological process. Non-classical (NC) and intermediate (INT) monocytes are known to be involved during viral and bacterial infections. In this study, 30 patients with different manifestations of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection were investigated with a flow cytometric study of NC, INT, and classical (CL) monocytes. Significantly reduced NC and INT monocytes and a downregulated HLA-DR were found in acute patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. Conversely in patients with moderate symptoms NC and INT monocytes and CD11b expression were increased. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/analysis , CD11b Antigen/analysis , COVID-19 , Cell Separation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105250, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318947

ABSTRACT

Drug-drug interactions (DDI) potentially occurring between medications used in the course of COVID-19 infection and medications prescribed for the management of underlying comorbidities may cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contributing to worsening of the clinical outcome in affected patients. First, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine comorbidities observed in the course of COVID-19 disease associated with an increased risk of worsened clinical outcome from 24 published studies. In addition, the potential risk of DDI between medications used in the course of COVID-19 treatment in these studies and those for the management of observed comorbidities was evaluated for possible worsening of the clinical outcome. Our meta-analysis revealed an implication cardiometabolic syndrome (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes), chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as main co-morbidities associated with worsen the clinical outcomes including mortality (risk difference RD 0.12, 95 %-CI 0.05-0.19, p = 0.001), admission to ICU (RD 0.10, 95 %-CI 0.04-0.16, p = 0.001) and severe infection (RD 0.05, 95 %-CI 0.01-0.09, p = 0.01) in COVID-19 patients. Potential DDI on pharmacokinetic level were identified between the antiviral agents atazanavir and lopinavir/ritonavir and some drugs, used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as antiarrhythmics and anti-coagulants possibly affecting the clinical outcome including cardiac injury or arrest because of QTc-time prolongation or bleeding. Concluding, DDI occurring in the course of anti-Covid-19 treatment and co-morbidities could lead to ADRs, increasing the risk of hospitalization, prolonged time to recovery or death on extreme cases. COVID-19 patients with cardiometabolic diseases, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be subjected to particular carefully clinical monitoring of adverse events with a possibility of dose adjustment when necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Interactions , Comorbidity , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Treatment Outcome
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105107, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318943

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world. This study aimed to investigate whether the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) might increase the risk of severe infection and fatality in COVID-19 patients. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, MedRxiv and COVID-19 academic research communication platforms for studies reporting severe infection rates and case-fatality rates in COVID-19 patients with and without AKI up to June 20, 2020. The main outcomes were the comparisons of the severe infection rates and fatality rates in COVID-19 patients with and without AKI and the estimation of the odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) for severe infection and mortality. Statistical analyses were performed with R statistical software. A total of 40 studies involving 24,527 patients with COVID-19 were included in our meta-analysis. The incidence of AKI was 10 % (95 % CI 8%-13 %) in COVID-19 patients. The patients had higher severe infection and fatality rates (55.6 % vs. 17.7 % and 63.1 % vs. 12.9 %, respectively, all P < 0.01) with COVID-19. AKI was a predictor of fatality (OR = 14.63, 95 % CI: 9.94-21.51, P < 0.00001) and severe infection (OR = 8.11, 95 % CI: 5.01-13.13, P < 0.00001) in patients with COVID-19. Higher levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were associated with a significant increase in fatality [Scr: mean difference (MD): 20.19 µmol/L, 95 % CI: 14.96-25.42, P < 0.001; BUN: MD: 4.07 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 3.33-4.81, P < 0.001] and severe infection (Scr: MD: 7.78 µmol/L, 95 % CI: 4.43-11.14, P < 0.00001, BUN: MD: 2.12 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 1.74-2.50, P < 0.00001) in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, AKI is associated with severe infection and higher fatality rates in patients with COVID-19. Clinicians should pay more attention to the monitoring and treatment of COVID-19 patients with AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(598)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314110

ABSTRACT

Bacterial sepsis and severe COVID-19 share similar clinical manifestations and are both associated with dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment. We previously reported an expanded CD14+ monocyte state, MS1, in patients with bacterial sepsis and validated expansion of this cell subpopulation in publicly available transcriptomics data. Here, using published datasets, we show that the gene expression program associated with MS1 correlated with sepsis severity and was up-regulated in monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. To examine the ontogeny and function of MS1 cells, we developed a cellular model for inducing CD14+ MS1 monocytes from healthy bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We found that plasma from patients with bacterial sepsis or COVID-19 induced myelopoiesis in HSPCs in vitro and expression of the MS1 gene program in monocytes and neutrophils that differentiated from these HSPCs. Furthermore, we found that plasma concentrations of IL-6, and to a lesser extent IL-10, correlated with increased myeloid cell output from HSPCs in vitro and enhanced expression of the MS1 gene program. We validated the requirement for these two cytokines to induce the MS1 gene program through CRISPR-Cas9 editing of their receptors in HSPCs. Using this cellular model system, we demonstrated that induced MS1 cells were broadly immunosuppressive and showed decreased responsiveness to stimulation with a synthetic RNA analog. Our in vitro study suggests a potential role for systemic cytokines in inducing myelopoiesis during severe bacterial or SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Sepsis , Humans , Myeloid Cells , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14442, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to detect the frequency and course of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) infection among our rheumatology outpatients and to investigate how patient follow-up differed during Covid-19 pandemic in a tertiary University Hospital in the capital of Turkey. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs) registered in our rheumatology clinic were assessed during their routine outpatient follow-up control or contacted via phone between July and December 2020. Patients' demographics, diagnosis, medication, comorbidities, frequency of going outside during the pandemic, work status, whether patients could attend their routine follow-up, treatment changes, access to drugs during the pandemic, and the incidence of Covid-19 infection were collected. RESULTS: A total of 320 patients with IRD were analysed; 114 (35.6%) patients were treated with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) (methotrexate/leflunomide/sulfasalazine), 93 (29.1%) patients with biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs), 113 (35.3%) patients with glucocorticoids, and 103 (32.2%) patients with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). A total of 15.9% of patients on HCQ experienced problems in medication supply. Only 87 (27.2%) patients presented for their routine follow-up appointment, and 38 (11.9%) of the patients changed their treatment without professional health advice. While 53 (57%) patients on biological agents continued their treatment, 31 patients (33.3%) interrupted the treatment with doctor's recommendation and 9 patients (9.6%) on their initiative, and 23 of these 31 patients had to restart treatment because of disease activation. The nasopharyngeal swab collected from 30 patients with a suspected Covid-19 contact but without any symptoms was negative. In total, there were 33 patients diagnosed with Covid-19; none of whom had severe respiratory complications or death. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with rheumatic diseases are left without disease monitoring during the pandemic. There was no increased risk of severe Covid-19 infection among patients with IRD.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Ambulatory Care , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
16.
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care ; 51(4): 101000, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293691

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has affected children and adolescents throughout the world since its discovery in 2019. For many children, infection with SARS-CoV-2 presents as an asymptomatic to mild infection. However, in a small subset of children who become infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a more severe post-infectious inflammatory illness has emerged, referred to as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Since its discovery in 2020, the scientific community has learned a lot about the presentation, evaluation, treatment, and management of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
17.
Turk Thorac J ; 22(1): 57-61, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Prone positioning (PP) has demonstrated to be a safe adjunctive therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is limited evidence of PP effects on awake patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects and feasibility of PP on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated awake patients with ARDS in a subintensive setting of care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a single-center case-control study involving patients with severe COVID-19 infection. A total of 29 patients underwent noninvasive ventilation, and PP was initiated 12 h from admission; 18 patients tolerated prone and side positioning for at least 10 h/d and cycled their position every 2 h, and 11 patients had no complaints with PP. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients (25 men and 4 women) with a median age of 64 years showed the average baseline white blood cell count of 8.45×109 cells/L, C-reactive protein of 10.1 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase of 366 mU/mL, and interleukin-6 of 172 pg/mL. Basal pO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F) was 95 (±56.5) and showed no linear correlation with any of the inflammatory markers tested. Computed tomography findings included ground-glass opacities in 100% (29/29) of patients. Consolidation/atelectasis was found in 58% (17/29) of patients. P/F was homogeneously distributed at baseline in patients with PP (96.5) and without PP (95). P/F during PP increased significantly compared with noncompliant controls (288 vs. 202; p=0.0002). Total duration of respiratory failure was significantly shorter in patients with PP (14 vs. 21 days; p=0.002). The number of days to recover from respiratory failure inversely correlated with PP P/F independently from baseline P/F. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can lead to a severe impairment of gas exchange regardless of inflammatory status. Therefore, respiratory support may play a major role in COVID-19 treatment. We documented substantial efficacy of PP when started early and for at least 10 h/d. On awake patients, PP feasibility strictly depends on patient's compliance. The interface should be carefully chosen to best fit every patient.

18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(7): 1909-1914, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278602

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report endogenous fungal endophthalmitis, postrecovery from severe COVID-19 infection in otherwise immunocompetent individuals, treated with prolonged systemic steroids. Methods: Retrospective chart review of cases with confirmed and presumed fungal endogenous endophthalmitis, following severe COVID-19 disease, treated at two tertiary care referral eye institutes in North India. Results: Seven eyes of five cases of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis were studied. All cases had been hospitalized for severe COVID-19 pneumonia and had received systemic steroid therapy for an average duration of 42 ± 25.1 days (range 18-80 days). All the cases initially complained of floaters with blurred vision after an average of 6 days (range 1-14 days) following discharge from hospital. They had all been misdiagnosed as noninfectious uveitis by their primary ophthalmologists. All eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with intravitreal antifungal therapy. Five of the seven eyes grew fungus as the causative organism (Candida sp. in four eyes, Aspergillus sp. in one eye). Postoperatively, all eyes showed control of the infection with a marked reduction in vitreous exudates and improvement in vision. Conclusion: Floaters and blurred vision developed in patients after they recovered from severe COVID-19 infection. They had received prolonged corticosteroid treatment for COVID-19 as well as for suspected noninfectious uveitis. We diagnosed and treated them for endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. All eyes showed anatomical and functional improvement after PPV with antifungal therapy. It is important for ophthalmologists and physicians to be aware of this as prompt treatment could control the infection and salvage vision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/surgery , Fungi , Humans , India/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276912

ABSTRACT

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen that most often infects patients requiring mechanical ventilation, indwelling central venous catheters and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The reported incidence of S. maltophilia infection has increased over the past two decades, and many of its risk factors are commonly seen in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Our case regards a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, who subsequently developed disseminated S. maltophilia infection, refractory to first-line treatment and optimal medical management. This case highlights the high index of suspicion required for diagnosing secondary complications in patients with COVID-19 infection and highlights the difficulty in treating disseminated S. maltophilia infection in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Pneumonia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/complications , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/immunology
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(26)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276011

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 infection exhibit a low level of oxygen in affected tissue and blood. To understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection, it is therefore necessary to understand cell function during hypoxia. We investigated aspects of human monocyte activation under hypoxic conditions. HMGB1 is an alarmin released by stressed cells. Under normoxic conditions, HMGB1 activates interferon regulatory factor (IRF)5 and nuclear factor-κB in monocytes, leading to expression of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 1ß, respectively. When hypoxic monocytes are activated by HMGB1, they produce proinflammatory cytokines but fail to produce type I IFN. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, induced by hypoxia, functions as a direct transcriptional repressor of IRF5 and IRF3. As hypoxia is a stressor that induces secretion of HMGB1 by epithelial cells, hypoxia establishes a microenvironment that favors monocyte production of inflammatory cytokines but not IFN. These findings have implications for the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell Hypoxia/immunology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , NF-kappa B/immunology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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